THE CARDIGANSHIRE LIBERAL. UNIONIST ASSOCIATION. TO THE EDITOR. SIK,—I noticed in your issue of to-day the reply hioh Mr Tobit Evans makes as regards the PavLsod list of persons composing the Unionist Association in Cardiganshire. He says that no (inch list was ever published, as far as be knew." Will Mr Evans undertake to say that no list of ihis kind was drawn and published, on which also were to be found the regulations or rules of this jaid association ? When what he called a rough draft of these rules, as well as the names of the officers of the association, appeared in the South Wales Daily Nevis a few months ago, he said, in reply then, that such document was a mere draft, and that another had been published since, revised and corrected. I hold that this very one Which had been forwarded to your office, though Sarked private, is the one referred to by Mr vans at that time. I should advise him to refresh himself by reading that over again, a copy of which, I dare say, he has retained, and then be will undoubtedly find that he is contradicting bimself. I do not doubt but that the three lienllemen referred to, viz., Messrs Hughes,.Parry, and Stephens, were asked and proposed to become. not only members, but also officers of the concern, but that they actually and positively refused, or, me rather say, declined the proffered honour with thanks. Mr Evans said that the reason that the above gentlemen refused to accept office was not to be attributed to the fact that they are, Ol- iver have been, or ever intend to become Home .Rulers, but he has not deigned to state in his letter why he was obliged to drop their names from the second list after it was seen that they were included in the first. I make bold to tell Evans, and I feel that it will be no news to ifoino, that the reason why the above three gentle- men refused to have anything to do with this wo-called Unionism was because they were, and are, thorough-going and unflinching Home Rulers, and mean to throw alii their influence 011 the side of the Liberal party at future elections. Mr Evans says that Unionism, or, as he called It, "thp Unionist baby," continues to gnw, and it is likely to render a good account, of itself at the next election. I do not know whether a rapidly- drooping cause will be nble t) do much harm to finybody. 1 shall be pleased to know what does he mean by saying, We were only benteu by nine votes at the last election." Does he mean to insinuate that all those who voted for Mr David Davies at the last election, i.e., those of them professing themselves Liberals, will again support any candidate other than Mr Davies in opposition to the candidate that may be brought forward by the Liberals ? Mr Evans is not so green as to entertain such a wild goose opinion.—I am, &.e., 24th Jan., 1888. NOT A UNIONIST.
THE STRANDING OF THE CAMBRIA. TO TH I. EDlTOn. SIR,-—We, the captain and crew of the s.s. Cambria, Llanelly, now stranded on TUiossilly sands, beg most sincerely to thank tuo Khossilly Rocket Company for the prompt. manner in which they on mo to our assistance on Saturday last, as welins for the kindness shown us since we have been here.—On behalf. I am, Arc., Jan. 23, 1888. H. 1MVIKS, Captain.
NEATH FLOATING DOCK. TO T-IE KDTTOR. SIR,—Will yon. or some or your correspondents kindly let us know how this matter stands? We have waited long.—I aln, PATIENCE. Neath, .)an. 24, 1888.
THE CARDIFF T\VO-REEL SEW TNG MACIIIN10 INVENTION. TO THE EDITOR. SIR,—But for the letter of lHr Daniel Jones in your issue of to-day, I should not ask you to allow me to use your columns. His letter appears to me and my friends to be a very bad display of Rpleen upon a defeat which may be ofserioii.s con- sequence to him. It can clearly be shewn by the Comptroller-General's decision in my favour that Mr Jones has used for his unsuccessful invention certain parts of my invention, for which I have been given a patent. Mr Jones say.s that he is the holder of an anterior patent, machines made according to which can be seen at Cardiff doing excellent work. If I infringed his or took rmythiug away from his patents it. was open to him to object before the Comptroller. He, however, did not and could not do any such thing. If he b:1.d a valuable machine, why did lie not accept my challenge ? The proper time to do so was when he opposed the sealing of my patent. j challenged him to do so in my statutory declaration made in the matter of his opposition by mp, pf which he.,had a copy on the 23rd April, 1887. What was the result of such challenge ? Why, at the hearing he never produced a single machine. I, on the contrary, produced the machine I claimed the patent for,and delivered it to the Comptroller, who worked it with perfect ease on the table in front of him. The Comptroller kept it until he gave his decision in my favour, and it was beyond doubt the subject of examination and test by the Comptroller, experts, and examiners, To refer to Mr Woodley is for a drowning man to catch at a straw. What have I to do with him ? ft is true the. decision in no way affects prior patents. Mine is a. novel and valuable invention. p \Y:1n1; to affect, no prior patents, least of all those which are of n, worthless description, anu from which none can be produced worth}' to accept the challenge which I made.—I am, „ ^JOSEPH THOMAS. 30, Charles-street, Cardiff, dan. 25, 1888.
THE CLERGY AND THE LANDLORDS. A WEAK POINT IN THE ARMOUR. It will be remembered that, some time since, the solicitors of the Cleigy Defence Association in- vited Welsh landlords to pay the tithes for the tenant, adding, If you do not accede to our sug- gestion, and we fiud a weak point in your armour in the course of our proceedings, you must not be surprised at our putting the law in force against your property." The weak point iu the armour of the landlords, which Messrs Girdlestone, Peter- son, aud Todd have found out, is contained in the 82nd section of the Tithe Act, which explicitly lays it down that:— When rent charges are, in arrears kr forty days after half-yearly days of payment and no sufficient dis- tress on til., premises, a writ may e Isupr1 directing the sheriff to summon a jury to tSsess arrears and be it enacted that in case tne said rent-charge shall he in arrear allll unpaid for the spaep. of forty days next after any half-yearly ilay payment, and there shall he no sufficient distress on the premises liable to the pay- ment thereof, it shall he lawful for anyjuiige of her Majesty's Courts of Kecord at Westminister, upon affidavit of the facts, to order a writ to Oe issned (ii rected to the sheriff of the county in which the lands chargeable with the rent-charge are situated requiring the.said sheriff to summon a jury to assess the arrears of rent-charge remaining unpaid, and to return the inquisition thereupon taken to some one of her Majesty's Courts of Law nt "Westminster on a. day therein to he named pither m term timp, or vacation, A copy of which writ and notice of the time and place of executing the same shall 11:1 givsn to the owner of the land orleft at his last known place of abode, or with his known agent, within 10 days previous to the execution thereof, and the sheriff is hereby required to execute S11Ch writ according to the exigeney t.]¡r.reoj and tite costs of nch inquisition shad he taxed by the proper officer of the court, and thereupon the owner of the rent-charge may issue a writ of habias ftteios po.i.s, stirinrw, directed to tho sheriff, commanding him to cause the owner of the rent-chaise to have possession of the lands chargeable therewith until the arroar, of tlw rent-charge found to he due and the said costs, and also the costs of such writ, and of executing tit" same, and oi cultivation and keeping possession of the lands, shall be lnliy satisfied, provided always that not more than two years' n,1T"ar over and above tlll1 tN1I1 of such possP- ion shall be at anv time recoverable. The clause quoted has not been enforced in North Wales during the whole of this bitter straggle, and its use, now against the landlords is abundantly explained in the communication from the agents of the Clergy Defence Associa. tion. It is said that in too many instances the landioras have regarded the struggle between the clergy and their tenantry with an apathy almost amounting to indifference, aud it is believed that thn extraordinary course of pro- cedure adopted will be the means of compelling them to side with the clergy. It has, at least, been made apparent to the landlords that unless they bring- pressure to bear on their ten- antry to discharge their legal obligations to the clergy they will have to discharge them out of tbeir own pocket> or else the land on which the arrears are due will be taken.
T. P. O'CONNOR'S LUMINARY. MrT. P. O'Oonnoi s Star has commenced to shine, and that with a brilliancy which we had scarcely expected. Radicals in the metropolis have long had to deplore the absence of a popular organ which would champion with unflinching courage the great principles that they hold dear. Air T. P. O'Connorj M.P., has stepped into the breach, and it remains with those whose interests he is anxious to serve to see that the undertaking is crowned with the success it deserves. For our own part we believe that the Star will serve as a rallying point for metropolitan Liberali sm. Its principles, as enunciated in the editorial confession of faith, are robustly Radical, and, in addition, from a purely news point of view, the Star is refreshing, smart, and unconventional. Mr O'Connor cannot complain of the reception accorded his venture. A journal which leaps t a bound to a circulation of some 140,000 per day is obviously on the high road to a long aud successful existence. Of the imperative need of such a news- paper as the Star it would be almost a work of supererogation tospeak. From being the very centre of the most vigorous political life in England and the source whence the generous impulses of democracy drew their inspiration, London has degenerated into Toryism of the worst and mast unlovely type. We look to the Star to bear a great part in the political regeneration of the capital. l'or journalists like Mr T. P. O'Connor and Air Stead there is :1. great mission to fulfil. Let us all hone- that, they may be successful in their efforts to banish the listlessness and apathy which have come evei the masses in London, to re-animate them wilii a true sense of their duty as cifcirens, and to substitute for inertia the healthful activity of robust political life.
PONTYPRIDD GUARDIANS AND POST OFFICE VANDALISM. At Wednesday's meeting of the Pontypridd Board of Guardians, the Rev D. W. Williams, M.A., presiding, a letter was read from tiie Post- master-General acknowledging the receipt of the board's protest against the proposal to designate Cilfynydd as "Albion Town," and stating that, under the circumstances, he had decided to retain the former name and make no change. (Hear, hear.) Nothing was ^id in the letter as to the proposal to change the liD-me of Pwllgwaun into New rl)1"J'n. P_L\ committee, c0n<i::Hn nf j\ r p:r.q 1)nal1, Cnie, nad Mathia.s, was appointed to consult with the engineer of the Barry Dock and Railways Company with reference to the, erection of a boundary wall behind the workhouse, the plans submitted not being approved.
VOLAPUK. THE NEW LANGUAGE OF COMMERCE. U PÜ KI KIOM STUDOL 2" A correspondent writes Frequent allusion, to what is called the universal language, Volapuk, may have quickened in your readers a desire for precise information on the construction of the tongue, its aims and capacities. It is not the first time that an attempt has been made to found a new language. During the last two centuries efforts both consultative and individual have been made by numbers of eminent men, some of them scientific, others linguistic or literary in their vocation. These attempts all proved abortive, and were in many cases ridiculous, striving for nothing better than a system of symbols, obscure to everybody but the learned and initiated. Monsieur Schleyer, the originator of Volapiik. is a clergyman in Switzerland, who has marvellous attainments in the speech of many lands. He is said to have an intimate knowledge of 28 tongues, and is altogether acquainted with 55. Pronuncia- tion in Volapuk is invariable. Roots from the Latin, the German, the English, and the other languages of Europe are taken, mostly in mono- syllable form, and terminations are built upon these—also in a definite, invariable method—to express number, relation, quality, and action it hence follows that if the root-word be known the proficient in Volapuk can modify it in all its meanings without hesitation. There are no artificial niceties, there is but a single con- jugation, and the regular verbs, so puzzling in the French language, have actually 110 existence. Volapiik contains eight works and nineteen con- sonants—27 letters iu all. It does not contain q or w. The vowels are a, as in "father"; ii, as in "mare"; e, as in "fa-ie"; i, as" ee" in deep" o, as in note"; ii, as i" in "Air"; u, as "00" in "fool"; and ii, as in French "par" and mur. "fcIf two vowels come together, they must not be sounded as a diphthong, but separately. With certain exceptions all the con- sonants have an English pronunciation. The c is sounded as "j" in "jail"; g is always hard; his always aspirated j has the sound cf "Fh" in "shall"; s has a hissing sound; and z has the sound of "ts," as in the German word "zcit (time). The last syllable of a word always has the stress of the accent laid upon it. For instance, tikele, meaning "to the thinker," is pronounced tee kay lay." The definite article is not translated, and sem- bal" is invented for the indefinite article; while bal stands for Jlle." The addition of "ik to a substantive converts it into an adjective. From fam," glory, and dol," pain, we get famik and dolik," meaning glorious aud painful. There is no variation in the adjectives as to gender, number, or case. The addition of o to a noun or adjective converts it into an adverb, hence we have suo," certainly, famiko," gloriously., and dohko painfully. Umo signifies more and illlO" signifies the most hence the addition of "nm" and nn to the adjective gives the comparative aud superlative. The numerals are reruarka'< iy simple up to 10. They run, bal, tel, kil, fo', lul, mil, vel, jol, zul, and bals." The addi- tion of s to each of these numbers multi- pJies them by 10, as "tels," "kils," *'fois, &c. The insertion of e after the first- number allows any other number to be added. as "balsebai," eleven: "kiisebai," thirty-one; "velselul," seventy-five. The suffix "id "gives the formation of ordinal numbers, as badd," first; and ik added forms multiples, as t-el- sik," twenty-fold. The personal pronouns, which are declined in a very simple manner, like the nouns, are :—" Ob," I "oj," you "urn," he "of,she; the addition of s gives the plurals. Oki is the reflective pronoun, himself, oneself ou," one os," it. The possessive pronouns ajd ik to the personal pronouns, ::10 omik," his and s added to the root forms the plural, as omsik," their and theirs. "Mot e cilsofik" means" the mother and her children." Interro- gative pronouns are formed by kirn and kit for who, "kis" for what; ind also kioin for which and what; as "pii ki I: ¡.¡m studol?" what language do you study?" In the relative pronouns" keJ" stands for who, which, and that, and kelos for what. Bos means something. Almost without translation, many readers will h't upon the signification of such substantives as are expressed by the following root-words :—Fium (river), fug (flight), kap (bead), (means), pop (people), sap (wisdom), stel (star), stim (honour), iiid (hdy), ski! (skih), sinal (smallness), sirvk (smoke), stun (stone), fel (field), gan (goose), jlill (beauty), nef (nephew), nad (needle), nHl (wonmi). The letter r presents great difficulties to Chinese and tlw Eastern nations generally. Hence the letter i takes its plane, generally speaking, even in such words as kion," crown and" spel," hope; and vol," for the first three letters of world. In many instances the roots are taken from the middle of a word by dropping the initial syllable. For instance, liv expresses deliver- ance, and" mag-" pxrresses image; "nim" stands for animal, and rig-" for original. Contractions are also obtained by dropping the middle letter or syllable. Pat refers to nothing in Ireland, Cut designates particularity: "fem" is fermentation, and "pot" post. Facilities are also given for the formation of compound words, which are joined by the letter "a." Kilagul means triangle, "hitatim" summer, "fhdatim" spring. No doubt this language of commerce, when first studied, ha. vagaries of eccentricity risIble te a suggestive mind, and we can well understand that travesties of the most ludicrous description could eas ly be compounded on all the grand passages in litera- ture. Hamlet's soliloquy on death would sound strange if "To-b?" were rendered "Dilliin," and so would Bossuet's funeral oration if they had the appellation ot Fucapukat," from "fun," corpse, and "piikat," discourse.
LOADING THI ASAIA. THE MOVEABLE COALING CRANES AT ROATH DOCK. The large new steel steamer Asama finished loading at the coaling crane, Roath Dock, at 8 a.m. on Wednesday, having taken about 5,500 tons of coal, inclusive (If cargo and bunker8, from Messrs the Powell Dnffryn Coal Company, since 3 p.m. on Friday last, the 20rh inst..She has, therefore, occupied the berth 83 hour, Sunday excepted, and had not one crane unfortunately been undergoing alterations up to Monday morn- ing, when both commenced to work simul- taneously, the loading would have been com- pleted, according to the rate of working, in 6bj hours. On her arrival she already had in about 500 tons bunker coals, so that she will sail with about 6,000 tons of coal on board, and this is the largest quantity ay ship has sailed with from this port. The appearance of this coal in the ship's hold, during the loading by the cranes, was alto- gether different from that, afforded by coal tipped over the old-fashioned ilOot, inasmuch as the cranes delivered it III tile bold direct by means of boxes, and thus shipped and partly trimmed it without the breakage resulting from shipment by the other means. Contrasting the loading at the cranes with loading at. the tips, in another important respect, the captain was agreeably sur- prised at the absence of the considerable amount of dnst and grime formerly experienced by him when loading coal at CardIn, and, having a new ship, be of course was pleased at not having her paint and decorations spoiled by a thick coating of coal dust. The loading throughout gave great satisfaction to both Captain Newell aud Messrs Brukewich and Co., the owners' agents. It may ¡yO! mentioned that l\ 0, ] crane, 011 Monday, shipped 862 tons in seven hours, or an hourly average for the time named of 123 tons.
AN ELECTRIC INTERVIEW. TELEGRAPHING EXTR AORDINA RY. INTERVIEWING BY CABLE ACROSS THE WORLD. An altogether unprecedented feat in telegraphy was performed ou Tuesday night, when a pro- longed interview took place by cable between Mr Henry Norman, the special com- missioner of the Parr Nall Oaze'tc, who is now at New ^Vestmm-ter, Vaucou\er, and the editor of the Pall Mall Gazette. at the ^offices of the Commercial Cable Company, 23, Roy si Exchange, London. The origin of the interview was the" desire of the special commissioner to afford the Old World and the New a striking manifestation of the extent to which time and space have been annihilated by the electric tele- graph and cable. The exact distances traversed by the electric current conveying the message are :8 follows Bv wire from London to Bristol spur cable, HO nines. Bv spur cable t,o ntervilie, 329 miles. By cable fvom Waterviile (Ireland) to Can-o (Nova Scotia), 2,750 tniics. From Canso (New York and Canadian Pacific Kail- way Telegraph lines) to Vail ouver, 4,400 miles. Making a total oi 7,619 miles. The conversation was carried on. allowing for the breaks produced by the storm that interrupted the wires, first between Ottawa and Montreal, and then on the West of Winnipeg, consecutively for nearly three hours. The wire outstripped the sua by nearly eight hours, it bCJUg" une o'clock in the afternoon at Vancouver wbeu nine o'clock at night in London. _—————
A HERO OF SCIENCE, Under this title, Dr J, B. Daly contributes a short paper to The IVelromr on the story of the electric telegraph as embodied in the eariy strug- gles of Morse to get his invention introduced to the commercial world. The hardships Morse had to undergo wiil be understood by the following anecdote of Strother s. It seems Strother was a pupil of Mor.re, paid Ins dollars in advance, but owing to the non-arrival of a remittance the second quarter's money was delayed. One day Mor.-e came in and said courteously Well, Stmther, my boy, how are we off for money ?' Why Professor, I am sorry to say 1 have been disappointed but; I expect a remittance next, week.' Next week he repeated sadly. I shall be dead by that Dead, sir ?' 'Yes dead by starvation.5 I was distressed and astonished. I said hurriedly, Wonld ten dollars be of any service ?' Ten dollars would save my life: i ;ia t is ail it wcnid do.' I paid the money, all thai. I had, and we dined tog ether. It v. as a modest, meal, but, good and after we had finished lie said, isniy first meal for twenty-four hours.'
HOLLOWAY .S PXLLH AND OINTMENT are particu- larly recommended to persons who have to pass their lives in confined and crowded places hunditds of thousands of our fellow-cimatures toil from morning until evening in factories and workshops to the detri- meut of their health and the deterioration (,f the race. They suffer in consequence from indigestion, flatulence, and want of appetite, and these courolaints. if neglected, bring about nervousness and failure of the vital powers, itollowav remedies can lie usedbv such sufferers to their very great advantage, as they st-eiiiild in action and certain in their effects No one need, therefore, lose a da)'s work while using them, a matter of consequent to those whose daily bread depends on daily toil. ¡po
ANOTHER STARTLING SCANDAL. AN ALLEGED SON OF MR C. T. RITCHIE, M.P., UNDER ARREST. EXTRAORDINARY CHARGE OF FORGERY. The New York Herald of January lOtb states on the 9th inst. William J. Ritchie, who stated that be was a son of the Right Hon, Charles T. Ritchie, M.P., President of the English Local • Government Board, was arrested and br ugbt up before Mr Justice Murray at Yorkrille police-court on charges of forgery and obtaining money by fraud. Much doubt exists, however, says the Herald, as to whether, after all, the young man is not rather an unfortu- nate fool than a swindler. He is described as about 28 years of age, and dressed in a long, fashionable ulster, beneath which was a neat, fitting suit of dark clothes."—Dr Edward Duffy. who lives at the corner of Sixtieth-street and Tenth-avenue, said that about Thanksgiving Day he met Ritchie at the Hancock Post Fair, which was then going on in the Grand Opera House. Ritchie had be-n introduced to him a practising physician of Beilevue Hospital, and proved himself such a genial companion that Dr Duffy invited him to call at his house some dav and dine. The invitation was accepted, and Ritchie became a regular visitor on Dr Duffy. The doctor turned over some of his patients to him to attend. Ritchie told him that be was the son of Charles Thomas Ritchie, Conservative member of Parliament for Tower Hamlets, St. George's. He also said that his father was a merchant and lived at Ne. 33, Queens Gate-terrace, and was a major in the Third Battalion Royal Hast Surrey Regiment. Young Ritchie was constantly short of money. His remittance from England had not arrived, and he had to borrow a few paltry dollars which the doctor gave him from time to time. Just about the holidays the doctor's sister-in-iaw, pretty Miss Mary Deckmau, wanted to go to Michigan to seil come proper: j she owned there. The fate one way was 14. Mr Ritchie said he had a friend who was a ticket agent, and be could get Miss Deckman's ticket for 1O given to Ritchie, and he never came back with the ticket. A case of surgical instruments was also missed from Dr Duffy's offic<% which he thought R'fchie must have taken. After waiting several days for Ritchie to put in an appearance with the railroad ticket, the kind- hearted doctor began to think he had been swindled, and decided to have Ritchie arreste-d. During the doctor's recital yesterday he stood at the bar weeping and lamenting. I'm ruined, I'm ruined," he kept repeating. "My father will dis- inherit me when he he rs this. Oh. judge, I never meant to take anybody's money 1 I am awaiting a remittance from the governor. He sends me 150 dollars every two months. Oh, I am an unfortu- nate being I meant to pay these people as soon as my money arrives from England, which will be next February."—" Come, come, Ritchie," said the justice, you are an educated "—" I know I am," broke in the prisoner. "I graduated with the degree of B.A. from the Oxford University. —"You are an educated man," resumed the justiee,"and ought to have known that you cannot go about swindling people and come here and get off by shedding a few 'ears. Here is Mr George W. Siemers, ot No. 313, Canal-street. He accuses you of a graver offence than Dr Duffy."—Mr Sieniers said that he had cashed a cheque tor 818 on December 27th, drawn to the order of D. C. Couch on the West-Side Bank. The cheque ii vt subsequently been fcund to be wortjl1. Ritchie said that he thought Dr Duffy was ungrateful to have him arrested. He said lie had nursed him when he was iying sick with the rheumatism.—Justice Murray said he wouid have to hold Ritchie ba 1 en each offence, He was led weepintf iroin the court-room to the prison beiow.—There are many nther cheques held by various parties which Ritchie has distributed among his friends. They have ai], so far as heard from, been presented at the West-Side Bauk for payment. A liquor dealer named Corr.iss, on tiie corner of Twenty-sixtii-street. has one. Ritchie's boardiug-ho.ise mistress has another, and Dr Duffy says he believes George W. McAdam, a lawyer, who live.? near Fleetwood Park, brother of Judge McAdam, has several.— No one of Ritchie's victims sefms to have known him more than two or three months. Tnrough the bars of his cell door in the prison Ritchie related a remarkable story last evening. Hic-hu" took from his pocket a gold seal, wnich he said belonged to his ancestral house. He pulled up the sleeve of his coat and showed a couple of scars, which he said had hr-en made by sabre cuts. He also showed another on his forehead, wbich had bAPn made by a bullet, and said th-t lie carried a bullet- still in his shoulder. The-e scars, said he, I received in Egypt. I was all through the Egyptian campaign with General Wolseley. I was second lieutenant in the 1-t, Life Guards, Company A. After our company cam* back frem England with General Stewart I be- came acquainted with Lady Lawrence. In our regiment was a certain Captain Charles Lockart, WHO is llvW a Co :lone I. He and 1 be. came very attentive to Lady Lawrencc- in fact, we were very much attached to the lady, and might be considered rival-. I found out onè rhy th11'C'pwjn LOékart was stigma; z- illg- me to Lady Lawrence, and I charged him With his perfidy. We had some words, auri T knocked him down. I was tried for the offence, cctiirt martialied, and dismissed the service. = Feeling my disgrace keenly on my family's account as well as my own, I resolved to come to America and travel. I did so two years ago, and misfortune has followed my footsteps ever since. I travelled all over this country. ]a Des Moine*, Iowa, I met, shortly after coming here, this man. D. C. Couch, whose name I f- rged to this I3 dollar cheque. They are awful hard on me for tiiis little forgery of mine, hut if they only knew the wrongs I have suffered they would pity Ritchie speaks with a strong English accent. His diary was tilled with stenographIc note5;. He said he could write 150 words a minute. II" is a fine scholar and can speak several languages.
WILL 1888 BE A YEAR OF The present year is the fifth year of modern time* in which the aggregate ot the figures is twenty-five, and there, wiii be but five more years in which such a combination is possible prior to the year 2599. Probably but few have ever heard of the old pror.hecy, which runs as follows In every future year of rur Lord, Whea the sum uf the fls-ures b twenty-five, Sume warlike kingdom will draw the sword. But peacefnl nations in peace shall thrive. Students of modern history will readily recall how faithfully this prophecy has been fulfilled in the four previous years to which it applied. In 1699 Russia, Denmark and Poland formed thocoalition against Sweden which inaugurated the great war that, ended in the disastrous defeat of Charles XII. at Pultowa. The year 1789 will ever be memor- able on account of the breaking out of the French Revolution. 1798 witnessed the campaign of Bonaparte in Lgypt and the formation of the secoud European coalition :1g-ainst France. In 1879 war broke out between Engiand and Af- ghanistan, followed by the invasion of the latter country by British troops. In what manner the prediction is to be verified in 1838 remains to be seen, but the present condition ot Europe seems to promise an abundant fulfilment of the prophecy.
MR BRIGHT AND MR GLAD- STONE. A CONTRAST. Poor Mr Gladstone 1 There is no satisfying his critics. Generally the complaint against is of hisincessaut utterance—on platform and postcard. But now, when he has goue to Florence to take a real holiday, and, like a sensible man, has no correspondence forwarded to him,this is how John Bright turns and rends him tor not answering every busybody who chooses to ask for his opinion .— One Ash, ],nch.ia-le. Dear Sir,—I thank vou for vour letter. Air Gladstone thinks it-better tn be silent in such cases as that yon have put to him. I he does not object tothe ston-s and mud which his fol- lowers are throw in» at all who uifu-r from him. He has not definite answers of late, and vour ques- tion, "Do you or do you not T is not to his taste, and a frank reply might be injurious to his cause and party. — yours very truly, .IOIIN BRTHIILT. What a contrast to the way Mr Gladstone speaks of Mr Bright What is it that makes Mr Bright, so ungenerous as this to his old friend and chict ? Is it the very magnanimity of the Grand Old Man that makes the lesser man so bitter! Meanwhile we hail one tiling implied in Mr Bright',s letter with much satisfaction. The cor- respondent whom Mr Gladstone has not answered has forwarded a handbill which maintained that, the action of the police in Trafalgar-square was iudirectiy due to the action of Mr Bright and Mr Chamberlain. It is part and parcel, that is to say, of the coercive policy of the Tory Govern- ment which is kept in office by aid of Mr Bright and Mr Chamberlain. But to extend their sup- port to the Trafalgar-square business is, says Sic Bright, to throw stones and mud." So it is, and we are delighted to find that Mr Bright accept the mud. But why doesn't he go for SirCharies Warren more directly than thif1?- Pall Mall (Jazetie.
PUGILISTS OF HIGH DEGREE. A more or 1e:; bloody fi ve.rr.nnd fight, undFr Marquis of <^aeensb*rry Rules, is reported te havp taken Thac" within.. (jy (\1" tWi) between a son of Attorney-General Garland and a son of Senator Jones, of A rkansas. The cause of the meeting is said to ha v» been a charming young lady trom New York, whose bright < ves have fascinated both caiiow youths. According to the. most authentic version, the young men and their friends repaired to a. shanty located in the West-End, and occupied by a coloured man, who for a considera- tion stood guard at the front door, while the san- guinary j-oungsters stripped for the encounter. Young Jones is said tll have proveu much thr Letter man, and, in the pnh nce of the prize ring, to have put. his opponent to sleep" in ap- proved style after five well-contested rounds. Both the young men and their friends ;1intam r ,;tr[I r;:1JA;J( on i, p r1:1:j:>j\fi Ynrk JjYIj}'/df
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RAILWAY SERVANTS AND THE GRIER-SON ME MORI AL. TO TH F. lWITOB. SIR,—I endorse every word of "An Old Rail- may Man in your issue 0f 23rd inst., and wish, with your kind permission, to say a word or two to those who have not read the circular or heading of subscription lists. The circular states the fund, in the firs*; instance, is to provide" for the maintenancp and education of ns many orphans, both of the salaried and uniform staff, as the fund will admit of secondly, if the amount of sub- scription is sufficiently large, to found one or more scholarships, bearing Mr Griorson's name, at a public school nr other suitable institution, to be held by sons of railway men, the nomina- tions to he vested in Mrs Grierson during her lifetime. The circular also states that a very general desire has been expressed by the staff to do this. Now, sir, 1 ask the committee, who comprises the staff mentioned ? The first, of the proposals may be very well meant, but with regard to the second, although the circular states "to he held by sons of railway men," the subscription list dis- tinctly states sons of railway officers." This,as is well known to railway men, especially G. W.R., does not mean uniform staff, '1' any other grade except salaried officials although platelayer-: and labourers are being wrung to subscribe for scholar- ships for the sons of those well able to pay for their children's puueation. What benefit will the poor labourer or platelayer receive from either of these proposals ? They are not, even mentioned. The pomo;r'1.ho say, in addressing ns, "your committee," when no one but the committee, maybe, a few at headquarters, have had anything to do with the matter.—lam, ANOTHUR OLD RAILWAY MAN.
FIRES AT BRITON T-RRuy. TO TUT i'.nn'O' SIP.,—I was greatly perusing your paper of this morning issue, not to find a single word about i"upplying the place with some extinguishing apparatus, after the deplorable lire at the Vernon Works on Saturday. Fire after fire has occurred in the immediate district, in recent months—calamities which have been marked with remarkable saving of hfe and property yet there is not one of our innnential men at the Ferry ready to take pen in hand to denounce the backwardness and sleepiness of the Place, or put hand in pocket to help to supply these wants. The fire on Saturday night has, I think, aroused the feelings of a small section of the place, and I sincerely hope that these few words will be the starting of the ball. What would have been the result supposing the tin houses were burnt down on Saturday ? Why, the stoppage of the other departments of the works, and what that means Briton Ferry people can easily conjecture —semi-starvation. It would be a great relief to see Neath and Briton Ferry amalgamate, and each plice playa proportional rate towards the support of a central station, say at Pantyrheol or Melincrythan. Our rates are certainly heavy euough, but I think this question is of equal importance with our highway and poor rates.—I m, Ac., YOUNG BLOOD. Briton Ferry, 23.
PORTH, RHONDDA VALLEY. SIR,—Will yon kindly allow mp a, small space in your valuable paper to correct an error jn a letter under the above beading, signed A Roving Correspondent," which appeared in your issue of the otherday. Referring to the earl}* closing movement, he sy: And in fairness, it shnnld be stated that the tradespeople, wit.h one exception, were willing to accede to the request.' I beg to inform A Roving Correspondent" that this is not the truth, and calculated, I believe, to injure the firm whose representative was honest enough to say before employers and assist- ants—" Not that he would not, but that he could not," and thus make himself apparently the "one exception." The facts are as follows :— It was proposed and seconded that the "hops should be closed half-an-hour sooner on two nights of the week. It was also proposed and seconded as an amendment that it should be an hour iustead of half-an-hour. Three voted for each, viz., the proposer nnd seconder and one sup- porter, and the chairman gave his casting vote in favour of the latter. So there wnre altugether seven in favour of pnrlinr closing out oi a total of 35 or 40. How then could there be but one exception when as a matter of fact :It four- fifth of the total were exceptions am, &c., A TRUTHFUL CORRESPONDENT.
THE PROPOSED STATION AT ROATH. TO THK EDITOR. SIR,—I understand that a petition is going round for signatures in favour of a station in Kaath. Fellow residents, this petition is got up by a few whose property is located near the Royal Oak. I may say the gentlemen whose names where placed upon a committee which was held at the Royal Oak last Monday evening are the principle owners of property, rnrl. movers in this absurd locslitv for a sta'on at Spring-gardens, jioar Pengam Crossing. I happen to know this mode of getting np the petition from a friend of mine in Richards-terrace, who, had he not acei- dentaly asked where for, would have signed it, and we can now see and substantiate, If needs be, that, a great many people may sign it under the impression that it is advocating Chfton-strr.eS end. Allow me to inform every householder that no petition has been sent round advocating Clifton-street end since Wednesday, the 4-th inst., and that everyone who has signed since that date have given their names for Spring-gardens. I feel persuaded that the people of the district ought to know what IS going on, otherwise a wrong impression might prevail. I do not think the directors would listen to a? ything so one- nislad. Spring-gardeaa j. lize fciia pstitioc, all ona-sided and out of the way. The whole council voted en masse for the Clifton-street end. Then the favourable interview by the deputation of the corporation, and likewise the deputation repre- senting the whole district, before Mr Lambert, on Thursday, the 5th inst., and, following that, the overflow ratepayers' meeting held last Wednes- day, the 11th inst., at the Town-hall, the Mayor presiding, when a resolution was pnt advocating the Clifton-street end, and carried by an over- whelming majority.—I am, &0., A RATEPAYER NEAR THE ROYAL OAK.
THE LATE MP* ALDERMAN DUNCAN. The Pontypridd and Rhondda Chronicle, in an editorial, says :—Mr Duncan was highly re- spected by the Liberals of Cardiff and South Wales, whose interests be was wont to protect, and whose battles he manfully fought and won in the days of the reign of Tory monopoly and tyranny. The Bnleraan says Mr Duncan, through his newspapers aud otherwise, was the maiu instru- ment in breaking down the Bute influence, which, like all monopolies, was injurious to the commer- cial as well as the political interests of Cardiff. The people of Rothesay watched with great interest the noble struggle of the citizens of Cardiff for independence, having suffered themselves not a little from the domination of the House of Bute. The Abcrystwiih Observer says:—Death has been playing sad havoc 10 the ranks of journalism. During the last couple of weeks three old and respected journalists have been called to their rest. The death of Mr Latimer, proprietor of the Western Daily Mercury, Plymouth, was followed by that of Mr Ih ,d Duncan, proprietor of the South Wales Daily News, and a few days later by the demise of Colonel Macliver, son of the pro- prietor of the Western Daily Press, Bristol. Alderman Duncan had rendered conspicuous service to the Liberal cause in South Wales. More than 3d years ago he established the Cardiff Times, which is now one of the largest papers in the kingdom, and later on he embarked in two daily papers, one published in the morning and the other in the evening. The three gentlemen are types of the remarkable men who have made the provincial press, and advanced its position by leaps and bounds within the past ten years, to the con- siderable substitution of its influence for that for- merly wielded by the metropolitan journals.
DISTRAINING ON LAND FOR .TENANTS' TITHES. Our Chester correspondent, telegraphing/last night, says:—" Mr Charles Stevens, estate agent and surveyor, of Chancery-lane, London, who is acting for the Ecelesiastical Commissioners for England, accompanied by Mr Peterson, of Pall Mall, who represents the interests of the Church Defence Association, left Chester by an early train to-day for Holywell, where they continued levying distraints on the farmers of Whitford, Flintshire, whose tithes, due to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, are greatly in arrears. At Holy- well the party was joined by the body guard of armed emergency men,who are at present billeted there, and a body of police under Supt. Hughes At the farm of Mr Robert Williams, where J612 odd are due, the ollicials were fairly beaten in their attempts to distrain on his goods. Mr Peterson found the farm gates securely bolted and barred against him, and, not to be denied, he inspected the land with a view of proceeding under the 82nd section of the Tithe Act, by which the Commissioners are able to take actual possession of the land. While this business was being transacted, Mrs Williams, the wife of the tenant, came to the door and denounced in Welsh the conduct, of the clergy in sending armed officials to take their ^property from them. The Church, she said, would derive no benefit from such a course of procedure. At Biynybaw Farm, in the occupation of Mr Evans, wherA so sharp I1n altercation took place a fortnight ago between Mr Peterson find Air Gee, thC1 distress which had been levied on a haystack fur £2 odd was paid out. Proceedings under section 32 were also taken in the case of Edward Thomas, Garth Farm. The party returned to Chester in the evening."
RESOLUTE GOVERNMENT IN IRELAND. AND A TWO-OUNCE BOTTLE OF COUGH MIXTURE. Mr Labouchere thus sums up the result ot resolute government in Ireland Not a single suppressed branch of the National League has failed to hold meetings, or been unreported. The work of the League has, in fact, gone on exactly as heretofore. The plan of campaign holds the field a mnch as it Piver did. The National papers are just as Nationalist as formerly, and come out with unfailing regularity. A whole session wasted, a. good mauy reputations mined, the liberty of Parliament dan- gerously curtailed, endless lies told, endless bad blood—to the debit. On the credit, two or three bad colds in the heads of pmminent Irish politicians. This is all that the Government can boast, ot. "We have made that arch traitor, William O'Brien, buy a two-ounce bottle of cough mixture. This is the result of our resolute government, of Ireland upon this we take our stand upon this (when the proper moment shall arrive, but wo are in no hurry) we shall be content to challenge the anproval of the constitu- encies. This is what Mr Balfour will have to say. This is the only thing that he can by any possibility find to say when ho meets Parliament next mOil! h.
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THE "TIMES" ON GLAMOR- GANSHIRE. MORE DISTORTED VIEWS OF NONCONFORMITY. The Times, on Tuesday, published its twelfth of the Letters from Wales." This letter deals with the county of Glamorgan. It says Populous as Glamorgan now is, rapidly as its population has increased, and is increasing, its growth is likely to be not less phenomenal in the future than it has been in the past. During the period of my journeyings in Glamorgan, and, indeed, during the whole of my presence in South Wales, neither disestablishment nor the land question, nor Home Rule for Ireland or Wales, nor the glowing prophecies with regard to the future of the Merionethshire gold mines, uor any subject whatsoever, political or otherwise, was discussed with such keen mterest as the pro- jected removal to Cardiff of the great works which have helped in rendering busy Dowlais worthy of a not entirely pleasant sobriquet. Everywhere among practical men I found, in the first place, a feeling of sympathy tor the hardships which a change of such magni- tude must necessarily entail upon individuals; and, in the second place, a conviction that the sug- gested scheme was reasonable and prudent. If the Oowlais people are right—and they can hardly be wrong—in believing that by bringing their works nearer to the raw material they can substantially reduce the cost of production, then others will nor, be slow to follow their example nnd, according to the opinion of many practical men, it is by the adoption of their principles that prosperity may be induced to return to the country. CALVINISTIC METHODIST RFTURN-4. There lies betore me now a copy, made by my own hand, of an originalreturn made tothe central body of the Calvinistic Methodists, or to one of their central bodies. The form itself, introduced by a manuscript message, Kindly fill in this by the time we come round," is significant. To one who reads between the lines of the wonts of advice clearly mean, Count every man, woman, and child of whom the face may be at any time seen within the chapel doors, and make as respectable a show as you can," and it is diffi- cult not to indulge in vague speculation ccncerning the number of chapels which, under favourable circumstances, may number the same individual among their hearers. Such a mode of reckoning is even more unfair in the case of a chapel than it would be if it were adopted in the case of a parish church. Preachers from a distance are obtained in all sortc; of ways. Some one or two of the more celebrated performers exact a special fee of ji ve guineas, and it is beyond question that the promised appearance of one cf them wiil draw to a given chapel a number of persons who have with it no customary connexion. This system, by which a pleasant variety of sermons is secured, a system of which the object is excellent and worthy of imitation, combined with the rule for counting hearers, might tend to lead the outside public to wrong conclusions. Calvinistic Methodism wishes, it seems, to be I deceived let it be deceived, if it will but it must be conceded that the sum total of figures obtained after the fashion which has been px- plained cannot be taken to represent the strength of Calvinistic Methodism. ADHERENT* TO NONCONFORMITY AND THE CHURCH. For my own part I am fully convinced that, if the Church conld be induced to make her claim, and the Nonconformists were permitted to make theirs, the sum total would greatly exceed the numbers of the people of Wales and Monmouth- shire. This makes, it will be observed, no aliow- ance for Indifferentism, but this attitude towards religion is so rare in Wales as hardly to be worth taking into account. Hitherto, however, the Church in Wales has not, so far as I am aware, attempted anything in the nature of a universal census. The tendency on the part of clergymen and of high ecclesiastics has been to estimate the strength of the Church rather by reference to such unimpeachable figures as those which are given of the number of candidates for confirmation, of new churches built, and of moneys collected for Church purposes, THE WEST.EYANS A NTH BAPTISTS, Here, as elsewhere, the Wesleyans are the most tolerant and the most peaceably inclined of the sects: but the van of the Nonconformist battle is led not so much by the Calvinistic Methodists as ,;t, by the Baptists. Their opposition is bitter, and, as I believe, this bitterness comes from two sources. In the first place, the Baptists differ from the Church upon a fundamental principle of o doctrine, and the difference is genuinely felt; in the second place, thpy are, as all earnest religious persons must necessarily be, zealous to make proselytes but their opposition, nevertheless, lacb the strength and intensity which characterise Calvinistic Methodism in North Wales. THE VOLUNTARY SYSTRjr TX TliiC f'HCRCH. In the diocese of Llandaff, m the 33 years preceding 1833, £360000 had been spent on the cathedra), and in I he restoration and erection of 170 churches. In St, David's, too, in the ten years preceding 1894, 33 churches had been built, more than 40 restored, and 40 mission rooms licensed. In throe years some £ 15,00( had been raised in answer to the report of a commission appointed by the bishop some three, or four years before to inquire into the spiritual needs of the rural deanery of Swansea and Gower East, and in the mother parish of Swansea in two years aud a half there had been built two permanent churches, an iron church, and three additional mission rooms. Nor were there wanting proofs that the influence of the church was felt in Nonconformist circles. Of 114 candidates for confirmation in one place recently confirmed by the Bishop of Llandaff, no less than 40 had formerly been Nonconformists. In the Rhondda Valley four churches had been erected iu the midst of a population apparently so wedded to Nonconformity that the building of the sacred edifices had been regarded as a sheer waste of money at each abundant congregations were reported. DISESTABLISHMENT VERSUS SELFISHNESS. It may be within the memory of those who road these letters that I entered Glamorgan with the expectation of hnding among the vast Noncon- formist population cf the county a feeling of opposition t') the Church more substantial aud more formidable, if less prone to vulgar forms of expression, than that which prevails in North Wales generally. I leave the county with my anticipations falsified, and not unnaturally look for a reason. Why is it that in the small com- munities of the north the bitterness of sectarianism is rampant, while among the dense populations of the south there is frequently to be found a feeling that clergy and Dissenting ministers are aiming at the same end ? Probably the answer is to be found in the fact that whereas in North Wales the supply of human material for the operations of parsons and Dissenting ministers is small, in the south it is abundant and overflowing. North Wales has, I think, more churches and chapels than are called for by the needs of the population. The latter are often commercial ventures. A great number of the people in North Wales invest their savings in this fashion, and if, as I b2Iw,, the fact to be, the chapels are so numerous that, coincidentiy with the churches, they cannot all be filled, we are not far from having discovered one at le.ast among the sources of bitter hostility. I can imagine n Nonconformist fanner saying, It, is hard enough,in all conscience, to contribute (lie has heen fednionsiy taught to use this word) to the support, of a church which I do not, fre- quent but it is far worse to be compelled to assist in supporting men who are doing their work zealously, and by so acting are impairing the safety of my investments." In Glamorgan, where the voice of South Wales can be most loudly heard, no such incentive to hostility is to be found, and hence, it is hnnibly suggested, comes that higher tone which has seemed to me to be prevalent among the Nonconformist ministers,
THE HEALTH OF CARDIFF The return of the Registrar-General for the week ending Saturday last, 21st January, shows that in the borough of Cardiff the number of births registered last week was 77, as compared with 99 and 37 in the two preceding weeks. These 77 births comprised 39 boys and 38 girls, and they corresponded to an annual rate of 4S'l per 1,000 of the population, estimated to be in tiie middle of this year 108,570. The deaths iu the last week, numbered 41, and in the two previous the totals were 44 mid t2. These 48 deaths realised a .tate of 23 1 per 1,0C0, and it was O'l above that cf the 28 great towns in England and Wales. There were, however, 10 of them with a greater one. Bristol had a smaller rate, for it was only 13 2, and it 4'9 under that of Cardiff. The 48 deaths in the latter included 27 males and 21 females and of the total, 11 of them were those of infants under one year, and 8 referred to adults who had attained 60 years and upwards. Scarlet fever was on the increase, for it, was fatal in three cases, against one in the previous week. Fever and diarrhcei were credited with one each. These 5 deaths produced a zymotic rate of 2'40, Tbare were 3 deaths from violence, inquests were held on 5 oodies. and 6 persons died in the public institutions in the last week. The rates of mortality in the several towns, arranged in order from the lowest, were as follow Brighton 17 0 Newcastle-on-Tyne 21 '3 Hull 18 1 Liverpool 21-6 Bristol l'd'2 Salford 21'7 Oldham 1S'5 Cardiff 23-l Preston 18 7 Wolverhampton ¿3'Ó Leeds 19-2 London 24*4 Leicester 19'2 Bolton 24-4 Bradford 19§o Halifax 24-7 Huddersfield 20"0 .Sheffield 25-0 Derby 201 Nottingham 25-5 Sunderland 20-2 Plyjii,)iitli 25*5 Norwich 2u 6 Manchest er 26*8 Birkenhead 20 9 Blackburn 28*1 Birmingham 21 0 Portsmouth 28*3
MINERS' ELECTRIC LAMPS IN THE RHONDDA. CAN THBY CAUSE AN EXPLOSION ? THE DOOM OF THE DAVY AND CLANNY. THREE THOUSAND ELECTRIC LAMPS FOR THE RHONDDA. AN INTERVIEW WITH MESSRS EDISON AND SWAN'S ELECTRICIAN. MR J. W, SWAN ON THE GAS.TEST ATTACHMENT. [BY OU,I[fNING CORRESPONDENT.] The Davy and the Clanny lamps which have, unquestionably, made the names of their inventors famous, are now doomed. The lamp of the future is the electric. It is with great reluctance that many a miner parts with his Clanny. Having worked for twenty or thirty years with it, having entered working places where the atmosphere was foul and returned in safety, being able to detect on the instant, by its means, the slightest accumulation of explosive mixture, he is naturally under the impression that practically no better lamp is required to enable the miuei to pursue his arduous and dangerous calling. But even minars' lamps come under the Darwinian theory of the surviva' of the fittest. The Royal Commission has condemned the unprotected Davy and Clanny, and all lamps of a similar descrip- tion, and the new act prohibiting their use has come into force. Fourteen thousand miners employed in the Aberdare district recently protested, through their representatives, against such arbittary action, and a greater number of Rhondda colliers would to-day unhesitatingly endorse their declaration. The objection of such a large body of underground workmen shows plainly how strong a feeling of indignation has been excited by the humane interference of scientific and practical men on behalf of miners. Rhondda colliery managers have long been convinced that the so called safety lamps now generally used are very unreliable under many existing circumstances, and they have simply delayed making a change iu consequence of their being undecided as to which is the best, the most portable, and the most practicable lamp. However, to meet the requirements of the new act, most of the managers have agreed, instead of absolutely enveloping the gauze, to adopt a tin shield covering—perpendicularly about two- thirds of it-but, nevertheless, they are carefully watching the results of the use of the miners' electric lamus in the neighbouring collieries. PITKIN'S I.AMP USED AT Tin: ocr.AN COU.IF.RIF.S. A number of electric lamps have, for some months past, been used at the Ocean Col- lieries. About 200 in use at the National Colliery,Cwtcb, where the recent terrible ex- plosion occurred, and 600 more have hpen ordered. Eight hundred similar lamps (t, iisoii and Swan's) have also been ordered by the same pro- prietors, Messrs Ward, Watts, and Co., for their colliery at Blaen-Rhondda, and 1,600 more for two collieries in other districts. Few, indeed, were there who anticipated so marvellous a development of this subject when, some fourvears ago, Mr David Evans. LodringaUt, manager of the Ferndale and Bodringallt Col- lieries, had a certain memorable interview with Professor Abel. Tt appears that the first miuei s electric lamp invented required wires to be carried from the source of electricity along the workings and attached to each lamp. Mr Evans observed to the professor that. such lamps would never come into general use, as the wires would be occasionally broken by faiis. "To rendpr any kind of lamp practicable," remarked Mr Evans, "it must, at ail events, be porta-ble." "Well," replied the professor, that's impossible. It can never be made." But you see, said Mr Evans to me," the prufessor ws wrong. We have had portable electric lamps. I myself that the electric is the lamp of the future. The Clanny and the Davy have senn their day." Wiiy didn't yon go in for electric lamps?" I ir.qnired. Wel), replied he, wait a bit. Ws keep watching how things go on." Itwa-.thorefore.anorderto supply some slight information to those of my readers who do not know how things go on in this direction that I took occasion the other evening to visit the Cwtcb Colliery and ascertain from the electrician at the works as much information as was possible respecting this greeu reform in mining operations. I found the electrician in the midst of a mighty pile of electric lamps, which looked as if they might just have been "dumped" down out of a wagon. How many of these bmps bave you in use at tlip P,,Iiipry ? asked of Messrs E lison and Swan's representative who was temporarily en- gaged at the works. At present we have none," he replied. We have had them in for a few days to effect some slight alterations which Some of them required. The light of a few of them gc), diilt six or seven hours after thev had been handed to the men. We carefully ex- mined them and im- mediately discovered the caiise. Yoii see these cells (four leaden tubes about an inch in diame- terand six inches long firmly attached to one another and insulated.) Now, these cells contain the liquid (one part sul- phuric acid to ten parts] water) which holds the SDTSOX AND SW.S TAMP USED AT CWTCU. electric charge conveyed by the dynamo machine, I-lei-e ig one of the lamps, the light of which got dull a few hours after it had been given to a collier, and l'ii explain to you how it got dull. When the miners bring their lamps in the cells are taken out, deposited in this frame, which, as you see, contains a pigeon-hole for each, and are then replenished with the weak acid, which is poured through a. very minute hole in the concave top of the cell, au operation which requires great care. Had these holes been made larger the liquid would be liable to run out if the lamp happened to fall, or the miner to tilt if. We have now, however, considerably improved upon the slight imperfection caused by the minuteness of these holes. We have enlarged the opening, and placed a thin indiarubber valve inside. The battery is now very easily and quickly re-charged, and the lamp may be tossed about without any risk of spilling the mixture." FRAME IN WHICH THE CELl" ARE CHARGKO. Do the colliers really like to work with these lamps ")'-es: they are here every evening imme- diately after they are out of the pit, askinp me if the lamps nre ready. The light of one of these lamps is two-candle power, whilst that of the Clanny is only about half a candie. This, as you will readily understand, makes all immense difference." What is the principal objection raised by the miners generally against the adoption of electric lamps ?" Well, I don't think there is any material objection. I have not associated very much with the miners, but I have heard some of them saying that the genera! use of theselamps would certainly tuake the management careless of the ventilation. Of coiiise, it is true these lamps can burn as well in foul as in pure air, but I don'c believe for a moment that the ventilation would be neg- lected." What is the weight of each lamp?" I should say about seven pounds. The Marsant weighs about 3 £ lbs„ and the Clanuv 31 bs. There is .^nciHer.ible CU.LI.S IN INTERIOR OF SWAN* S LAMP. difference as regards the weight, but then you illuit also consider the difference in the light emitted. And is another thing: the beauty of our lamps des in this f,.ct —they will illuminate the roof, facc, and P.oor of the headings or stalls ::imultaneous]y. Tiiere is no other electric lamp that will do that. An- other advantage we claim is that the sides of the wooden case of tiie lamp being round, instead of square, the lamp will bear more knocking about." But if they are so heavy as you say, they will certainly be too cumbrous for hauliers and door-boys, who have to walk and run about a good deal during working hours." "They would be rather heavy for hauliers and door-boys certainly, but we can make lighter lamps by reducing the illuminating power." Is the electric lamp absolutely safe in mine" ? I have heard it stated that should the lamp get broken, while in gas an explosion would follow, and that though the light. would be instantly extinguished by the destruction of the vacuum, there would still be quite time to ignite the gas were the lamp in an explosive mixture. Weli, we have tried several experi- ments in that direction. We have smashed the bull's eye when the lamp was enveloped in gas. The light went out, but no explosion ensued. We have performed various experiments with these lamps in explosive mixtures. We took off the bull's- eye, put a lighted lamp in the midst of the gas, smashed the bulb by means of a long instrument, but no explosion occurred. It is, perhaps, possible that an explosion might; ensue, nut it is certainly not probable." One great drawback to this form of light," said I, is that you cannot, detect gas with it. That seems to mo to be the most important objection urged by colliery managers generally against it; adoption, Pont it; i.l believed, is it not, thot that difficulty will hi surmounted V "C..rtainly; W have an apparatus which will effect, that, ft. is rather impracticable as yet, but in a- very short time we shall be a 1;1e to make it not only practicable but perfect. "The question-of expense, which was once fatal to the use of electric lamps, ha1:, I suppose, been to a great extent overcome The expense of m:1illt"'l1aO(f'-nr rather of replenishing—the lamps is intinitesimally small, when once the machinery to supply the electricity is erected. The lamps require no cleaning, and the operation of renewing the charge is effected with little trouble, and for less cost than is involved in filling or cleaning ordinary safety lamps. The price of each lamp is, I thinK, about £ 1, and the cost per week of charging it would not, I dare say, exceed a farthing." So terminated the interview with the electri- cian. On a future occasion I hope to be able to be able to say something on the subject of the. further development of the lamp with regard to the gas test. At present that improvement is little more than in embryo, but as my friend the- electrician pointed out, it is onlv a question of time to make it practicable—and not a very long time either. The idea is as simple as it is ingenious. It is, in point of fact, what is known as the platinum test and here is what Mr J. W. Swan himself says about it:—" The idea," says Mr Swan, of utilising the fact that a red hot platinum wire glows more brightly in a mixture of air and fire-damp than in pure air is due to Mr Liveing, and he has worked out the idea very thoroughly, insomuch that by means of his apparatus (which comprises the wire to be heated —a miniature photometer, and a small magneto- electric machine), comparatively accurate estimates may be made of the proportion of fire- damp present in air contaminated with it, down to so small a proportion of fire-damp as one volume in two hundred volumes of air. The battery attached to the miner's electric lamp provides a ready means of heating platinum wire red hot, and by limiting the object of the test to detection without measurement, an exceedingly simple and small appendage to the electric safety lamp gives, on the principle described, even a greater power of detecting tire-damp than was possessed by the most sensitive of the oil safety lamps. With a provision as that described for the detection of fire-damp, the electric safety lamp is not only safe in itself, but a means of safety by giving warning in the event of a dangerous accumulation of fire-damp occurring." It only remains, therefore, to bring this remarkable development into practical use—and possibly even before these lines are in type that will have been done—to make the miners' electric lamp a con- trivance absolutely perfect.
LIBERALISM IN CARDIGAN- SHIRE. DISESTABLISHMENT MEETING AT CROSS INN. AN AMUSING SPEECH. At Cross Inn Board Schoolroom, near Aber- nyron, which stands on the junction of four cross roads, and is therefore a convenient rendezvous to the rural population of a wide area, a disestablib- inent meeting of exceptional influence in point of numbers and unanimity was held on Monday night last, under the presidency of the Rev. William Jones, Pontsaeson. The large school- room was literally packed.—Mr John M. Howell, Aberayron, moved the following resolution :— That this meeting is of opinion that the question of the tithes can be settled .-atisfactorily to the Welsh nation only by the disestablishment and disenduwment of the English Church in Wales. Mr Howell said that he had read in aBirmingham paper remarks culled from a local Tory paper, of the visitation that had bffallen certain anti-tithe farmers in the parish of Llau idewi, Aberartb, in the shape of fatal calamities to their cattle. He (Mr Howell) had made some inquiries respecting the statements. He found that the horse at Tyny- ffynon was ripe in years, bad served well its generation, and had been gathered to itsfathers after having lived a laborious and useful life. (Laughter.) Such could not be said of the pig at Cipiiicoch. The truth to tell, that pig had not died, but was actually killed. (Much laughter.) Mrs Williams, its owner, said the p:g had weighed so excep- tionally well that she could face the expenses of three more tithe sales as a result of its triumphant demise. (Great laughter.) In the same neigh- bourhood three head of cattle had died duriug the same period belonging to three zealuus Church- men, but the Tory papers had presumably not heard of those occurrences. It, however, showed how colourless in its politics Providence was. Mr Howell then spoke to the resolution, which was seconded by Mr Lloyd, Trefynon, supported by Mr Thomas Dalies, Llanpenal, and carried unanimously."Mr John Parry, Llanarmon, followed with an eloquent and argumentative speech of two hours'duration. No summary of it would be satisfactory, and we will only suggest that every parish in Wales should endeavour to bring the speaker within hearing.— A vote of thanks to the lecturer, moved by Rev Evan Evans and seconded by Mr James Jatrps (Pentremawr), brought a highly-successful meet- ing to a close.
THE REPRESENTATION OF EAST CARMARTHENSHIRE. TO THE EDITOR. Sip.,—In your issue for Tuesday, the 27th of December last, I observed a remark to the effect that a request is likely to be made from an influential quarter to Mr Schnadhorst to contest this division when the net vacancy occurs. I do not know whether this is a fact or not, but if is i" I, for one,shall not feel very averse to a change and, from what I have, been able to ascertain, this feeling is shared by the great bulk of the constituency. There can be no doubt whatever that there is a universal feeling of strong dissatis- faction, not to say disgust, throughout the division at the present representation. I believe I am correct in saying that our vener- able member, Mr David Pugh, enjoys the proud distinction of having voted at fewer divisions during the last session of Parliament than any other Welsh member. Of Course I am aware that at hiR great age his constituents sannot expect bJm to be as lively as, let us say, Mr Arthur Williams, or Mr Bowen Rowlands, or Mr Tom Ellis, but I think they have a reasonable right to expect that he should make us a little more sensible of his political existence than he has since he was elected rather more than two years ago. Other members of Parliament occasionally visit their constituents and give an account of their stewardship by addressing public meetings, but Mr Pugh does not even think it necessary to do this. In fact, excepting a short address to the council of the Liberal Association when he was re-elected in 1836, ha has not addressed a s'ngie political meeting since his first election. I do not for one moment pretend to say that Mr Pugh's constituents regret this little omission on his part very much. In tbr cours of the few addresses he delivered during the contest ot 1885 his audiences were treated to more Latin and Greek quotations than a University professor would have given, and this notwithstanding the fact that probably 99 out of every 100 would not know Latin from Sanscrit. Those of us who have had the pleasure of listening to a political oration from Mr Pugh came away with the impression that his remarks were quite as applicable co the solar system or the Gulf Stream as they were to current politics. Again, I say lie is not fit to represent us. His treatment of Nonconformists has been nothing more nor less than a deliberate series of insults. Of course, we all know that Mr Pugh, being a stronR Churchman, his sympathies are entirely with the Church, hut. I should have thought that gratitude alone to Nonconformists to whom he owes his seat in the House ought; to have re- strained him from making such a marked nnd disparaging distinction between them and the church. When Sir M. Lloyd contested the seat in December, 1885, does Mr Pugh believe he had a solitary Church vote? Does he not know that clergymen advocated from the platform the candi- dature of Sir M. Lloyd ? And yet in spite of this ifact, and also that he professes to be in favour of disestablishment, he makes this most insulting distinction. Is there another constituency in the kingdom that would put up with this kind of treatment ? Is the division, or any part of it, under such an obligation to Mr Pugh that, we must put up with him ? And now that it seems possible to have a thoroughly good Radical, why should we not seize upon this opportunity ? If Mr Schnadhorst is looking out for a seat, why should we not invite him to represent East Carmarthenshire 1 There is not a better Radical in the kingdom, and in addition to possessing tbe entire confidence of 1\1r Gladstone and the whole Liberal party, he has the further important recommendation of being a good Nonconformist. Twenty years ago when Air Pugh offered himself for this county, his poli- tical convictions were so shady and unsatisfactory that the Liberals combined together and turned him out. He was then well beyond his 60th year. Is he more pronounced in his Liberalism to-day, when he is between 80 and 90 years of age ?" And now that we appear to be so near the great struggle for so many Liberal reforms for which we have been fightiug so many years, and when every Radical in Parhameut, if we are to get these reforms, not only will require a giant's strength, but will have to use it like a giant. Does anyone who knows Mr Pugh believe that he will give the great Liberal party any real help? Is he sntficientlv strong in his Liberal convictions to represent us' faithfully in these great issues ? Let. his conduct, when the question of equalising taxation came before the House he the answer. Being so largelj7 interested in land, will he give any help to attain equitable land refoim, and place a more fair proportion upon land of taxa- tion than it now bears ? Of course he will not. Then I say let him make room for a better man. He has been tried and found wanting. In con- clusion, whilst apologising for taking up so much of your valuable space, let me express *n earnest hope that Liberal electors in the division will seriously consider whether we ought to let the present opportunity of having a good sound Non- conformist Radical to be our member to pass by. For my own part, I trust they will not.—I am, <fce., GL AN AMMAN. January 19th, 1388,
SNATCHED FROM DEATH. REMARKABLE CASE OF TRANSFU- SION OF BLOOD. Au extraordinary case is reported from the neighbourhood of Alresford, Hants, The wife of a labourer had for a considerable time past been suffering from a disease which had reduced her almost to a skeleton, medicine being of no avail. Her medical attendant, Mr Marcus Eustace, on being summoned at midnight, fouud the poor woman in a sinking state. A; a last resource he extracted four ounces of blood from his own body and injected it into that of his patient. The operation was successful, and the woman is now in a fairway of recovery.
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