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THE TROUBLE IN INDIA. AMEER FRIENDLY. ♦ The Ameer of Afghanistan has issued a firman forbidding his subjects to join the rebellious natives under Hadda Mullah, near Peshawar. The Afghan Governor of Khost has received orders from the Ameer to punish any Afghans who may again raid the camels of the Tochi Punitive Expedition. The 9th Field Battery, the 15th Sikhs, the 18th Bengal Lancers, and a wing of the Scots Fusiliers have been ordered to Kohat immediately, as a precautionary measure to overawe the Afridis. There are vague rumours that the Orakzais have risen. INTERVIEW WITH A LEADING MOSLEM. Reuter's representative called on Monday on Moulvie Rafinddin Ahmad, the leading Moslem resident in England, who is thoroughly con- versant with Islamic legal and political questions connected with the present political situation in India. In regard to the Ameer's pamphlet on the waging of a jehas (holy war), the Moulvie said :— It is an erroneous idea that the Ameer has written a book on a holy war against England, or done anything to foment any holy war in India. He has written a pamphlet describing under what circumstances and in what condi- tions a holy war is justifiable, and also the duties of Moslems when they are engaged in a holy war. It is a general treatise, and does not refer to England at all, or to any other Christian or non-Moslem Power. It is im- portant in this respect to know that the subject has little connection with the Mahommedans of India. The question of a holy war against England being unjustifiable has already been solved for Indian Moslems by the chief priests of Mecca. The following question was put by a leading Mussulman Indian a few years ago to the Moslem high priests in Mecca:—Whether the country of Hindostan, the rulers of which are Christians who do not interfere with all the injunctions of Islam, such as ordinary prayers, prayers of the two Ides, &c., but who do authorise a departure from the injunctions of Islam such as permission to inherit the property of his Mahommedan ancestors given to one who changes his religion and becomes a Christian, is a Dar-ul-Islam or not ? The priests answered,' As long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islam prevail in it, it is Dar-ul-Islam.' From this it is seen that no holy war is justifiable. It is true that the Ameer has lately been given the title of Zia-ul-Millat-wad- Din, or the light of the nation and religion,' but the pamphlet which he has published has no connection with his new title. The Ameer, far from being a bigot, is the most tolerant Sovereign that ever came to the throne of Cabul. Whereas it was impossible for any Christian to travel safely in Afghanistan before the Ameer ascended the throne, there are now visitors and persons in the service of the Ameer who profess Christianity and are Englishmen, living side by side with Moslems. It is said that the Ameer has become the friend of the Sultan lately. This, however is wrong. The Ameer himself mentions in his auto- biography that when he was a political prisoner in Russia during the last Russo-Turkish war one of the Russian authorities asked him whether he would consent to be made a general in the Russian Army, and whether in that case he would go and fight for Russia against Turkey. The Ameer said that if choice were given him, he would first go to the Sultan and ask to be admitted as a general in the Turkish Army, and if the Sultan consented, he would fight for him against Russia. If the Sultan did not consent, he said, he would place himself at the head of his own Afghan followers, and even then fight for Turkey against Russia with them. This shews the Ameer's inclination as well as his moral courage." On being questioned with regard to the present state of Mahommedan feeling in India, especially in view of the recent Turkish successes over the Greeks, the Moulvie said:— <6 The prestige of the Sultan has been immensely increased in the Moslem world owing to the success of his army in the recent war, but it is not true to say that the Sultan has taken any undue advantage of this prestige against England. I have seen reports in the papers that some notables from Cabul lately visited Constantinople, and that a notable from Constantinople had likewise paid a compli- mentary visit to Cabul. It has, however, been the desire of the people in Constantinople for some time past to have more cordial relations with the people of Afghanistan, both being of the same sect and religion. During the visit of the Shahzada to England suggestions were even put forward by leading Turks to invite the Prince to see the Caliph, but such a visit was out of the sphere of the Shahzada's mission, and could not be carried out. It should not be surprising in these days of fast locomotion if Islamic people wish to gratify their desire to improve the mutual know- ledge of each other by personal intercourse. It must also be borne in mind that there is a Council of Moslem Ulemas holding its meetings in Constantinople for matters connected with Islamic dogmas, such as the question of slavery in Islamic countries, the Mecca pilgrimage question, the question of usury, &c., which are of interest to all Moslem nations, and Afghan notables might have had a share in the decision of those questions." The Moulvie wished to emphasise the fact that Indian Moslems were not in the habit of accept- ing political inspiration either from Constanti- nople or Cabul. They were, he said, quite competent to decide what government was good them, and it was an insult to the intelligence of their leaders to say that they required foreign guidance in their politics. He had heard nothing from India of the rumoured visit ef the Sultan's emissaries to the Indian Mussul- mans. The rising on the frontier was entirely confined to frontier Afghan and Chitral tribes, and had nothing to do with Indian Moslems, nor was there any chance of the rising spread- ing to the interior, as the Indian Mussulmans refused to call it a holy war. The cause of the rising," the Moulvie con- tinued, <6 has not yet been exactly ascertained. It may be mere fanaticism, or it may be a de- liberate protest on the part of the border tribes against the policy of the permanent occupation of Chitral and the neighbouring country by the Government of India, in disregard of their own proclamation. The unfavourable criticism in the papers is premature and unjustifiable. The Ameer is a strong man and a wise statesman, and he has never been accused of intriguing against England. He hates Russia, and his own as well as his country's interest consists in a firm alliance with England. The border tribes where these disturbances are taking place are in a chronic state of turbulence, and it will be seen that they might have organised this movement and compelled some of their friends and relations in the Ameer's territory to join them." In conclusion, the Moulvie said that the Ameer was very sensitive in matters of personal honour, and it would be wise and politic if the British Government could see its way to establish an Afghan agency in England, and thus gratify the not unnatural wish of the Ameer in that respect.

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