A FEW months ago Mr. Matthias Dunn, a Cornish fishing expert, contributed to the Contemporary Review an article on "The Seven Senses in Fishes," which contain a few stories and theories which were generally received with notes of interrogation. Among these was an opinion that fishes emit sounde which are understood by their fellows. This. sur. prising theory has now been confirmed by Professor Kollicker, of the Naples Aquarium, who has wrapped himself in a diving suit and has been let down to the bottom of the Mediterranean in an iron cage lit up by electricity. With the aid of a powerful receiverand a specially-constructed phonograph he has registered the expressions of surprise with which the fish wel- comed his appearance. He notes that the sound made by one fish differs greatly from that of another, and has summed up the results of his experiment in the conviction that the sounds produced by fishes will yet be recognised as a language.
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«— CAKL HERTZ, the conjurer, has rather a horror of small boy confederates, and no wonder. On one occasion lie was performing in London, and, bor- rowing half-a-crown from one of the audience, he placed it in the centre of an orange. The idea of the trick, which he carefully explained to the audience, was for the coin to disappear, and find its way into the pocket of a youpgster at some distance from the stage. Mr. Hertz, at the proper iiiornent, called upon a boy in the crowd to produce it. Fumbling in his pockets for a moment or two, while all eyes were turned upon him, the boy at last fished out a quantity of small change. Here's two and threepence-halfpenny, sir," he shouted; I got thirsty, so I changed that half-dollar you gave me." CARDINAL GIBBO.V has been telling the American woman what he thinks of the" W omanls Movement." How uncompromising are his views may be judged from the following I regard woman's rights women and society leaders in the highest walks of life as the worst enemies of the female sex. They r6b women of all that is amiable and gentle, tender and attrac- tive they rob her of her innate grace of character, r.nd give her nothing in return but masculine bold- ness and brazen effrontery." The woman's rights- women are now saying what they think of the Car- dinal, in terms that a New York journal describes as ([llt,IJld Billingsgate."
I COCO A—The National Drink. a fE\T3R m the history of the world has Cocoa been ,n l ln favour as a national diink as it is «t the preseirtday. Yit there are Cocoas Cocoas. >1:sua. 1- K1 nave Rained no fewer than 275 GOLD and Oil-L0MA8, and their ^ure Concen- y,t* result of «a accumulated experience 0 j_»'hich plices this well known Firm t he rivalry existing amongst 'Inns of latter-day growth. here It mo better SM*rag* than tp t oC():l¡.. of vo accumulated experience 0 j_»'hich plices this well known Firm the rivalry existing amongst 'Inns of latter-day growth. here It mo better SM*rag* than PURE 06NOEKTRATED <2/ COCOA &u Of Wh Dr. 'r.) I ti, R.! F. et;c.,pav rit ny "l; ""U ldeal of JUST THKEE VVORDS ^yessanr in order to cret Che
TIIK betrothal of Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria to the Archduchess Anna of Austria-Tuscany is of interest to English people (says Vanity Fair) on the ground that he is the eldest son of the Stuart heiress to the thrones of Great Britain and Ireland. In the opinion of the Jacobite party he should therefore be- IPrineo of Wales. It will be remembered that. H T ?r'nce Rupprecht came over to England for the Jubilee he had considerable trouble, in avoiding the unwelcome attentions that his Jacobite pnrtisans tried to shower upon hint. His Royal Highness is a Popular Prince, of a scientific turn of mind. Fond of travelling, he has already visited most of the countries in the old world. He was born on May 18, 1869, and is the eldest of his family. His bride-elect, the Archduchess Anna of Austria-Tuscany, the second daughter of the Grand Duke and DnchetfB of Tuscany, was born on October 17,1879. Her Imperial Highness is one of nine brothers and sisters; only one of whom is married, namely, the Archduchess Louise; who is the wife of; Prince Frederick-August, the beitf to the Kingdom of SUODY.
OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. The resumed casualty lists from South Africa which, despite the varied fortunes of war, are now coming to hand, bring home to all of us the immediate necessities of those who are dependent upon the killed and wounded in the fray. It is not to be concealed that, when the various relief funds were originally started there was no thought in any quarter that they would need to be so extensively drawn upon as has proved to be the case, and, therefore, no surprise need be felt that some have already been exhausted. One of the great lessons of the war—and one which is being learned not only in our own empire, but throughout the civilised world—is to be prepared for the unex- pected; and in very various ways, it is the unexpected that has happened in this particular case. The truly charitable instincts of the benevolent are, there- fore, being especially appealed to once more; and those who, even as recently as December, imagined that, in contributing to any one of these funds, they were doing all that would be needed can fairly be asked again. No one has yet endeavoured fully to calculate the number of widows and qrphans who owe that position to this war, and to that number would have to be added the families of those who are dependent because their head has been in- capacitated. The need, therefore, is greater than ever; and no one who knows his country- men will doubt as to the result. One of the singular by-products of the war which is causing serious annoyance to many quiet householders both in town and country, is the practice of bands of schoolboys to split themselves into two sections—one representing the British and the other the Boers—and then having a running fight. There have been occasions lately when fatalities have resulted from these encounters, and the London police are keeping an especially watchful eye upon this development of the war feeling, as they have in some parts of the metropolis sufficient trouble already with gangs of combatants, not all of whom are of a playful disposition. Some parts of Clerkenweil and Marylebone, in parti- cular, are often thrown into a stateoi ferment by the attacks of one of these bands of youths upon another, and in the process of the conflict belts and fists are usual weapons of offence, while knives and even revolvers are not un- uncommon. It is because of this last fact that many Londoners in the districts affected have been led to support the move- ment for putting some sort of a stop upon rthe unchecked sale of cheap pistols, for although these, generally speaking, may be untrustworthy, they are calculated to do much damage in a hand-to-hand encounter. At the present rate of advancing civilisation there will soon remain very few parts of the world where big game can be hunted; and the more interest, therefore, attaches to the fact that an expedition has just left London with the object of ascending the Nile as far as possible beyond Khartoum, and exploring the country on both sides of the river south of Fashoda. This is said to team with big game of all kinds and, as almost nothing is known of the zoology of the region of the Upper Nile, the expedition will devote most of its attention to this subject, making extensive collections as it works its way up. The services of two experienced natura- lists have been secured: and, as these will be aided by a number of native collectors, great results may be anticipated. The best fruit of the expedition will doubtless go to the Natural History Museum at South Kensington, a magnificent building which is not as thoroughly known to and appreciated by the public as it deserves. Every effort is made by its authorities not merely to provide for the student, but to satisfy the curiosity and add to the knowledge of the general visitor; and a more interesting collection than it contains can scarcely be imagined. Now that the time-expired soldiers are being invited to rejoin the colours, the suggestion is being made that the question of the enrolment of colonial seamen and fishermen in the Naval Reserve ought not to be overlooked. It is one which the Canadians are known to have urged for several years and it is now said that, although possessing a smaller maritime popula- tion. Australia appears also to favour such a method of assisting in the naval defence of the Empire. The point, however, is whether the conditions existing at home with regard to the Reserve would be accepted in Canada and Aus- tralia and the chief difficulties are the six months' continuous service required and the compara- tively low rate of pay. Those objections, how- ever, can scarcely be regarded as insuperable; and, as the question is one of some moment now that the whole matter of our defences is being considered, it is not likely to be dropped until something tangible is done. The developments of the camera and the lens seem to be practically illimitable, and during the struggle now going on in South Africa these have been especially of value. The system known as telephotography is being put to much use, though the telephoto lens is chiefly valuable for stationary work, and is of no great help in scouting. In another direction the camera is being put to work, for the demand for such in ordor to photograph various aspects of the theatre of war is so large as to be abnormal. It is claimed for the camera that it has asserted its right to a prominent part in the recording of actual warfare. Officers as well as correspondents have taken out the ap- paratus, with the result that never before have such accurate pictures of actual warfare been secured. This is a matter not of mere inte- rest or idle curiosity, for it will enable many a lesson to be learned of the effects of modern artillery and rifle-fire which otherwise might not have been gained. A striking little point in connection with the development of our import trade in vegetables and fruit is forthcoming from the Chambre de Commerce de Française de Londres. It appears that since October a special sanitary due of ten eentimes per ton has been levied upon all ships calling at the port of Algiers, but this is HOW withdrawn, it having been found to dis- courage trade. The intimation, therefore, is given that English vessels are likely to find it advantageous to call at Algiers from January to April, since within that period there is a deal of freight in the shape of new potatoes and fruits of various kinds at present reaching this country by way of Marseilles and through France, which might at much less cost be shipped directly. It is added that, at other periods of the year, shipowners may secure freight of divers mer- chandise at Algiers, such as cork, minerals, wine, barley, and skins; and the hint is not likely to be lost upon them, though it is an interesting commentary upon any attempt to artificially interfere with trade that even so relatively small an impost as that which has now been taken off should have so much dected a port. It will not be very long now before the two University boat crews will commence their work en tke Thames in preparation for their annual ■*ruggle; not until then will it be fairly possible to estimate their respective chance of winning. At this moment there appears a tendency among experts to give the palm to Cambridge, but it may be that even good judges of rowing are sometimes a little swayed by sentiment, for there is no doubt that a generous public would iifce to see the Light Blues win. There is gcarcely likely this jear to be any very great excitement attending the race, for the war is absorbing most of our enthusiasm and energy; but, although the popular interest may not be as great, no doubt can exist as to the Univer- sity interest, which is as keen as ever, and which probably will, on the whole, be more enjoyed because it is less generally shared. R.
-=:3 TTlB excavations which have recently been carried on by Dr. P. J. Bliss at Jerusalem have been produc- tive of important and interesting results. Dr. Bii88 appears to have taken up the work at the point where Sir Charles Warren left off some years ago, and he has succeeded in adding largely to our know- ledge of the topographical conditions of the ancient and sacred city. An important part of the excava- tions was the cfearme of the famous Pool of Siloam, -which to this day m used by the Arabe as a bathing I place. Search was also made for the tomb of David, and at one time Dr. Bliss was of opinion that he had •Weeded in finding it, but further digging contra- J dieted this view.
NEWS NOTES. GREAT admiration has been generally dis- played with regard to the strong and dignified demeanour of Lord Roberts in his conduct of the campaign in South Africa, and especially in respect of the way in which the old Field Mar- shal has acted since he came to closa quarters with Commandant Cronje in the Orange Free State. He has been the soldier and the gentle- man, playing a confident part. all through, as opposed to a brave and irascible officer fighting for a falling cause. THE envelopment of Cronje, after his having been driven from strong positions, was fine strategic work; the repulse of his attempted reinforcements in detail, admirable. Buller's fierce fighting in the difficult country between Colonso and Ladysmith has helped Lord Roberts materially. He has kept the bulk of the Boers of Joubert's army away from ren- dering the Free Staters assistance, and he has heartened" White in Ladysmith much. Losses have been great on both our side and that of the enemy, because immense deter- mination has been conspicuously displayed, but the battling differs materially from what it was when the Boers chose all their positions, and had a fighting force in the field immensely preponderant to that which the British autho- rities considered sufficient to face them with. LORD ROBERTS'S business-like despatches, ignoring unnecessary detail and simply telling so much of the plain battle-tale as would in no way render aid to the enemy, have disappointed some at home athirst for news: but there can be no questioning the wisdom of the action of the Commander-in-Chief at the front. We must be patient and trustful, relying on the authori- ties to notify us of reliable particulars at the earliest point consistent with propriety. Matters have a rosier aspect than has before been apparent, and Time and right are on our side. We expect shortly to have good reason for abiding gratification. COMPLAINTS come again of the use of explo- sive and soft-nosed bullets on the Boer part, and of the enemy's having employed, moreover, bullets steeped in some corrosive or poisonous solution. This kind of thing greatly—and not unnaturally—enrages Tommy Atkins," and it will be the fault of the Boers themselves if they do not receive consideration at his hands in the storm and stress of battle. The Boers are brave enough, but their shiftiness and cunning rather outrages our ideals of what is correct in warfare. THE casualties to officers continue to be con- siderable. The wounding of General Mac- donald and General Knox was followed quickly by the wounding of General Wynne and, then, the death of gallant Captain de Montmorency, the splendid scout who won the coveted V.C. out in the Soudan eighteen months ago, is deeply deplored. We are losing some of the fine flower of the army out in Africa; but such things must be where fighting is. IT would indeed seem little less than a wonder that Kimberley should have been able to hold out so long and so gallantly against siege. There were not more than 600 regular soldiers in the garrison of the Diamond City, and towards the close of the weary and galling four months' investment the disease became rampant and supplies of every description ran shockingly short. No less than 217 of the in- habitants of Kimberley died a miserable death from scurvy alone during January and all the weakly little ones succumbed. Whe the full tale of this war and its consequences comes to be told it will make moving reading. WE are to have the Shah of Persia in Europe again shortly, and he will favour this country with a visit. It is to be hoped that the outcome of his Imperial Highness's enlarged knowledge of the West will be beneficial to his own country and to the trade of the nation he is in friendly relationship with. There is plenty of room for new commercial developments in the Land of the Lion and the Sun." A SPELL of milder weather has succeeded the snow and the storms which recently swept over the country, and already the aspect of Nature shows signs of change. With Marcfc the buds begin to swell, and the grass grows greener as the days lengthen. Should all go seasonably now we shall have some fine days soon and some pleasant foretaster of the Spring-tide that comes nearer. The song of the birds increases in volume, especially in the early tjaornings; and dreary old King Winter, though he may give us some blows before he gpes out, has got his power broken.
ARTISTIC COPYRIGHT. At the last meeting of the Society of Arts in London Mr. Edwin Brile read a paper on Artistic Copyright." Sir L. Ahna-Tadema presided. Mr Bale, in the course of his paper, sketched the history of artistic copyright, and commented on the law under the existing Act. After promising the iiiithor copyright in his work for his life and seven years, the Act went on to say that in order to get that, when he first sells or disposes of his picture he must say to the intending purchaser: "There are two properties in this work—the picture and the copyright; I am only selling you the picture, and must ask you to sign a document reserving the copyright to me." And if the artist did not take this step and get this document, the Act ave the copyright to the purchaser of the picture, but. again, also "provided," and this time the pur- chaser got his cold douche, fc-r in order that he might have the copyright he must have a document signed by the artist, reserving the copyright to hhn, and if neither of these things were done and no docu- ment were bfgned. the copyright did not belong to either the artist or the client. It had disappeared, and belonged to no one; there was no copyright existing in the work for anyone. He also drew attention to other defects in the law, and explained the remedies proposed in the new bill, of which the main features were 1. To secure greater uniformity in thetermsand conditions of copyright. 2. To reserve to the artist, with certain exceptions, the copyright until expressly assigned or disposed of by him, 3. To make registration of copyright, with certain ex- ceptions, and of all dealings therewith compulsory. 4. To improve the remedies for infringement. There were two terms of copyright conferred by the bill: (1) For an original work of fine art, the life of the author, and 30 years after his death. (2) For a work of fine art made by one person from the design of another, for a photograph, for a cast from nature, 30 years from the first day of the month of registra- tion. In the debate which followed Mr. Alfred Ea3t said that the great objection on the part of photo- graphers was that they had not been consulted, but they surely should not mind this if they benefited by the Act. The Chairman said that photographers were very hard on a committee that had done its best. It had started with the idea that the interests of photographers should be settled separately by themselves; but it found photography so intimately connected with the subject of artistic copyright that it had to touch the matter. Copies of the proposed bill had been sent to the Photographic Societies with a request that they would agree to its clauses or discuss them, but no answer had been received. He could not enter into the question of how far photography was a fine art. He might say that it had a greater commercial importance than painting, though it had no right to claim the same ruies and laws as art, which also had its commercial capacities, but they were few.
A LARGE number of inscribed objects, among which is an ancient Hebrew seal in the form of an Egyptian scarab, where brought to light. Near the Damascus Gate was found a fine piece of mosaic, 21ft. by 13ft. According to a very high authority, this piece of ancient art dates from about the time between Con- stantine and Justinian, viz., about 321—560 A.D. Dr. Bliss has had to stop the excavations at present, but it is to be hoped that he will continue them in the near future. THE Archduchess Stephanie, daughter of the King of Belgium, when she goes to her new home as the wife of Count Lonyay will find a castle full of the antique relics in which she takes delight. The Count has been a mine of wealth to the Roman curIo; dealers. His Royal fiancee happened to mention in his presence her love of antique house decorations, and from that moment he determined to satisfy her. The Eternal City has been ransacked, and especially the effects of dead cardinals, including some magnifi- cent tapestries and brocade hangings, cabinets of great antiquity, old china and silver and a chair supposed to have belonged to one of the iropes, heavily carved in Cupids, have all been purchased without stint to please the eye of this young and happy bride.
ENGLISH ACTORS IN SOUTH AFRICA. DISAGREEABLE EXPERIENCE OF TWO ARTISTS. Whilst on my usual weekly round "of the variety palaces I happened (writes the chief reporter of the Weekly Dispa.tch) to meet Mr. and Mrs. Casson, the well-known sketch performers, who told me a very interesting story of their visit to South Africa. It was really from Mrs. Casson that I heard most of the story. It is some time now," she said, since my hus- band and I were touring through the provinces with 'Hans the Boatman,' and after that we made an ex- cellent contract with the Empire Music Hall, at Johannesburg. The voyage did us both good, and I I Mr. a(I Jfrs. Casson in Johannesburg. have been told that wher we had this photograph taken in the Transvaal we looked the picture of health. We hnd little knowledge of what was in store for us. Our first experience was A SOUTH AFRICAN DUST-STORM. Without the least warning, whilst walking along the street, you suddenly find yourself in a kind of whirlpool of dust. It enters your ears, your mouth and eyes, and almost blinds you. The sensationt is horrible in the extreme, and, to persons of a nervous temperament, most dangerous. It was Walter who suffered most from this, and gradually I became aware of the fact that he was getting in a very bad state of health. The food there does not deserve to be called by the name; the beef is something like fried oilcloth; as for vegetables, one hardly ever hears of such luxuries, and therefore you can quite understand that I had serious misgivings when I found my husband suffering acutely from indiges- tion. It became impossible for Walter to keep a single thins down that he ate, and the excruciating pain he suffered no one knows but himself. He grew thin, and had a terribly haggard expression, caused by that dreadful feeling that comes to those who suffer from indigestion, of having something heavy upon the chest. This was generally followed by a terrible headache and a dull pain right across the forehead, followed by severe heartburn. His rest was disturbed it night, and frequently he had violent palpitation of the heart. We sought medical advice, but with little or no result, and I got really alarmed, for he began to lose flesh terribly. The WORRY AND ANXIETY in my case certainly brought about my own sufferings From very severe nervous debility, and I began to wonder whether we should ever reach England alive. [ happened one day, however, to go to one of onr drunks t,hat had been packed by professional friends before I left England. It contained, among other shings, a number of boxes, of Dr. Williams' pink pills for pale people, and I remembered having read somewhere in a newspaper that they had cured a person who suffered acutely from indigestion, and, although Walter smiled when I suggested it, I deter- mined that he should try the pills, and to do so myself. To be truthful, I hadn't much belief in them, but a couple of days later, having taken the pills as directed, I certainly felt better, and so did Walter. We went on taking them, and before the week had finished we were distinctly better. My husband could sleep better at night; his food did him more good the palpitation of the heart was cured and the next week the lump of lead on his chest' had gone, and he was able to get about. The nasty cold per- spiration that he had, left him, and in less than a fortnight we were very nearly well. We continued the pills on the voyage home, and when we landed in England we never felt better or stronger in all our lives. Occasionally, when a performance is over- Bxacting, and we suffer at all, Walter remarks, We had better try our old friend,' and in a very short time the pills put us in condition again. I know I have told you a long story. Every word of it is true, and you can tell the world, through the press, that I am convinced that, had it not been for Dr. Williams' pink pills for pale people, neither of us would have been here to tell the tale.' The nervousness and worry mentioned by Mrs. Casson-whose narrative (the Weekly Dispatch adds) was confirmed by several friends-often accompany and sometimes cause acute and chronic indigestion. Dr. Williams' pink pills for pale people, which are obtainable everywhere and may be relied upon as genuine if the package bears Dr. Williams' name, have, of coiirse, a well-established reputation for the cure of digestive ailments. Their value as a nerve tonic is not less notable, and can be quickly appre- ciated by anyone in need of a tonic who will give them a trial. The effect is prompt and well marked, and they have cured the most acute nervous diseases such as epileptic fits, paralysis, locomotor ataxy, and premature decay of manly health. They are equally efficacious in building up the blood, and have cured anaemia, consumption, rheumatism, scrofula, and other diseases that spring from vitiated or impover- ished blood.
NOTED CRIMINAL ESCAPES. A noted criminal, one Dhulu, alias The Bear," chief of the Aristo gang, has escaped from prison at Pontoise, near Paris. He simply vanished from his cell (says the Morn in</ Post's correspondent), without leaving the slightest trace of how he de- parted. A guardian is suspected of having opened all the doors for him, but the man's character is so excellent that the authorities are inclined to believe his protestations of innocence. It is just possible that friends may have entered the prison with false keys, but in this case the escape would have been regarded as almost miraculous. As the law only punishes escapes from prison with breakage and violence," and Dhulu broke nothing nothing nor used any vio- lence, he cannot be punished if recaptured.
LAST YEAR'S TRADE PROSPERITY. Accordingto .the Board of Trade report returns from the engineering, shipbuilding, metal, building and mis. cellaneous trades received from Trade Unions shoit that of a total membership of about 500,000 an average of 2 4 per cent. were unemployed during 1899, this being a lower percentage than in any of the last seven years, and hardly more than one-half the average for that period. Among the principal groups cf trades the most marked improvement, aa compared with 1898, took place in the engineeringand met and the shipbuilding groups, in which the percen- tages unemployed were 2'4 and 2'5 respectively, com- pared with 3 7 and 4'7 in 1898. Last year attention was called to the fact that the numbers unem- ployed in these two groups were somewhat swollen in the first portion of 1898 by the dispute in the engineering trade, which lasted into that year. It will be noticed that for the shipbuilding trade the figures show a steady improvement year by year, throughout the period of seven years. In the building trades the returns relate to two branches only, the carpenters and plumbers, who had on an aterage 1*5 per cent. unemployed.
A SIMPLE FACT ABOUT" KEATING'S COUGH LOZENGES. Ask throughout the world, in any country that can be named, you will find them largely sold. There is absolutely no remedy that is so speedy in giving relief, so certain to cure, and yet the most deli cate can take them. One Lozenge gives ease. Soldin 131,d. tins. OF the twenty-one Prime Ministers of England during the century one only, William Pitt, was un- married. Three, the Duke of Portland, Lord Mel- bourne, and Lord Roseberv, became Prime Ministers as widowers. Lord Aberdeen and Lord John Russell, when Premiers, were widowers who had re-married. Lord Liverpool lost his wife and re-married when Prime Minister. The other Prime Ministers, were, on their assumption of office and while they remained in power, married men. Mrs. Gladstone is the only lady now living who has been the wife of a Prime Minister. In the present century the only other Prime Minister besides Lord Salisbury who became a widower when in office was Lord Liverpool. He re-married while he was still in office. and this is the only instance of a Prime Minister's marriage while holding office. Viscountess Beaconfield, the wife of Mr. Disraeli, died when her husband was out of office. Lord Rosebery was a widower when he became Prime Minister in 1894. ANGLO-RUSSIANS will learn with regret of the death of Mr. J. Henry Harrison, which has taken place at the Russian capital. Mr. Harrison was an alumnus of King's College, and went out to St. Petersburg 45 years ago as tutor to the sons of the British Ambas- sador. After a few years he. became Professor of English at the Imperial Naval School, and about a year ago retired from the service with the rank of a Civil General. His funeral was largely attended by the English colony, and a deputation from the Naval School. Mr. Harrison did great service in familia- rising the two nations with each other's literature. He had the hardihood to start with Mr. C. E. Turner, another well-known literary Anglo-Russian, the Nevsky Magazine, an English review published in St, Petersburg for the English population throughout Russia. Among his numerous works were transla- 2f Tol8toi'» Death of Ivan ths Terrible and Kriloff • Fables in Verse."
AIT INTERESTING WILL SUIT. An interesting case, arising out of the will of the late Baroness de Hirsch, will shortly be heard in the French Courts. It appears that the Baroness was an Austrian subject, domiciled in France, and at her death legacy duty was claimed by, and paid to, the fiscal authorities in both countries. A considerable sum was bequeathed to four Jewish charities, which have combined in an effort to recover the amount of duty paid in France, on the plea that the tax had already been paid in Austria. The London Jewish Board of Guardians, to which was bequeathed a legacy of 3,000,000 francs, will be one of the parties to the suit.
THE LATE SIR JAMES PAGET. Sir James Paget, first baronet, F.R.S., D.C.L., surgeon to the Queen, of 5, Park-square West, Regent's-park, who died on December 30, appointed as the executors of his will, dated November 10, 1896, his son Sir John Rahere Paget, of 14, Lennox- gardens; his son-in-law the Rev. Henry Lewis Thompson, of 7, Keble-road, Oxford; and Sir Thomas Smith, Bart., of 5, Stratford-place. He gave £ 20,000 and anch articles of furniture, to the value of E300, as she may select, to his daughter Mary Maud JMOOO to his son the Rev. Francis Paget, D.D.; P-2000 to his son the Rev. Henry Luke Paget; E8000 and his books, instruments, and the furniture and pictures in his consulting room to his son Stephen Paget; £ 10,000 to his daughter Mrs. Catherine Thompson £10,000, two silver tankards, presented to him by the Prince of Wales, a likeness of Prince Leopold given him by her Majesty, small engraved portraits of the Prince and Princess of Wales presented to him by them- selves, and a coloured photograph of the Princess of [ Wales given him by herself, te his eldest son John Rahera Paget; £100 to Sir Thomas Smith, and legacies to servants. His residuary estate is to be divided between his children. It would appear that Sir James had in his lifetime given large sums to his children. The value of the estate is 4:74,701 15s. 5d., with net personalty of C73,916 7s. Sd. Mr. Frederick Dallas Barnes, of 47. Queen's-gate, and of 122, Leadenhall-street, London, joint managing directpr of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, who died on Nov. 30, aged 56, left personal estate of the net value of 158,484 Is. The executrix and executor are his widow Mrs. Maria Barnes and his cousin James Philip Barnes, to the latter of whom the testator bequeathed £ 100; to William Taylor, at 122, Leaden- hall-street, £ 100; to his faithful messenger Albert Archer, E50; to his daughters Ethel Marian, Dora Mary, and Evelyn Vavasseur, JE2500 each to his son Frederick, £ 2000; to his son Ernest, £1000; to his son Henry Kendall, £ 500; and to Mrs. Barnes, E5000, and the income, 'during her widowhood, of his residuary estate, which, subject to her interest, is to be in trust in equal shares for all of his children. Mr. Peter Pandia Rodocanachi, who died at Worthing on December 18, left property of the value of £ 105,415 13s. 3d. He gave 1:5000 and his household furniture and jewels and the income for life of his residuary estate to his wife, Mrs. Jenny Rodocanachi.. Subject thereto he left all his property to his children in such shares as his wife should by will or codicil appoint, and in default thereto to his sons and daughters, the share of each son to be double that of each daughter. The executors are his son, Mr. Pandia Peter Rodocanachi, of South Sea House, Threadneedle-street, and his sons-in-law, Mr. John Michel Zanfi, of 38, Park-street, Mr. Emanuel Sechiari, of South Sea House, and Mr. Michel George W. Mavrogordato, of 62, Westbourne-groye, By another testamentary document made in Leghorn, Italy, on March 19, 1898, he gave certain property in Russia and Leghorn to his sons Pandia and Paolo.
MUSICAL BOX IN A RING. A nephew of Sir Richard Temple has in his possession an antique ring which is fitted up like a musical box and can play a tiny tune. When it is wound up you must bold it quite close to your ear, and you can hear a qnaint little tune which sounds like an ecl^jpfascteijt times. When, it first cbnie into the possession of its oyper the works were out. of order, but it was put into the hands of a careful jeweller, who examined the interior and found that the works were obstructed by a little clot of blood. The riqg bad been worn by an ancestress of Mr. with Marie Antoinette, and the tiny voice had been silent ever since the day when the Queen was guillotined.
THE AUXILIARY FORCES. The subjoined special army orders have been issued by tlfp War Office: A.—Employment of Officers of the Auxiliary Forces With the Regular Forces. An officer of Militia, Yeomanry, or Volunteers employed, during the present emergency, On military duty with the Regular forces will receive Army rates of pay, extra pay, and allowances of the rank in which he is employed, and on ceasing to draw full pay will be entitled to the gratuity under Article 601B or Article 601D,blf the Pay Warrant. If any officer of disembodied Militia be in such employment at the date of this Army order, and in receipt of Militia mess allowance, he may at his option continue to draw such mess allowance of 4s. a day (within the limit of 12 months laid down in paragraph 504, Militia Regulations); but in that case he will not be entitled to the gratuity under Article 601B or Article 601D of the Pay Warrant. B.—Medical Examination of Volunteers for Service in South Africa. (1.) The following will be substituted for para- graph 7 of Army Order 29 of 1900: 7. When a Volunteer commanding officer receives an application from any Volunteer he will at once have him medically inspected. When the number of Volunteers, who have been passed medically fit, is sufficient to forui not less than a section, he will so inform the officer commanding the regimental depot to which his battalion is affiliated, who will then have them attested. Medical inspections may be carried out by any medical officer holding a commis- sion in any portion of her Majesty's service. In the event of the examination being conducted by a medical officer who is not present at the time of at- testation, his certificate of fitness may be accepted for purposes of attestation, provided it is worded in accordance with the certificate on Army Form B 111. (2.) Paragraph 6 of section (a.) and (b) of Army Order 30 of 1900 will be similarly amended/ except that the information regarding the fortress and rail- way engineers will be furnished to the sub-district commanding Roval Engineer, and that regarding the electrical engineers to the commanding Royal Engineer, instead of to the officer commanding the regimental depot. WoLszLEY, F.M., Commander-in-Chief. ===-
HOW TO MAKE VOLUNTEERS MORE EFFECTIVE. SUGGESTIONS BY COLONEL METHUEN. Colonel Methuen, commanding officer of the Bristol Volunteer Rifles, says: "There can be no doubt that our Volunteers require a great deal more musketry drill and ball firing practice, whether in Tolley or independent nring. To do this I should require the Volunteer to fire at least seven rounds at three distances at each practice every month for six months. Se-should either be paid a small sum for becoming. a marksman, ot some addition should be made to his dress of which he would be proud. I would also add some ornament to the dress of all first-class shots. I think as regards drill the men can be fairly well trained under existing circum- stances; but too much time is taken up, and too much is thought of ceremonial drill, such as the march past. As regards the dress of ofBcerfe and men, they must have two dresses-one for show, the other for work. The one for show should be as handsome as money will allow. The one for work should be the same colour for all troops, and of a colour that is hard to be seen. The fatigue head-dress should be soft and able to defend the head from the sun. I should recommend breeches and puttees to be worn in the working dress. A march past should never be taken in full dress after a field day. As the position of quartermaster is very difficult to fill, 1 should suggest that this appointment should carry pay. It should be held for five years, with power of extension. I would also suggest that in each company one section should be of specially selected men-men who are active and strong, good shots and generally intelligent, and men who can see and hear quickly. They would always, in the first instance, be used for covering movements and scouting. They should have marks of distinction, of which they would feel proud. A special mark should be on the baek of the head-dress, by which a section commander or officer in rear of the company could easily recognise the men. I would have all marks- men so marked. A commission in the army should be given to each Volunteer battalion."
STRANGER: Were you in any great action during the war ?" Yes. That is the reason there it so little action in me," said the old soldier, who had a wooden leg. SEEDY WILLIE (to publican): Your refusal, sir, to trust me to a paltry drink of whisky fills me with astonishment and indignation." Publican: All right, air; you can fill yourself up with astonish- ment aad indignation, and it won't cost you a c"per, tut if you want to fill yourself with whisky you will, hav«i to pay cash."
USEFUL ADVICE. A Sheffield officer writes from the Colesberg dis- trict I bear a lot of Yeomanry are coming out, and I only hope they will try to forget a lot they have been taught at home. Here everyone must fight for himself, in loose formation. Cavalry can seldom charge, owing to the mountainous country. The Composite Household Regiment got chopped the other day through not taking proper precautions. One has only to be as sly as any fox, or one is certain to be chopped. I have seen a good deal of the cavalry out here, as we do practically the same work • as they, combined with that of infantry, and I think I could give and W some useful hints if they.are coming out. I have had to learn the game afresh since coming here."
THE USES OF KNOWLEDGE. From the Chicago Tribune: We are organising a new illuminating gas company," said the promoter. "Give me a good name for it." Something classic?" asked the professor to whom the question had been referred. Yes, but not too all-tired classic." "Well, how would 'Eusebius' do?" That's capital!" rejoined the promoter, as the significance of the title gradually dawned upon him. The name was adopted accordingly, and a few months later the Gas Trust, responding to what seemed to be an invita- tion conveyed in the last two syllables of it, bought the new company out.
CLOCK AND WATCH TRADE. For many years the foreign trade in American clocks and watches has been increasing, until (says Engineering) at the present time it is of very large proportion, the chief part of this export business being confined to timepieces of low and moderate prices. Factories, like those of Waltham, Ansonia, Waterbury, and others, turn out enormous quantities of clocks and watches, for besides the export trade, the home demands of more than sixty millions of people, are, of course, very great. Machinery, as we shall see presently, has quite revolutionised the industry, and there are no more beautiful labour- saving devices in existence than the long series of delicate and seemingly intelligent machines that tire- lessly complete, with absolute accuracy, the smallest details of watch mechanism. The manufacture of watches by machinery is carried out on a large scale in this country by the Lancashire Watch Company, of Prescott; these works are chiefly, if not entirely, equipped with American tools, and it is, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the same operations are conducted both in this country and the United States, under similar conditions, except that the rate of wages are probably in favour of the English com- pany.
DEADLY SMASH OF SHELLS. The story told by an officer of the Middlesex Regi- ment, who was badly wounded in one of the recent fights with the Boers, is very interesting. He says I crawled along a little way with half my com- pany, and then brought up others in the same manner. The men of the different regiments already on the hill were mixed up. and ours met the same fate. It was impossible, under the circumstances, to keep regimental control. One unit merged into another one officer gave directions to this or that unit, or to another battalion. I saw some tents on the far side of the hill to our front, and knowing the enemy must be there opened with volleys at 1800 yards when we saw a puff of smoke, indicating that one of the Boers guns had just fired. We lay prone, and could only venture a volley now and again, firing independently at times when the shower of bullets seemed to fall away, and the shells did not appear likely to land specially amongst us. Everywhere, however, it was practically the same deadly smash of shells, mangling and killing all about us. Presently I heard a great deal of shouting from this trench, in which were about 50 men. They were calling for reinforcements, and shouting, The Boers are coming up.' Two or three minutes afterwards! I saw a party of about 40 Boers walking towards tlio trench. They came up quite coolly most of them had their rifles slung, and all, so far as I could observe, had their hands up. Our men in the trench —they were Fusiliers—were then standing up also," with their hands up, and shouting, The Boers are giving in.' I did not know what to think, but ordered a company of my regiment to fix bayonets. We waited to see what would happen. Just then, when the Boers were close to the trench—some- one-whether an enemy or one of our men— tired a shot. In an instant there was a general stampede, or rather a melee, my men rushing from their position and charging, while the Boers fired at the men in the trench, knocking several bac-k into it dead. Previous to this a Boer came to me, saying, I won't hurt you.' He looked frightened, and threw down his rifle. Immediately afterwards the Boer fired, and there was a frightful muddle. I fired at one Boer, and then another passed. We were fighting hand to hand. I shot the Boer, in order to help the man, and he dropped, clinging, however, to his rifle as he fell, and covering me most carefully. He fired, and I fell like a rabbit, the bullet going in just over and grazing the left lung. I lay where I fell until midnight. Subsequent to my being hit, parties of Boers passed twice over me, trying on the same trick, holding up their hands, as if they were asking for quarter. But our men refused to be taken in again, and fired, killing or driving them back."
A HUMBLE NATURALIST. By the death of John Paul, from pneumonia, after a few days' illness, the Zoological Department of the Natural History Museum loses one of its most useful "attendants," whose place it will be difficult to fill. His zeal, his intelligence' and his skill was very I highly valued by his chiefs, and his services will be greatly missed by the frequenters of the Spirit Col- lections, to which he had been attached for nearly 20 years, and with which he was so thoroughly acquainted. We regret to hear at the same time of the death of his mother, whose precarious state of health could not resist so sudden a shock.
A VISIT TO MENKLIIC. CAPTAIN POWELL COTTON'S IMPRESSIONS. Captain Powell Cotton thus describes in the Daily Telegraph a visit which he with Captain Harrington and others paid to the Emperor Menelik. We were each introduced to Menelik in turn. To each be gave his hand and smiled, as he half-bowed in return to ours. His age is 58, but he hardly looks it-a very dark, but not black face, marked by small-pox rather even, but not very white, teeth a short, greyish beard and whiskers; a face that is full of strength and shrewdness, quick in altering expression, a pleasant smile, and a hearty laugh. After a few words he asked us te be seated, which we were on cane chairs, in a circle in front of him. Then, as he listened to the interpreter, his eyes moved from one to the other as he took in every detail of our appearance. His head was covered by white muslin, drawn tight on the skull, and with many folds on the forehead and at the sides of the head. A fine, rose-cut diamond stud in the left ear, a plain gipsy ring on the little finger of the right hand; white trousers, a coat of green and yellow striped silk; a black satin cloak, with gold braid and I lined pink, was his costume. After we had expressed our thanks for leave to visit his country, and the good sport we had had, we asked for leave for three to go to Rudolf, which he readily granted, I and pfotaiised a guide. Then I asked leave to go north for ibex. The interpreter didn't know the name for ibex, but described it the King in a moment gave the name, and said it was only to be found in Semen. He then asked which of us were going, and looked hard at me when the interpreter said I was going alone. He then smiled, and said I could go, and that I should cer- tainly bag them,and he would give me letters, guides, &c. Meanwhile, he had sent for a natural history book, and at once turned up a picture of an ibex. Butler then offered him a pair of dogs, which he at once accepted, and chaffingly asked who would be 1 his guarantee, according to Abyssinian custom on which Harrington said Englishmen required none, and there was general chaff, the King laughing heartily. He then asked when we proposed start- ing, and our saying at once, said, What 1 wlihout lunching or dining with me ?" and promptly asked us for Sunday, which we, of course, accepted. The conversation then turned on coursing, and he de- cided to come out on Tuesday to see a course. While this was going on he was turning over the leaves of a book sent him by Lady Meux, a repro- duction of an old Abysinian Bible. The pictures and tjie binding, being in exact facsimile, evidently excited his wonder, and he remarked on it several times. Dr. Martin had some words with him, and the word Magdala caused him to look serious for a few minutes. We told .him we had brought no present, wishing to find out what he would like. He replied any kind of new rifle was his greatest joy. When told that Butler and Whitehouse had kept their elephant tusks, being the first they bad killed, he expressed his pleasure, and hoped we would all take large tusks to England to show what came from his country. We then shook handa and departed, I quite impressed with his shrewdness and affability.
DR. JAMESON has been credited with a good deal of rapidity. At one and the same moment he was "living in retirement in London, and organising a force of police in Rhodesia, has since made his way to Durban by way of Beira," is shut up in smith, and has escaped with fivo^ others from Kimherlev 1
EPITOME OF NEWS. T-tm Sultan has conferred upon Mme. Loubet the Grand Cordon of the Chefakat Order. Is China, to salute anyone by taking off one's b%t is a deliberate insult. AROUT 30,000 women are employed by the Pest: Office, and out of this number there are 160 head- postmistresses and over sub-postmistresnes. Tiii-iiE is a clock in Brussels which has never been "•CUMHI up by human hands. It is kept going by the wind. NEW SCOTLAND YAKD is the largest police-office in the world. It is capable of accommodating 3000 police officers. ° Tiif. TJ ink of England destroys about 350,000 of its notes every week, to replace them with freshly printed ones. THE Boer Staats Artmerie" is manned almost entirely by F'vr.eii eiid German soldiers. It is the only force in the Boer Army which wears uniform. to the Schwabisehc Merkur, the Duchess of Albany and her son will make a stay at Potsdam during the spring. A "CROWN of wild olive" from Venice has been plnced on the grave of John Ruskin at Comston. NEARLY £ 16,000,000 was given bv Americans, during lR)9, to religious, charitable, and educational institutions. No such sum was over given before in the whole history of the country. TIIK train mileage worked on the North-Eastern liailw.ty during the past half-year was 16,66S,594, IgQS18' 'n l'ie corresponding period of I IIIE Windsor Poor Law Guardians have ord, red a regular supply of 14 haKperiny daily newspapers, in order that the paupers may read the war news. rliTE German Emperor has sent a very gracious letter to the Committee of the Berlin Merchants, thanking them for their Address congratulating him on his biithday. A TELEGRAM received in Paris from Cairo states that, the Nile is the lowest on record, and that a failure of the crops is consequently feared. M. PICIION, the French Minister at Peking, has gone to Saigon on a visit to the Governor of French Indo-China. The reason for the visit has not tran- spired. FOR the first time on record the Viceroy is about to visit Assam, the great tea garden of India. Lady Curzon will accompany his Excellency. SOME animals can live many years without water. A paroquet lived 52 years in the London Zoo with- out taking a drop of water. A number of reptiles live and prosper in places where there is no water. No fewer than 4o army chaplains are now at, or under orders for, the front. Twenty-five belong to the Church of England, six are Presbyterians, eight are Roman Catholics, and four are Wesleyans. TIIE Populist National Committee has decided that the National Convention for the nomination of the President and Vice-President of the United States shall meet on May 9 at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. TIIE Council of the National Artillery Association have placed their services at the disposal of the autho- rities in anyway which would assist the Government in developing the Volunteer Artillery. COALS in Derbyshire have gone down in price, and best house fuel is now Is. per ton cheaper. Steam coali; are expected also to drop, and a.general break- up of the present abnormal prices is anticipated. I M POUT ANT orders have been placed by the French Government for the construction of warships in Italian yards. This is the first time that France has gone to Italy for such a purpose. THE London County Council has decided to grant a pension of a year to the Rev. Henry Hawkins, who has been chaplain of the Colney Hatch Asylum for the past 32 years. He is 74 years of age. TIIE Court-martial before which General Monet and Colonel Francia have been tried for the abandonment of Macabebe, in the Philippines during the war with the United States, has acquitted both officers. ONE THOUSAND POUNHS has been bequeathed to the Missions to Seamen by an old subscriber to provide a steam launch for the shipping in one of the road- steads around our shores to be called the Marion Jackson. MANY Lancashire coal owners are, it is reported, withdrawing from the Indemnity Association which was formed to recoup employers for claims under the Workmen's Compensation Act. THE navy has lost one of its patriarchs in the person of Admiral Thomas Henry Mason, C.B., who has just died at Ipswich. The gallant officer entered the navy in 1823, when he was 12 years old. THE chaplaincy of the Dartmoor convict establish- ment is about, to become vacant by the retirement of the Rev. Clifford Rickards, who has filled the office for nearly a quarter of a century. ASKED why he volunteered for service with the British forces in South Africa, Signor Ricciotti Garibaldi, the son of Italy's Liberator, said that he owed a debt of gratitude to England, besides which he was an honorary member of an English Volunteer regiment. A SOUTH LANCASHIRE correspondent says he has authority for stating that efforts are being made by Russian firms to induce Lancashire dyers of cotton goods to go to Russia to assist in the dyeing and bleaching of cloths woven by Russian manufacturers. THE Archbishop of Canterbury, replying to protests against the petition for the dead in his "Form of Prayer," asserts that it has been decided at law that prayers for the dead are not forbidden by the Church of England." THE Comte d'Ursel, who is returning from a special mission to the Congo given him by the King of the Belgians, will make but a shorB stay in Brussels, returning almost immediately to Africa with a message from the King to the Emperor Menelik. PRETORIA is splendidly situated to withstand a long and determined siege. It lies in the centre of a square plain, and at each corner is a hill surmounted by a strong fort, commanding the surrounding I country. Each of the forts has, or had till recently, four heavy cannon, four French guns, with a range of 15 miles, and 30 Gatling guns. ONE of the Colonial scouts did a daring niece of I riding recently at Modder River. He galloped along parallel to the Boer trenches at a distance of 800 yards, in order to draw the Boer fire and find their position. The enemy kept up a continual fire at him, but he lay along his horse's back, and was lucky enough to escape unhurt. GREAT quantities of oranges, melons, grapes, figs, and other fruit from the wrecked steamer Glenearn are now littered along the shores of the island in the Firth of Clyde, Bute, and some of the farmers of the district are carting them off to feed their stock. THE Rev. Mark Guy Pearse preached his first sermon when he was a boy at Wesley College, Shef- field. He borrowed a clerical-looking coat on the occasion from a schoolfellow and he recollects the fact that two old ladies with whom he lodged gave him a couple of slices of Yorkshire pudding as a reward for making the sermon very short. EACH suit of khaki supplied to our troops only costs the Government about Us. Of course, at such a price very little wool is in the material. Now it has been found that the stuff is not sufficient protection for our soldiers against the cold, necessitating the Government ordering over 95,000 suits of woollen khaki, at a cost of over two guineas each. THS Queen has conferred the honour of knight- hood on Mr. George Dalhousie Ramsey, C.B., Manson-place, Queen's-gate. He is a son of the late Sir Alexander Ramsay, of Balmain, Kincardineshire, by his marriage with Elizabeth, sister of the 11th Earl of Dalhousie, and is in his 72nd year. From 1863 until 1893 he was director of army clothing at the War Office, and did excellent work in the organi- sation of that department. lie has been twice mar- ried, and has several children living. AN interesting shipload of old-time Spanish artil- lery is at present awaiting shipment at Glasgow. The consignment consists of some 40 guns, all of which are splendid specimens of the heavy bronze cannon of the 17th and 18th centuries. They are exquisitely carved, each gun bearing the Spanish coat-of-arms, and many of them being decorated with further de- signs. Most of them are doomed to the melting pot, as the metal alone will fetch about ;ESOOO. HER Majesty in early life had a rooted prejudice to travelling by rail. The line between Windsor and Paddington was for upwards of a decade in existence before the Queen made use of the train ^ker ordi- nary method of travelling to London. The Prince Consort usually went up to town by rail, while her Majesty drove in one of the Royal equipages. To a younger generation this dread of railway travelling seems somewhat unaccountable. It was, however, very generally entertained by the generation which had grown up under the coaching system. Thus Lord Abinger (Sir James Scarlett), speaking from the judicial Bench as Lord Chief Baron, expressed his surprise at anyone preferring to travel by rail when any other method of conveyance was available. I kTnE Dean of Lichfield, who is leaving England for the Riviera, has much improved in health but he is not likely to be strong enough to resume his duties before Easter. RECENTLY the suggestion has been made that the infantry musket drill contains too many movements, and that the action of loading and firing might be reduced. In the light of this it is interesting to read that the musket drill of the last century required no less than 15 before it could be fired. These were: Prime and load (three motions, iecover, priming, position, open pan), handle cartridge, prime, shut pan, cast about, load (two motions), draw rammers (two motions), ram down cartridge, return rammers (two motions), shoulder. Imagine the soldiers half-way through the process of loading while cavalry, charged down upon them
UNION UNE for the SOUTH AFRICAN (IOU FIELDS. Sailings from Southampton every SaturAM Calls made at Lisbon, Madeira, and Teneriffe. Apply to fiC UNION SHIP Co., Ltd., Canute Ed., Southampton, Sourh Afric'jui House, !H-98, Bishopsff:"ite St. Within, LoodM BILLIARD AND BAGATELIU TABLES. A LARGE STOCK OF NKW AND 8ECOSI HAND TAKI.KS alwav* on hin.t. WRITE FOR PRICE LUB -IT; ED\V AiiDS, 1:14. KINUSLANI) ROAD, LONDON, SJt. w "0 (HEMISTS V > « W I i H •*— 'jfj WHIm Baby had rash, we rubbed in VTNOLIA When she wa.s a Child, she cried for VINOLIA. When she became Miss, she cluug to VINOLIA. When she had children, she gave them VINOLIA. ffai Yi&olia Cwam, J/JJ, J !) ,• yinolia Powder, 1]-, 1/9; Premier Vinolia Soal), 4d,
LAND AGENT SHOT DEAD. Mr. Williams Bird, J.P., was on Saturday shot dead in his rent office in the centre 'of the town of Bantry. He was a landowner and agent for pro- perties in the district, and, as usual on market days, sat alone in his office, which is situated over a shop. to receive rents. About two o'clock he visited the club for luncheon, and shortly after his return two shots were heard in the office. No one visited the place for some time after- wards, and then it was found that. Mr. Bird wae lying on the floor face downward with a bullet throllgh his heart, and a second in the back of his head. The room still contained the smoke of the powder, but there was not the slightest trace of the assassin, who must have passed downstairs and dis- appeared in the crowded market-place. On the previous Sunday a branch of the United Irish League Was established in Bantry.