OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. Since the unhappy week in December, when we had to receive, with what resignation we d summon, news of our successive checks at Stormberg, Magersfontein, and Colenso, there has been no such eager awaiting of intel- ligence in Loudon from the seat of war as we have just passed through. From the moment it was known that Lord Roberts had left Cape Town for the front, popular expectation ran high, and what has happened since to justify it has by this time passed into history. Perhaps the most striking sight in connection with the Bore recent news, as far as the metropolis itself was concerned, was presented in the streets on the morning it became known that General French had reached Kimberley. The intelli- gence was at,ome placarded in the windows of newspaper offices in Fleet-street; and, as the omnibuses passed, laden with those bound for their offices in the City, the passengers looked, then rose and cheered lustily. Outside the Mansion House, where the news was promptly posted, an immense crowd speedily gathered, and the enthusiasm was intense, while a striking illustration of it was given by men passing in the street who, although utterly tmknown to each other, exchanged the news and shook hands over it as they parted. There Was no display of bunting, waving of flags, oc parade of bands of music; but the popular joy was exhibited in unmistakable fashion, and in a Way that seldom has been seen. As one of the Ministerial measures for the I present Session is a bill to provide the taking of the decennial census next year, the more interest may be felt in that which will be taken in the United States this spring. The special building for the accommodation of toe chief officials concerned is now nearly ready for occupation and it stands on the site of the oldest round house in America, and lies almost within the shadow of the dome of the Capitol at Washington. Some of the rooms will be used for printing pur- poses, and many, of course, will be occupied by statisticians and clerks, while it is intended that one shall be sufficiently strong to be secure not only against fire and water, but even earth- guakes. Some oi these apartments will be irge enough to accommodate five hundred clerks, while one wing will have space for two thousand two hundred people, with a separate desk for each. The first of May has been fixed lor the starting of the enumerators on their founds, and some are anticipated to finish in a iortnight, while by the beginning of June reports, it is expected, will commence to reach the census building. Our own preparations will scarcely be upon so extended a scale, but, they will be very large nevertheless. Another statistical inquiry of much import- ance which is about to be undertaken concerns London aflone, for that is the quenquennial •eejessraent for rating purposes of the house property of the metropolis. It is, of course, see more important this year because the new XtOndon municipalities will come into being next November, and their expenditure will, to come extent, depend upon the rateable value of each. A curious point is already being' dis- cussed in connection with the approaching valuation. It appears that at the last assess- ment, five years ago, many of the rating Authorities called in the assistance of rating surveyors for the larger and more difficult por- tion of the work; and in some cases these were paid by a percentage on the increased rating. That, however, obviously gave a direct interest to the rating surveyor to make assessment as high as possible; and, although he might- not yield to the temptation, it is never desirable to place such in any official's way. The suggestion is accordingly being made that the surveyor should be paM by a percentage on the old assessment, and that seems likely to be largely adopted. This week there has been afforded the first outward and visible sign that at last the Strand is definitely to be widened. A hoarding has been placed around the Roomed dwellings at the narrowest part, the materials of which they are com- posed have been sold to professional house-breakers," and the work of demolition has begun. Holy well-street and Wyph-street, the two thoroughfares at their back are not yet to be touched, but they are not to stand much longer; and we shall accordingly see at laO distant date the actual commencement of the new great thoroughfare running direct from the Strand to Holborn. The improve- ment has so long been talked of that even the zsost sanguine among us had began to despair of even seeing it accomplished. "Thirty years ago, when it tfas definitely decided to erect the new Palace of Justice1 in the Strand, Parliament came to its re- solution partly upon the promise that the Strand would at once be wide'n'ed and what i vas promised in 1870 is only beginning to be accomplished in 1900. The all night-workers of the metropolis are more and more being catered for in the way of travelling accommodation just now; and the more enterprising aroang earrailway-managers are vying with each other in the endeavour to provide for a, steadily growing demand. The latest proof of" s is the promise of Mr. C. J. Owens, the general manager of the London and South-Western Railway Company, to put 8ft a new train from the Waterloo terminus to Kingston at half-past two every morning, while there is being considered a return train from Kingston to Waterloo, by way of Richmond. It is a striking illustration of the varied interests which are serve$,,in i SUC4 a matter that the former train was mainly asked for by the men employed upon the morning newspapers,' while the latter would especially suit those engaged in the great fruit, flower, and vegetable market at Covent-garden. More and more of these through-the-night trains are certain to be wanted in the capital, while the all-night ser- vice of tramcars which the London County Council started on their lines south of the Thames a twelve month since has had so much success as more than to justify experiment, None but those with practical experience of metropolitan life, indeed, can imagine what a huge floating nocturnal population has to be provided for in this and various ways. It is, perhaps, a misnomer to call anything connected with snow a burning question, but there is always keen trouble between the London householder and' his local authorities when snow falls. The law on the subject used to be based upon the old proverb that if ever f- ione cleared his own doorstep, the whole path- way would be clean; but nine years ago the Legislature altered this to an enactment throw- ing upon the various vestries the task pf re- moving the snow. Every householder ac- quainted with the ways of these bodies fcretold at the time that, while flae oM system was very far from perfect,, the new one would always prove a failure, and that forecast has been shown once more within very recent days to prove it. The jprudent householder has his footpath cleaned 3aovv as he always used to do, but the vestries pit still and wait for a thaw. If it comes they declare they have done their duty, for the ftnnw has gone; if it does not, they pride them- aeives on having saving the rates, and they let the snow stay; but the law remains virtually a d letter. R. -=
GLYSGABTH, A mansion,on the Angelesev side of the Mena Straits, has been acquired by the Eccle- siastical CommiastonerB M a palace for the Bishop OIL of Chinese (and Japanese) wood is extracted from the grains of a tree called Aleurites Cordata," or in Chinese Ying tzu tung, which grows in *ocky places, especially PfOTinc*» of Hunan, Hupeh, and Szechuen. The oil « used for making lacquer and waterproof oil-cioina. Op em- ployed instead of linseed oil in painting, this purpose, according to the Farben Zeitmg,\t should £ r«t be boiled with a little oxide of z»nc> Qr litharge; the temperature being kept OV0 g. Centigrade. WHEN scrap steel rails-are worth more than now rails just from the rolk, the condition of the raIl market may be considered peculiar. Of course, new rails are always worth more than old ones, but tne curious fact is mentioned by the American Engi»eer one large sail-making concern in Pennsylvania is now furnisWng rails to a railroad on an old con- tract, entered into before the advance of prices, at 19dol. per ton, and the same road is furnishing old Steel rails t.o the steel works at 21dol. Ber ton.
NEWS NOTES. THE news last week-end of the change in the situation in South Africa wrought by the action of Lord Roberts on the Modder River was re- ceived with the very greatest gratification the whole country through. The consequent relief of Kimberley and the liberation of Lord Methuen from his defensive position was wel- come indeed, and the hasty retreat of Cronje's army from Magersfontein and the neighbour- hood bodes well for the reduction of the Orange Free State. GENERAL FRENCH, whose promotion pleases everyone, has been fortunate to be entrusted with several important tasks since the cam- paign commenced, all of which he has executed brilliantly indeed. The march by which his cavalry, mounted infantry, and horse artillery reached the Diamond City, will rank long in military history amongst the most dashing of exploits. It must have been something of a revelation to the Boers, who are themselves very mobile, but no match for such cavalry as ours when it comes to scientific strategy and combined horseback evolution work. No doubt Kimberley was joyful indeed to get into direct touch with the outer world again, after its long investment, and probably Mr. Cecil Rhodes first message after the re- sumption of the telegraphic service was one that afforded him more satisfaction than any he had ever despatched during his strenuous career, though he did put on a tacial demeanour throughout his late long and enforced stay in Kimberley. The inhabitants will now be able to vary their horseflesh diet a little, and Mr. Rhodes will not be sent to Pretoria a prisoner in all probability no w, despite the fact that a big price was put on the head of the financial Colossus. EVERYONE is hoping that the relief of Mafe- I king will quickly follow that of Kimberley, for the garrison there under Baden-Powell has done wonders. As to Ladysmith's relief that may or may not come quickly. As we write Buller is active, and the Boer investors are be- coming very restive at the nearing prospect of the menacing of their homesteads by the big force at the command of Lord Roberts. White may be let out of his long-held camp automatic- ally by the withdrawal of Joubert's troops, which will be well, and Buller's fine work on the Tugela in keeping the Boers in Natal so long. THE Volunteers who went out to the Cape were not there long before they distinguished themselves. Lord Roberts sent up some of the City of London Imperials to the front at once, and they were amongst the first British troops to entAr Jacobsdal, fighting with conspicuous gallantry, and earning the high praises of the Commander-in-Chief and the correspondents who witnessed the action. Our citizen soldiery can be depended fully on to make most of their chances we see from the first. THE Orange Free Staters are getting sick of the war which they have been persuaded into, and are most of them very wroth with Presi- dent Steyn for the pressure he put them by misrepresenting Britain. They are very sur- prised to find that our troops not only fight effectively, but behave in the hour of victory like Christians. We are not the white brigands they were led to believe we are, and they cannot make out why we do no looting When we occupy one of their towns. IT is becoming more and more certain that Shis fearful conflict in South Africa is simply a war of the Transvaal executive, and especially of Oom Paul." He will have a big reckoning to pay in the end, not only with us but with his own people.
ViSKY UNCANNY. What struck one of the special correspondents with Lord Methuen's force invalided home was the un- canniness of the whole thing. There is no pomp of war, no stirring music, no gay uniforms, and, strangest thing of aH, no visible enemy. What Toil see from the standpoint of the British staff is a body of men clad in. khaki dodging their way up the hill, making for cover wherever possible., Two or three of thsca suddenly drop, perhaps one gets up and presses forward again. The others lie where they fell, dead or sorely wounded. As the Boers always fire fipm cover and use smokeless powder, there is nowhere signs of them. That he speaks of as a cir- nowhere signs of them. That he speaks of as a cir- cumstance more than all others tending to demoralise the u;en.
AYOMEN AND AGRICULTURE. Thel Woman's Agricultural Times, which is the official organ of Lady Warwick's agricultural scheme tor women, is niakin- steady progress along the enter- prising'lmeii which it has marked out for itself. It aims at oringing into touch with each other the rapidly-increasing numbers of women who are inte- rested in the lighter branches of agriculture, and the revival' of rural industries generally. There are monthly articles on dairy and poultry work, bee-keeping, and the various branches of agriculture and horticulture ao branches of agriculture and horticulture ao that the reader may benefit by the actual experience* of others whose purpose is to make their particular industry a sound and profit- able undertaking. News of the Lady Warwick Hpttel and the work carried on there is an interest- ing feature of the piper. The Wirden coir riT.ites a monthly letter, and the students also give accounts of what they are doing in the garden and dairy. It is proposed during the coming year to publish a series of interviews, which will give the opinions and ad- vice of experts in the various outdoor occupations dealt with in the paper.
BULLETS AND SHELLS. A lance-corporal of the Dublin Fusiliers writes to a friend in Roscommon describing his shati of the Colenso battle in General Hart's Brigade. We had not advanced more than 100 yards when the shower of Mauaera'lead came flying around us. As I was in the front rank I did not take much notice, until a moment later a shell from the enemy fell about 10 yards to my right, and then a terrible sight! About a dozen of my company were instantly blown to pieces. Then I began to feel very queer and sickly, expecting every moment my own turn should come. However, we had to advance until we came to the river. We had to cross one after the other, hand-in-hand, and bullets still flying as we got half- way through the river. > We got caught and made a splendid target for them. It was here we lost the most. As we got over the river one by one," continues the lance-corporal, our men were getting cut off in dozens as we got the other side. We hadn't a bit of'ihelter-all exposed to the enemy's fire and a cross-fire from their big guns. We ad- vanced on until we were within 400 yards from their trenches, where we opened a heavy fire on them. Then the confusion began the men took no notice of their commanders, and got mixed up every way. Here every other regiment had retired but ours and a few Connaught Rangers. At last we got the com- t mand to retire. Then J saw the sights-dying and dead, hundreds strewn all over the field. It was only then I thought of things rightly. As we retired we were crossing the dead bodies of our comrades, who were alive and very cheerful an hour or two before. When we got back to the base we were minus 260 our strength.
Tullnumber of ova which some of our native fishes produce is so very astonishing that it would be regarded with doubt, except upon the most unim- peachable testimony. So many as 280,000 have been taken from a perch of only half a pound weight. Mr. W. Thompson found 101,955 ova in a lump- sucker of 15 inches in length, and the cod-fish is said to produce several millions. THB yellow and red Spanish flag is the oldest of any used by the European Powers, as it was first down i,n 1785.. The French tricolour was first used in 1796; the red English ensign, with the present UnioDJac in the upper canton, in 1801; the present Italian flag in 1848; the present Austro- Hunffafian flag in 1867, and the German flag in 1871 THJS enlargement of the Pier pavilion, Colwyn Bay, is proposed to be carried out at a cost of £ 3000; the additions to consist of an extra bay to the pavi- lion and increase of promenading space. The space at the froat and end of the pavilion is also to be doubled. FOR board which would cost you 30s. in London you nuvat pay £4 in Cape Town. Firewood costs the bmea as ratich as it does in England. THK young King of Spain always insists on having his pockets filled with coppers before going for a drive, and scatters the coins among the many beggars who crowd round his carriage. Tilm total revenue of Egypt during the year 1899 amounted to £ 1^11,4:10,000, and the expenditure to £ 1110,354.000. leaving a surplus of iiEl.161.000.
ONE FROM THE WAR. A BRAVE VETERAN INTERVIEWED. From the wilds of Afghanistan to the depths of a coal-pit in West Monmouthshire is a far cry, and thiere is a great difference between the glare of an Iqdian sun and the gloom prevailing at the bottom of the Marine Pits at Ebbw Vale. Which of the two elements, the glare or the gloom, is the more un- pleasant, we are not competent to say, but there lives at No. 21, New Colliers-row, Ebbw Vale, a man who has had many years' experience of both, and he re- cently told an interesting tale to a reporter who looked him up. It would not need A SHERLOCK HOLMES to itell that he had been a collier. The mines can generally be distinguished by tiny blue marks on his features due to the blasting. These signs were ap- parent to the reporter who interviewed Mr. John Morgans—for that is the name of the individual re- ferred to. At the same time his alert and straight- forward manner proclaimed him an old soldier. Asked for some narrative of his varied experiences, I am," he said, forty-five years of age, and have now been a collier for eleven years. Before that I ,as in the army. I was in the 61st Regiment— 2ND BATTALION GLoTicrSTEILSHIRIC. I sDent seven and a half vears in India, two Ir. Morgans on Sentry-go. qo. years and nine months in Malta,and two years and three months on the home service, mak- ing twelve and a half years alto. -getber. ThE seven and a half years ir India inclu- ded two years in Afghan- istan. I • came home in January, 1886,and wac. discharged on the 30tb Anril 1888 After coming home," he continued, I was sent straight to Fulvrood (Lancashire) Barracks in the North-West of England, and joined the first battalion of the same regiment. The sudden change, coming from abroad and arriving in England in January, may have sowed the seeds of illness. When I left the army I was all right, but every winter since I have suffered from liver complaint, and have been two or three weeks idle in consequence. Last winter I was again attacked in a worse way, and was practically idle for two months. I had pains between the shoulders, and felt very languid and sleepy. I felt more tired in the morning than in the evening, after a day's labour. I was under medical treat- ment the doctor called my complaint hepatic con- gestion (congestion of the liver), and gave me some medicine. The medicine only seemed to purge and relieve me temporarily. My appetite remained as bad as ever-I had to force myself to eat." As Mr. Morgans, at the time of the interview, appeared to be in excellent health, the, reporter naturally asked what caused his JSCOvery. I was recommended," he said, by a woman living not far away, to take Dr. Williams' pink pills for pale people. I procured some of these pills, and commenced taking them. I took three or four boxes altogether. With the aecond box I felt relief, and when half way through it I was back at work for the first time in eight weeks. I could then eat fairly well. I had gone down very thin." Mr. Morgans, who looked anything but thin, stated that he was not now as heavy as he once was-viz., between fifteen and sixteen stone, but he looked quite robust and vigorous, and quite able to cope with his arduous daily toil. It is evident that the pills had not only improved his appetite, but also enabled him to derive nourishment from his food. I do really believe that my recovery. was- due to Dr. Williams' pink pills," he said, and proceeded to volunteer a remarkable statement. I can safely say that in this neighbourhood Dr. William's pink pills for pale people have done an enormous amount of good. The woman who recommended them to me—you could blow her down then, and now she is quite robust." "What did she suffer from ?" She had asthma badly, and no doctor under the- canopy of heaven could cure her, but she was made a great deal better than she bad been by taking Dr.. Williams' pink pills." Do you know of anybody else?" Yes, there is a girl living in a house on the hill; yonder who has reaped great benefit from Dr;. Williams' pink pills. 1 was talking to her father yesterday. If you want any more testiqckony you had, better go to him. They did his daughter, a world of good." Especial importance attaches to the experiences of Mr. Morgans, both on account of his interesting, pzd; honourable career IN THE QUEEN'S SERVICE, and also by reason of the useful lesson conveyed1 in* his well-considered words. Either congestion or mere sluggishness of the liver is responsible for many common ailments often not traced to thi& cause— such as biliousness, headaches, a sallow skin, pain in the back and shoulders, indigestion, and wasting from inability to obtain nourishment from the food. It will have been noted that ordinary medicine given to Mr. Morgans produced a purging, and only did temporary good. A purgative has one use only: it should be taken in order to clear the system ready for the really curative medicine. Dr. Williams' pink pills, by their beneficial effect on the blood, promote permanently a healthy action of the liver, and assist, the absorption of nourishment. Thus they cure, not oply chronic indigestion, but also such other blood-caused diseases as scrofula, rheumatism, sciatica, and the deficiency of blood which in itself constitutes the prevalent disease anosmia. Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, Holborn-viaduct* London, send the genuine pills post free at two and ninepence a box; which can also be obtained of chemists, and are always genuine when (and only when) enclosed in the registered pink wrapper bear- ing the full name.
NEWARK ELECTION. The result was declared on Saturday of the polling on the previous day for the election of a member for the Newark Division of Nottinghamshire to fill the vacancy caused by Lord Newark's succession to the peerage as Earl Manvers. The figures were declared astollows: eo Sir Charles Welby (C.) ol62 Mr. H. Y. Stanger (L.) 2871 Majority 2291 Previous elections have resulted as follows: 1885. Viscount Newark (C.) 5283 T. Earp (L.) 3519 Conservative majority 1764 1886. Viscount Newark (C.), unopposed. 1892. Viscount Newark (C.), unopposed. 1895. Hon. H. H. Finch-Hatton (C.), unopposed. By-election, May, 1898. Viscount Newark (C.), unopposed. Sir Charles Glynne Earle Welby, the new member, is son of Sir William Earle Wei by-Gregory, fourth baronet. Born in 1865, he succeeded his father in 1893, and was private secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne, Secretary of State for War, from 1895 to 1899, when he resigned. He is a deputy- lieutenant and a justice of the peace for Lincoln- shire. He married in 1887 Maria Louise Helen, daughter of the late Lord Augustus Hervey, M.P. Sir Charles was created a CJB. in 1897.
THE following Wesleyan Ministers have been a pointed chaplains at the front: Rev. M. F. Crewd- son, for De Asr and Naauwpoort; and Rev. B. E. Elderkin, for Vryburg and district. MAJOR A. G. B. URMSTOH, now in charge of the Royal Marine contingent of the Naval Brigade m Natal. has been selected to relieve Major Cotterell as Instructor of Musketry at the Royal Marine Dppot at Walmer. IN America it is not uncommon to find tbe minister's wife elected as her husband's colleague in the pastorate, with full power to take his place when occasion requires. The question of adopting this system is now under consideration at a large Non- conformist Chapel in London. THERE is less pauperism in Ireland than there is in England and Wales. Last year one person in 37 was a pauper in this part of the British Isles, whilst only one in 45 was receiveing poor relief in the sister isle. AN idea of the magnificence of the fittings in her Majesty's railway carriage may be obained from the following particulars. The carpet cost JE150. The curtains are hung upon silver poles, which fire sus- pended upon small gilt figures which cost 10 guineas each. The doer-handles cost £ 130. ::> KrNG OSCAR OF SWEDEN is a musical monarch, who may often be heard for hours improvising on the piano, and more particularly on the organ-an in- strument which is almost unknown in private circles abroad. His Majesty is also a great lover of glee singing. •" I .i el-1 -M
IN THE DIAMOND CITY. INCIDENTS OF THE SI ROB OP KMBBRLET, The Cape Argiis special correspondent in Kimber. ley, writing on January 13, gives the following inte- resting details of the siege: LIVING ON HORSEFLESH. The siege of Kimberley is new beginning to be acutely felt by the inhabitants. In my last letter I mentioned that our meat rations had been cut down to a quarter of a pound per diem for adults, and from Monday last (bth) the bulk of the meat served out has besa ^e proportion being about one-fourth ox-meat to three-fourths horseflesh. To the male portion of the community, and even those of the opposite sex, there is little or no hardship in having to eat the flesh of man's best friend, and on tho Continent even in the best restaurants" potages de cheval" forms just a* much a staple item on the urenu as does roast beef in England. The majority of people, unless they were told, would nevei know the difference. It is slightly darker ia colour, and a little sweeter in taste, otherwise it closel3 resembles beef. To most of the women, and prac. tically all the children, however, the mere thought of eating horseflesh is repugnant, and rather tha-ncon- sume it, they have done without animal food alto- gether. With the supply of tinned meats pretty wNi consumed, the dietary of these unfortunate people is necessarily a limited one. From to-day a proclamation has been issued raising the price oi bef to Is. per lb., and horseflesh to 9d., and it is also notified that though all efforts will be made tc continue the daily rations of a quarter-pound of meat, a full supply cannot be guaranteed. THE HEALTH Of THB TOWW. The health report of the medical officer of health, for December, was published recently, and throw# sotpe important sidelights on the siege. The popu- lation is estimated at 14,000 whites and 19,000 coloured, the latter including those in the com- pounds, convict station, and gaol. The deaths for the month were 70 white and 219 coloured, a rate per 1000 living of 60 whites and 138*3 coloured. The death-rate during the whole of 1898 was 21'7 white and 53*6 coloured. The infantile death-rate (under one year) reached the extraordinary figures of 671*1 per 100J white and 912*7 coloured per 1000i Among the deaths of coloured people no less than 46 occurred from scurvy. The comparative monthly record showed the following ttotals for white per- sons January 22, February 16, March 23, April 26. Mav 31. June 16. Julv 7. Aucuat If). Snntpmhor 17, .October 31, November 77 (or 42 excluding those killed in action), and December 70. For coloured persons: January 91, February 84, March 59, April 84, May 64, June 96, July 54, August 68, September 63, October 80, November 82 (one killed in action), and December 219. This shows the death- rate both for whites and coloured persons in Decem- ber to be three times the monthly average. In the case of whites it was three times the average for the corresponding period of last year, and three times the monthly average of the past two years. Ihe excess of deaths of white people were under three years and over 45. The primary cause of the unusual mortality among infants and coloured per- sons is evident—the infants are insufficiently fed on their proper diet, namely, milk, and the natives get a scanty diet, with practically no milk, fresh vegetables or meat. Typhoid fever was exceptionally prevalent during the month, no less than 23 occurring at the mounted and other camps, and 19 were notified from other parts of the town. Three of the cases termi- nated fatally. Hitherto we had been congratulating ourselves upon the excellent health that has been maintained during the siege; but it is evident that privations are beginning to tell, and until we get relief in the shape of provisions that constitute our ordipary dietary, matters will probably get worse than-better. SOME INTERESTING DETAILS. A good number of houses here have small vine- yards attached, and it has been possible during the last week or two to get hold of a bunch or two 6f grapesab from 2s. to 3s. per lb., though the, majority of those who possess these vines prefer to be their own consumers. Time hangs on one's hands dreadfully, and it was a good idea of some of the churches here to arrange organ recitals in their churches at night: these forming a most welcome diversion. One of the events of the week has been the return to Kimberley of H. G. Field, a despatch rider who was captured by the Boers on November 22 while riding despatches through to Orange River. He was- tried at the head laager before General Wesjfels, Judge Hertzog, and eight commandants, and sentenced to three yeárs ilnprisoàment with hard labour. Field was taken to Bloemfontein, along with two others. He escaped from Bloemfontein Goal, on December 29, after a very adventurious journey, reached Kimberley on January 9, having' been the last nine days of his journey without food or water. His two companions, who went, to a farm house for food, were re-captured. There has been little,in the way of hostilities during the past week. ThelJoen have dropped a number of shells in the outskirts without doing any damage. They have, itow- 6ver, been busily engaged erecting new'earthworks, and are believed to have mounted more guns to the west and north. The Widows and Orphans'Fund here now amounts to close on £ 14,000. Things are quiet, and the town is as cheerful as possible under the ejrcumstances. BOER VIEWS OF THE WAR. The President is reported to be well satisfied" with the position at Ladysmith. The- Standard and Diggers' News gathers, therefore, that the recent en- gagements at Platrand and Rooirantjes have satis- fied Pretoria that the investment of Ladysmitb is upon the point of prevailing. The enemy is in desperate straits. The soldiers are described as bearing all the signs,of a stressful predicament and of privations. Their faces were black with the mud of their underground dwellings. their clothes were tattered and torn, all the military smartness had dis- appeared, and in their mien were signs of despera- tion. It is evident that only a little more patience is needed to write Finis. Hare, as else- where, the work of the Boer, we are told, has been marked by the stamp of thorough, and his methods have been both warlike and ffiagntficerít; The Boer is the master of all he surveys, not the millionaire; armies have shaken before the thunder of his fire and the Republics are his to-day more than ever before. "This we call Kruger's Remedy. In England the mood i found to be more ■ modest, even becoming. We baye great hopes from this altered mood. Having eyes, they try to see. It may even be the be- ginning of wisdom and the end of war. Is the time really approaching when lebabod' has to be written over the portals of the British Empire? For surely the glory is departina ?,,Col. Baden-Powell has done his best, -but the avails nothing against Boer tenacity- v 0 Pr°bably hear of yet one more desperate sortie, and when that is repulsed, the town and its defenders will make the best of a bad job, and haul down the flag. Mush the same may be said of Ladys-ith, The, British force there, also, has for weeks been expecting the succour which never comes. Here, agaan, there will be an attempt at the impossible. The flower of the British Army will cast itself 1D valik against the impenetrable line of Mausers ftn hearts, and roll back defeated as at the firs £ attet»pt. Then Ladysmith, fainting under the b'OPO deferred that maketh the heart sick,' will also accept its fate. So we are to have no more bayonet work. The theory that Boers can be made to By at -the point of the sword and bayonet has been exploded after very costly trial. Thus perishes a cherished tradition of the British Army, worshipped SIDee the days of Alma and Inkertnan. But if "^yonet has failed, and the rifle in the hands of Tommy Atkins is next to innocuous, what have the Britiab Generals to fall back upou ? Their artillery tin, .80 far, kas been hopelessly ineffectual, and in DO SIngle instance has a Boer Commando been shelled out of kop or kopje. The rifle is the deadly weapon, an in Boer hands is of ten times mate value than in British." And so on. THE CAMP AT 1>111 AAR. De Aar ia simply a bit of red hot nnd,on;which and in which the British soldier works like a bullock from early morn until dewy Ove, and where recrea- tion is not-nor beer. War 1S a glorious game—for those who stay at home and follow the track of vic- torious armies through the maedium of the public Press. It is not half bad f110 for the special cor- respondent, who, as a spectator, gets all the excite- ment and a spice of the danger, but little of the hardship. It is endurable for the To mmies who are actally in the fighting line, doing men's work and taking men's risks. But it is simply unendurable for the unlucky troops who are planted in ignominious safety in a miserable hole like De Aar, sweating from morning till night, at a kind of work which any self-respecting Pun- jabi coolie would consider undignified, and freezing from night to morning under the inadequate shelter of a couple of blankets. The tact that De Aar is a junction from which troops can be easily despatched in more than one direction WitS, pre- sumably, the reason of its selection as a supply base; but if that fact were not carefully borne in mind one might be inclined to think that it had been chosen for the purpose of inuring our soldiers to the discomforts of dirt, sand storma, and unwhole- some water. For all these are very much in evi- dence at De Aar. The dust and sand get into the rations to such an extent that the food would be absolutely uneatable were it not that tnannal labour of the heaviest kind provides the men with appetites so ravenous that when meal times come round they are ready to eat and drink anything and everything they can lay hands on. The drinking water, which has often to be drawn from open canvas tanks, and is, in the absence of any other beverage, consumed in very large quantities, is decidedly, conducive to dysentery; indeed, there are several cases in the hos- nital at the present time. So that all thip con- .01 I 0;' sidered a soldiers lu fe at De Aar is not altogether a happy one. Nevertheless, the troops display wonder- ful cheerfulness.
WHERE BRITAIN IS BEATEN. Englishmen should be the best linguists in Europe. How so? Because (says a writer in the Daily Mail) an Englishman has in his own language a key to almost every other European language except Rus- sian, Magyar, and Turkish. The root words and grammatical structure of English are practically the same as in German, Dutch, Swedish, and Norwegian. The difference between an immense number of English and German words is so slight that any intelligent English boy or girl can translate at sight almost any'simple German sentence. Once, therefore, the hedge is cleared —and it is not half so thorny as it is supposed to be -—young Englishmen will find themselves quite at home in German, Dutch, or any other Teutonic tongue. But the cosmopolitan nature of English is such that, owing to the huge number of words and ex- pressions derived either directly, or indirectly through Norman-French, from the Latin—the parent of all the Romanic languages, ije., French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese—an Englishman on starting to study any of these four languages is already in possession of thousands of words either exactly al,,ikq or differing so slightly that he recognises their simi- larity at once and thus he finds in English a key that fits almost all the wards in French, Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. A monoglot Welshmen when starting to learn English finds absolutely no help whatever in his own language, as far as any similarity in vocabulary or structure goes. He might as well compare Maori and Chuckchi as try and find any memory-books in Welsh that are of the slightest use in mastering English. Still, although the Welshman has to exe- cute all manner of lingual and mental gymnastics in becoming proficient in speaking and writing English, he does master, it, oftentimes so thoroughly that he acquires a "quite Engliah mode of thought and style of expression. The one proof of real Viastery of any language is the ability and the habit of thinking in it, and most < educated Welshmen think in English, though they iaay and do not preserve unimpaired the power of thinking and expressing themselves in Welsh. How is it, then, that Englishmen are not the best linguists in Europe? Simply and solely because of the general and absurd" deaf-and-dumb method of studying foreign languages. No amount of dumb book work and, written, exercises in grammar and analysis will make a lad a proficient linguist. Foreigners learning English know better than to waste years over books; they simply chatter and learn one word and expression with. another, and become familiar with them by constant repetition, with the result that in a few months they can speak and write our language sufficiently well for all practical purposes. Teachers of foreign languages in England are greatly to blame for this unsatisfatory state of things. They spin out a first, second, third, and perhaps a fourth year's course of studies, they lead their unhappy pupils a dance through the mazes of grammatical mysteries, and end by giving the lads a thorough distaste of the whole business. And so we find thousands of intelligent young Englishmen who have gone through the usual courses" in French, German, Spanish, &c., reduced in a year or two to absolute impotence in any language buc their own. It seems almost absurd and unnecessary to point Out that foreign languages and foreign trade are closely connected, but the sooner Englishmen believe it and act accordingly the better for British trade the wide world over. Let young Englishmen, Welsh- men, Scotsmen, and Irishmen preparing for or in business get over their ridiculous "fright" of foreign languages let them speak and read aloud, no matter how imperfectly pronunciation and expression will right themselves in time let them chatter in French, German, Spanish, &c.. whenever and wherever they can. Let them take a lesson from the shrewd young Germans who come over to England and take any work and any or no pay in order to learn our lan- guage. These young fellows will not speak their own' language if they can help it-they have come here to learp English, and it does not matter a rap to them in lia what grammatical atrocities they commit, they keep on chattering in English, and in English only, until in a surprisingly short time they are able to under- stand and make themselves understood perfectly welL To close with a suggestion. Why. should: thara not be certain days set apart in our- schools- and colleges for speaking and studying certain foreign languages ? Suppose on Mondays all possible oppor- tunities in the school and playground be taken to, speak French; on Wednesdays, say, German on Fridays, Spanish or Italian. It wouldn't take many such days to drive away the" fright with which the average English, lad regards a foreign language. And boys; become, men very quickly nowadays,'arid many* of them have to control and direct, business-cam- paigns at an age at which their fathers were still studying the elements of commercial strattgy.
THE PIGEON CURE." EXTRAORDINARY SUPERSTITION. If the following facts were not votiched for by a, highly-distinguished physician, Dr. G. Legue, it would be permissible (says a correspondent of the Pall Mall Gazette) to regard them a? an invention suggested by sundry of the marvellous "cures". in vogue in the Middle Ages. Dr. Legue was put on the track of his curious discovery by one of his patients, who informed him in the moat casual manner, and as if there were nothing extraordinary about the statement, that she had tried the pigeon cure for meningitis and for the first time with-limited success. Dr. Legue had to confess his entire ignorance of the cure in question, and to ask for an explanation of its nature. It was then revealed to han that in, this sceptical age, and in Paris, of all places in the world, there are people who believe in the efficaciousness, as a remedy for certain maladies., of the blood of a freshlv-killed Dizeon. The head of the patient to be treated ia shaved, and then the breast of the pigeon is ripped opec by the" operator," and the warm and bleeding carcass immediately applied to the bared skull. The believers in this cruel and senseless cure imagine that all fever is drawn out of the body by the hot life-blood and the quivering flesh of the pigeon. The extraordinary thing is that farith in the cure is widespread, and recourse to it frequent. Dr. Logne, who has thoroughly investigated the matter, has been able to obtain the address of a sbap-in the Central Markets at which nothing else is sold but live pigeons destined to this gtrange purpose. The business done is so brisk that the late proprietor, Mme. Michel, has been able to retire after making a small fortune. Her successor declares that the pigeon cure is considered a sovereign remedy for influenza, since the appearance of which she has been unable to meet the demand that has arisen for birds. They are also used, it seems, in cases of typhoid fever; but in this instance two pigeons are necessary, and they are applied to the feet of the patient.
BOER PRISONERS. Sergeant Master-tailor Edwards, of the Essex Regiment, has found that he had to be as ready with the bayonet, as with the needle in South Africa. He accompanied his regiment to Modder River, and on ] arriving there an officer said to, him, You will have company from here back to Cape Town. Pick your escort." Sergeant Edwards accordingly selected four men, thinking that would be a sufficient number. But he found "the company "more numerous than select. When he reached the station at which he was to ta'ce charge of whatever might need an escort no less h in 36 prisoners were handed over to him.
CAPTAIN FRIEDEWCHS, on vacating the appointment I of Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General for Royal Engineers in Ireland, has joined the Staff of Colonel Lake at the War Office for special duty in connection with mobilisation, a subject which is engaging parti- cular attention just now in regard to the faults which have been brought to light during the present cam- paign in South Africa, Lord Lansdowne being most anxious that note should be made of every failure of arrangements so as to prevent any repitition of such mistakes on future occasions when it may be neces- sary to plae a force in the field. The department of mobilsation is going thoroughly into everything, and in the capable hands of Colonel lake the public may rest convinced that the work of overhaul will be conducted with the utmost care. In these investi- gations Lord Lansdowne is taking a great personal interest, recognising as he does the desirability of fix- ing responsibility wherever defects of system are dis- covered. Two new companies of Royal Garrison Artillery are being added to the strength of the Army, the officers selected to raise the additional units being Majors Montanaro and Haines. The former has been posted to the 30th Company Western Division, which is being formed at Dover, the latter to the 30th Company Western Division at Devonport. Lord Lansdowne is not one of those pushing officials who proclaim all their good works from the housetops, hence the advantage which the Army has gained by his wise policy is scarcely realised or appreciated; but to those who watch events and are capable of forming an accurate judg- ment, every day bring fresh evidence of bis wonder- ful grasp and undoubted fitness for the o ce e holds. A less able War Minister would talk much and do little. Lord Lansdowne's policy is to say littfe and da much.
EPITOME OF NEWS. THE Queen's will is engrossed on vellum, quarto size, and is bound as a volume, and secured by a rivate jock. THE Czar of Russia's army is the only one in j Europe that can boast of feminine medical officers. J IF the conductor of a tram-car in Hamburg carries even one passenger for whom there is no seat he is subject to a fine of 2s. 6d. COUNT TOLSTOI is an enthusiastic cyclist. He de- clares that he has to thank his bicycle and his vege- tarian diet for the robust health which he has solong enjoyed. Twenty years ago his physician advised Tolstoi to avoid too much muscular exercise, but the patient was obstinate, and did exactly the con- trary; in fact, he has ever been a lover of sports of different kinds. I AI:rIlO1.7GII Lord Armstrong has now entered upon His ninetieth year, he cannot lay claim to being the oldest member of the House of Lords. His senior in age is Lord Gwydyr, who was born on April 27, 1810. Lord Armstrong was born on November 26in the same year. I MB. JOHN B. ROBINSON, who. is reputed to be one of the richest men in the world, has the further dis- tinction ot owning the largest diamond in the world. It was found on his diamond field at Jagersfontein, and weighs 971 carats (uncut). An Indian rajah is said to, have offered as much as £ 250,000 for it, with- out success. THE Czar has issued a recript severely rebuking the representatives of the Finnish Estates for criti- cising the- recent denationalising measures of the Russian Government. The Governor-General of Finland' is ordered to take vigorous measures to bring home to the Finnish people the true significance of Russia's action. AN offieer who went to the war had to postpone- insuring his life through not having the ready money. The committee of the Officers' Families Fund happening to hear of this, at once effected the insur- ance. By a strange chance the officer was killed- in the first battle in which he took part. 'TUB United States Department of Justice is hold- in'g an1 investigation into the complaints made by the,- Americans in charge of mules on board British vessels during the voyage from New Orleans to. Cape T<)wn. They complain of bad treatment and want of sufficient food. 'IT is stated that the new Chief Commissioner of the Charity Commission will be Mr. Charles H.. Alderson, C.B., the present Second Commissioner, and that the Secretary, Mr. D. R. Fearon, C.B., will become Second Commissioner. The new Secretary will be Mr. R. Durnford, at present an Assistant Commissioner. LORD ENNISMORE goes to South Africa in command of a section of the Irish contingent of the Imperial Yeomanry. H> joined the 1st LifeGuards in February i 18&0, obtained his-lieutenancy March 23rd, 1891, and retired in that rank in 1893. Since May 1897 he has help a captain's commission in the 4th Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers. =TiiE story that General Joubert's wife "accom- panies him. everywhere, and insists on personally providing for her hnsband's table," will not surprise those who know something of that energetic lady. She has repeatedly gone to the front with the Com- mandant-General in his native campaigns, and had a. wonderful experience of fighting in the early years of the Transvaal Republic, when with other women she melted bullets for the men-folk. MAJOR BCRN-MURDOCII vacated his appointment aa4 Assistant-Inspector of Submarine Mining Defence at the War Office in order to proceed on active service to South Africa in command of the newly formed 47th Company Royal Engineers. It is proposed that Major Bum-Murdoch should ultimately return to his duties at Headquarters, where Major Randolph, from the Reserve List, officiates for him in, his absence. THE present German Emperor, then a. small, boy, attended the wedding of the Prince and Princess of Wales. He was under the charge of his two uncles, the Duke of Edinburgh and the Duke of Connaught. As may be expected, young William fidgeted sadly, and consequently received an occasional warning tap on fhe shoulder. But how he did revenge himself! His uncles were in Highland dress, and the future Emperor slyly knelt down and bit into their legs-with, great earnestness. THE German Emperor is probably the only Euro-- pean monarch who carries a revolver. Firmly con- vinced that he is going to die by the bullet of an Anarchist—this fate having been prophesied to him long ago he is determined to fight for his life,.if necessary, and, accordingly, is never without his revolver. He is extremly skilful in the use of the weapon, and his-jaeger, or body-servant, who accom- panies him everywhere, inspects it every morning, to make sure that it is in perfect order. MAJOR-GKNERAL OLIPIIANT, who commanded the Grenadier Guards and East London Volunteer- Brigade frOm 1894 to 1898, has, been appointed to. the command-of the Militia at Aldershot as a tem- porary arrangement. Gen I Oliphant, has-no war service, and is a. comparatively junior major-general. Some may consider his selection a slight on those- senior to him who are not employed. It has to be borne in mind, however, that it i» not every officer- whq can afford to fill a temporary command,, and those in whom the selection rests are consequently limited in. their choice. MAJOR INOLJS, who was second Assistant Super- intendent of Experiments at Shoeburyness from 1888 to 1$93, has been induced during the present pressure- to return. to, military d. ty from the Reserve List of the Royal Artillery to fill the appointment of Brigade- Major of the School of Gunnery. Major Inglis, has- undoubted qualifications, and he made himself so agreeable to everybody during his last five years at the school that no one will grudge him his present comfortable but responsible employment. A REMARKABLE story of the high price paid. for old silver occurred not long ago in London. The furni- ture from a mansion in Rutland Gate had been re- moved- for'sale to some central rooms, and only the common things had been left. But inside a cup- board three old silver "cups" were found stored away, and a dealer who saw them at the view offered £ 100 each for them. The auctioneer, by the advice of an expert who valued them at £ 700, declined to sell them privately, and they eventually made £1000 at a public sale, which worked out at £ 75 an ounce. It then, transpired that the so-call" eups were pre- Refonmation chalices. Tiis Sultan has about 2000 horses in his stables, and among these are specimens of nearly every breed in the World. His finest horses are of Arabian blood, and his favourite mount is a beautiful Arabian bay. He often takes rides in the grounds I of his palace. The Sultan is a good shot, and can break a dozen vases with a revolver while galloping past tnem on horseback. He has always been par- I ticular as to the horses of his army, and each of the regiments which accompany him to the mosque is mounted on Abrabian horses of one colour. A REPORT has been going the round of the American papers that a Congressman of Michigan bad received a complaint from three American-born men of Irish i parentage, named Bushel, that they had been enrolled I ia the British Army and might have to go to the front. I Mr. Choate, the United States Ambassador in j London, now informs the Government that the Vice- Consul at Dublin went to Strokestown, in Roscommon, J where he saw the Bushels and their mother, who f informed him that they know nothing of the story. M. PICARD, Commissioner-General of the 1900 Exhibition, has been informed by the president of the jewellery section that an enormous diamond from Kimberley will be exhibited in the jewellery pavilion. The stone was found shortly before the war. It has been insured for F-400,000, and will be exhibited in a show-case guarded by four policemen. At night the show-case will sink into the ground in the same way as that in which the Regent is kept at Louvre. The new diamond is said to be finer than the the Regent, the Shah, the Grand Mogul, and the famous Koh-i-noor exhibited in London in 1851. SCARBOROUGH Corporation have decided to name a new street "Ladysmith-avenue." THB Lords of the Admiralty have invited further THB Lords of the Admiralty have invited further tenders for the supply of about 150,000 tons of South Welsh coal. THE new Abyssinian Bishop and suite have arrived at Aden from Cairo, and embarked on the steamer Minto for Zeila, en route to the Emperor Menelik's capital. THE Duke of Norfolk (Postmaster-General) has announced that in future he would consent to receive in the form of deputations the executives of the vari- ous Postal trade unions. THE Schlesische Zeitung learns' that the German Government intends to add to each battalion of Jaegers a battery of six machine guns and a special company for working them. THB Transatlantic steamer Alicante has arrived at, Barcelona from Manilia bringing a large number of repatriated civilians and soldiers and some members of religious communities. THB Light Railway Commissioners have sanctioned a light railway from Wotton-tinder-Edge to Char- field, having a junction with the Midland Railway at the latter place. THB Bishop of Rochester has appointed the Bev. H. P. Lindsay, for the last 10 years senior curate of Lambeth, to the vicarage of St. Andrew, Batter- Res
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M A J o R-G ks E UAI, SIR EDWAIW COLLKN, Military Member of the Indian Viceroy's Council, who has held temporary rank by virtue of his ofllce since April 1896, has now been placed on the Establish- ment of General Officers of the Indian Staff Corps in the vacancy. created by the retirement of Major- General Vanderzee. Sir Edwin Collen gats his step at the age of .56, rather late in life for one of his. administrative qualities and exceptional ability. The new rules as-to the promotion, of General's rank in the Staff corps will not come into force until January 1901. From the beginning of the new pentury there w-iil be no. further advancement by. seniority. From that date promotion will be made- only by selection to. fill an appointment or as a. reward for. distinguished service. Not that that means- much as-a matter, of fact, for it is rather a remark- able thing, that selected officers in our Army-prove frequently the most disappointing when put to the. practical tQst of war, as,, unfortunately, favouritism, has so much-to do with: these matters. In a country where social influences play such an important part, any system of selection must always be regarded more or less with, suspicion.
WHEN FEELING LIVERISH REMEMBER ■ that CARTER'S LITTLE LIVER PILLS "Touch" the Liver. They absolutely cure Sick Headache, Bilious ness, Torpid Liver,. Indigestion, Constipation, Sallow Skin,, Dizziness,, Furred Tongue. Small pIll" small price, ignua doae, purely vegetable, forty in a phial. Dom One lItt. l'silifd. of all Chemists. Be sure they are CARTER'S. BEAUTIFUL TEETH FOR ALL WHO USE V daily on the tooth, brush a few drops of SOZODONT, the pleb&utest. dentifrice in the world. Cleanses the teeth. and spaces between them as nothing else will. Sound and Marly white teeth, rosy lips, and fragrant breatlfc wnsmwfl. /sk for SOZODONT. 2a. 6d.
IN order to cheapen gas lighting, the Germana propose. to. reduce the, power of the gas supplied. At Magdeburg it has been seriously debated whether it would not be. well, to reduce the candle-power from 14, its present valtta-, to 10. and finally to eight; for experiments show that, when used with an incan- descent mantle,, the- poor gas has in certain cases given a better light than the rich. In one series of tests an incandescent burner was supplied with gas ranging in candle-power from 15 to two, and tho latter actually gave the best light. axle-light" system is to. be applied on tb& trains of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Rail- road of the United States on an extensive scale. Each car will haw its own storage batteries supplied with electricity generated by the axle" of the wheels, and the locomotive head-lights will derive their illumi- nation from the same source. It is calculated that each full train, pvdusive of the locomotive, will develop nearly 51 CO andle-power of light.
COCOA-The National Drink. NEVER in the history of the world has Cooot been so much held in favour as a national diink as it is at the present day. Yet there are Gocoos and Cocoas. MKfsKs. FRY have gained no fewer tjian 275 GOLD MEDALS and DIPLOMAS, and their Pure Concen- tra."fl Cocoa is HIP result of au accumulated experience i oj 170* which places this weU. known Firm at ELdvantaFe far above all the rivalry eX1S amongst IJrms of latter-dai growth. ie JlO tltœr PURE CONOENTRATED COOOA Of wbich Dr. Andrew :;) wilsot6 ij.K.-ov Situ ideal ofperfection.^ JU8T THEBJ necessary in order tojret the ritrlit VIT, glTHH; CQNCE.VTRATBP.
INSTINCT for '*symbolism," in its modern sense, is found to a Tery curious degree in the poems of Benson. Thirty years ago he wrote the sonnet 0" the Archbishop of Syra and TeD08- Forgetting DolDs, sheen 'mid our dim grays, Robed Jike a purple sunset, at Sit. Mary's, Nottingham earlier still, the strange pde, begiftDing- Mithra! farewell-thou canst not shine t This land of mist, it is not thine. I worship now a sunnier shrine— I worship Jove CapItoline- poems as unlike what one expects from an Anglicaa prelate of the !I Hi: V telonan period as possible, hat very much indeed hke what one gets from a Belgian decadent of to-day. AriMfoa of Edna Lyall's new play, In Spite of All," it is a little Rurions that the popular novelist, turned playwright, should be called almost every- wliore Miss Edna Lyall. It is not uncommon for some pseudonyms to be given without quotation mfLrks-Goorge Eliot, Lewis Carroll, and Onida, for exmuple but, it is not often that a p^n-imrne comes to stand bubitually for the real Dallll). There is no murer-agon for calling Miss Bayly "li8 Brloa M'j'll than there is for speaking of "Miss Max- well Gray." or even "Mrs. Jobn Oliver Hobbes."