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THE MERTHYR VACANCY.

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THE SOUTH WALES "PARNELL DEFENCE…

- MR OSBORN P, MORGAN AND…

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MR OSBORN P, MORGAN AND THE TITHE QUESTION. TO THK EDITOR. SIR,—Would you allow me to correct an important mistake in your report of my speech at Portheawl yesterday ? The figures showing the total sum collected for tithes in Wales and the application of the same were read by me from a letter of Mr Gee which I held in my bands and which I subsequently banded to the reporters. They were as follows £ s d Bishops a.nd officers of cathedrals 67.0"0 18 8i Paroshia) clergy 137,784 18 7 Impropriations 61.2r>9 1 6i Schools and colleges 8.1t>9 10 1 Total 274,284 4 10i The figures as they appear in your issue of to- day arc erroneous.—Apologising for troubling you, I am. &c., G. OSBORNE MORGAN. Mertbyr Mawr, Bridgend, September 18. YR A \VDL. TO THE EDITOR. SIR,—I did not intend ti) give the rules of the awdl to the reader, but oniy the principle of the cynghanedd. Call the cynghanedd by whatever name you please in English, yet it cannot be properly translated into English. You will pardon Ill", Mr Editor, for not taking any notice of those writers on the awdl who arc quite ignorant of the simplest rules of debate. Some of them bave the very elements of logic yet to learn. The awdl and cynghanedd date not from time immemorial" Welsh poetry is ages older than cyngh^nedd. There is no cynghanedd in the works of the Cyn- feirdd primitive bards, namely, Tdiesin.Aneurin, Mvrddiu Wyllt, Llywarch Hti, and Golyddau, except a shght touch (Braidd Gyffwrdd) now and then, and that accidentally, as Goronwy Owen hinted. They lived in the sixth century. Ac- cording to some writers, they were no bards at all, because there is no cynghanedd in the r poems i They were careful of the sense, rhymp, and metre, and that was all. After the primitive bard", came the nynfelrdd-bards of the Middle Aes- namely—Meigant Meilir, Gwalchmai, Tisilio, Cynddelw, Daninl Llosgwrn, E aeth, Da. fydd Benfraes, OWPII Cyfeiliog, Liygad Gwr, Myryw, Llywarch Brydydd Ioch, &c &c. They wrote not in cynghanedd. One of the last hards of this period, 1120 t" 1290, of the name of Casnodyn, first wn-ts m cynghanedd. Here is the first Euglyn Unodl Union ever composed; the author is Casnodyn it is to ba seen in bis elegy to th Princ Msdawg — Bu se, Chwecll cenedl, civyn ernraws—tri-tlawn, Camn Mf'irchi i wn, c-vymp Marchawg,, Byd a fydd vy-gndd yr hawsr, Byd heb fyd bod heb Fadawg. But there is not much of the cynghanedd to be found in the works of any of the VYVl«h bards till the time' of Davydd ap Gwilym-hnrn 1300. D. ap Edmund put the iiaiter of the 24 moires I rvtid cynghanedd around the neck of the Cymric mnse. That took place at Carm rthen in 1451. tail determine ti.e meaning of cynghanedd rywiog a dil<»dryii according to the acceptation of the term in 1819? Have we no power to repeal tyrannical laws ? Must we submit silently and thankfully to all the wlr.ms of the past? Ieaan G1 n Gelrlonydd said "N' in writing his prydaest for the chair. Eben Vardd said No," in setid;ng in a pryddest for the chair. Kiraathog sa'd "No." See his essay at the end of his Caniadau." I< cynghauedi an essential element to Welsh poetry ? The shackles or fetters of cynghanedd have oppressed our language, of which other languages have been frue." The above are the languages have been frue." The above are the words of Goronwy Owen. The reason that Goronwy did not write an epic was that the cynghanedd was in the way. He knew he could not do it in cynghanedd, and f any poet was able to do it, we know he was. Hiraethog began his job in cynghanedd but before the middle of the poem he gave up cynghanedd nnd wrote in blank verse. He, the I"te Dr Rees (Hiraethog), said of thp cynghaneddion—" yr achiod iddynt, meddwo ni." The cynghanedd has robbed us of epics. We have no awdl longer than about 2,000 lines, Dewi Wyn o Eifion wrote :— "Bwhwman ybu Homer." Mae yd'm ei I Ili,,td' ef." "Homer was fickle and inconstant,and his 'Iliad' is lik-, nothing by tbe side of the productions of the Welah b"rd;: who write in ^yoghanedd Heriif Homer a Horas Ni bu a'i tre h neb o'u tras." T challenge Homer and Horace. Not one "f their iace c.m conquer bim." It is Goronwy Owen who is referred to in tbe iibove boasting aud silly lines of Dewi Wvn o Eifion. I Whoever read Dewi Wyn's awdlan, except a very narrow circle of bards,in cynghanedd ? Have his poems been translated into any other language? HAS he EVER been known like Ceiriog Hncrlies, Twm o'r Nant, Pantycwlyn, Anne Griffiths, Hiraethng, or Mynyddog ? No doubt Gr; DFWI was a genius, but cynghanedd crippled his a wen— bis muse. Are committees at Jiberty ti) tri ve the chair at a national eisteddfod to a pryddest instead of an awdl ? Of course they ate. That was settled many A time before now. It was SETTLED at Rhuddlan. GLAN Geirionydd had it, and Eben Vardd sent pryddest in for the chair. It was optional in 1874 in Banor- pither pryddest or awdi. By pryddest I mean a mixrure of rhyme and blank versp, or blank altogether, or rhyme altogether. Hiraethog was very much against confining the chair to the awdi. What I want, Mr Editor, is to let the poet choose the metre. Give him the kind of poetry you waut, the epic, lyric, or drama. Or give the chair to the awdl this year, and to any metre next year, and so forth alternately. Awdl has its acrostics. A veijse of seven lines sometimes begins with the vowels, alphabetically or otherwise. Another sort of an acrostic is to begin each line of a verse with one and the same consonant. And thus fools are made to think themselves bards greater than Dante. They take false wit for genius, and walk to the chair in the pomp of princes and kings. All the tricks cf cynghanedd are not so very venerable for their antiquity as to be from time immemorial." Not so old as their brother, "The Scholar's Eg," amongst the Greeks. That was a poem written in the shape of an egg, Is it that egg which my friend Morien has? The egg of the Greek poets is, I believe, as old as the "Iliad." Some have said that the cynghanedd can be made only in Welsh, and consequently that it is essential to Welsh poetry. I deny all that. Some poet has written this English englye to the Uout:— i The <rout is about me most bitter—it tears I My toe like a tiger I Oh its fang great its anger I Its keen bites who can bear The following is a Latin englyn, written by Davies, CalOtellhyweI, on the gravestone of a friend: Sopor Mariam cepit—in lectum A luctu necessit, Ast tuba haoc excltabit Ut Maria salva sit. Addressing fit Samuel Tenton. and thanking that gentleman's brother Charles for some favours received, the same gentlemau s-aid- o Carole I non querelas-tibl Nuno dabo sea gratias, Tubi Sam grates suma.s Cui tot clara dona das. The cynghauedd has no more to do with-the Welsh language than with any other language. The man who can spare time to play with such a toy can do it in any language he is master of. Other nations have been quite as foolish as we, the Welsh bards, are now. The lipogrammatists of antiquity were of the same class as our cyng- haneddwr. A whim sometimes of not using a particular or certain letter in a whole book took hold of a poet. Trypbiodorus composed an epic of 24 books, the first book without the letter A, and the second book without B. and so on. The first book be called Alpha, because there was no Alpha in it; the second he called Beta, for the same reason Thus be went on till all the letters were rejected in their turns. But this epic is not in existence at present bad it been, it would no doubt be more edifying than either the Iliad" or the 11 Odyssey" by some bards. Some rhymster turned more than the half of the )Eneid" into Latin rhyme The rhymer said that the poem of Virgil was not perfect because he did not rhyme his work. A whole book of poetry—a long hymn—was once written, composed only of the following words Tot, tibi, sunt, Virgo, dotes, quod, aidera, coelo." Eight words. It was a book of praise to the Virgin Mary. The anagrammatist again made his poem by I transposition of the letters of a name, but he was not half so silly as our worshipper of cynghanedd. !The acrostic is well known in which the letters of the name of a person or of a thing are to begin the lines thus the name of the person will »ppe»r in perpendicular line »t tbe beginning of all the lines of the verse. In a compound acrostic the principal letters stand two or three deep. The simple acrostic is to be seen in the awdl of to-day The following- is a chrnnogram :ChrIstVs Dlix -re- trlVMphVs." Tuat has MDOXV WII. =«1627. The chronogram was. as a rule, put on medals, the letters answering two purposes, namely, as figures and as letters. When we read medals we ought to bear this in mind in order to find out their dates. There is some good in that, but nothing of the kind in cynghanedd. Mr Editor and gentle reader, my aim is to do some good to the literature and poetry of my dear Wales. Pardon the length of my letter. Mae ben wlad fy nbadau, yn nnwyl i mi.—I am. &c., E. GURNOS JONES. Newport, Sept. 14th, 138S.

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ANTICIPATIONS.

MONMOUTH RACES-

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