r 1 WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA. 1 THE INVASION OF THE FREE STATE. LORD ROBERTS'S BRILLIANT ACHIEVE- MENT. GENERAL CRONJE'S FLIGHT. FRENCH AND KELLY-KENNY AGAIN DISTINGUISH THEMSELVES. KITCHENER'S CAPTURE. BULLER ACTIVE IN NATAL. FIGHTING IN CAPE COLONY. PROMOTIONS. The following notice of promotions has bee* officially issued by the War Office The Queen has approved of the promotion 01 Colonel (and local Lieutenant-General) French to be Major-General, and of Lieutenant-Colonel Keke- wich to be Colonel for services in connection with the defence and relief of Kimberley." WAGGONS AND STORES CAPTURED. The following telegram from Lord Roberta was received at the War Office on Saturday JACOBSDAL, Feb. 17, 5.50a.m. Kelly-Kenny's Brigade captured yesterday 7E waggons laden with stores, two waggons with Mausei rifles, eight boxes full of shells, ten barrels explosives and large quantity of stores, all belonging to Cronje'i laager, which was still being shelled by our artillerj when Lord Kitchener despatched tho messenger." A Reuter's despatch stating that the Boers hac captured a British convoy was evidently founded on t misapprehension. THE BOER RETREAT. The news on Monday morning from Lore Roberts's force, which cannot number in all lesi than 50,000 horse and foot, including artillery indicated that the Boers are in retreat in two direc- tions. One force to the north-west of Kimberley which General French seemed to have severely punished, made for Barkly, and was proceeding in a north-easterly direction, chased by General French. These Boers had apparently beer reinforced by some of the enemy from tht deserted trenches at Magersfontien, who pro- bably slipped round the west of Kimberley os hearing of the British advance. These commandoei were apparently bent on reaching Pretoria, which if ibout 800 miles distant, with railway communicatioc from Klerksdorp, only about one-third of the way. the main body of the enemy left Magcrsfontein in ac easterly direction, hotly pursued by General Kelly- Kenny's Division, which was reinforced by General Macdonald's Highland Brigade. This chase every hour led pursued and pursuers nearer to Bloem- fontein, which is about 50 miles from Jacobs- dal, over wide-stretching plains, broken here and there by the nose of a hill thrusting itself ur through the prairie grass. Every step took the Boers away from the eastern mountain ridge. in which they have fought so well, out into the open prairie of these highlands of South Africa. The country it typical of most of the Free State-flat, sandy, and fairly well covered with grass, on which the Boer it wont to graze those thousands of cattle, which are his standard of wealth. Apparently it is a stretch of tableland that well suits British troops and British tactics, while Bloemfontein is believed to be undefended, and practically indefensible. HOW CRONJE WAS TURNED. Now that Lord Roberts's great strategic movement on the Modder and Riet rivers and in the Kimberley district has been crowned with success it is possible (says a Reuter's message) to give some details of the achievement. The mounted troops and horse artillery in four days covered a distance of 90 miles, fought two small engagements, and finished by relieving Kimberley. The rapidity of their move- mem s helped to solve one of the problems of the war and will enable us now to disregard Boer in- trenched positions wherever the country permits of cavalry movement. The movement began on Sunday morning of last week at three o'clock by the concentration of General French's Division at Ramdam. As the infantry appeared in sight early next morning, General French moved forward and seized two drifts on the Riet River. General Tucker's Division followed, and close behind came General Kelly-Kenny's Division. The drift was almost impassable for the transport, which was obliged to park on the south side of the river, but energy and perseverance overcame all obstacles. It was found impossible for a team of mules to draw its load up the steep north bank, and it therefore became necessary to run relays of oxen, which were hitched on in addition to the mules, and thus the loads were dragged over. At four o'clock next morn- ing most of the transport was on the north side of the river. Lord Kitchener accompanied General Tucker's Division, which marched to within three miles of Jacobsdal, being obliged to keep to the river on account of the water. Here the division stayed till the arrival of General Kelly-Kenny, who then moved straight towards Klip Drift on the Modder. General French, who was awaiting the infantry there, left for Kimberley immediately on the arrival of the division. Thursday night of last week saw the completion of the movement. Lord Methuen was opposite Magersfontein and General Tucker held Jacobsdal, with General Col- vile's Division close at hand, ready to move wherever required, and General Kelly-Kenny's holding the Klip and Rondeval Drifts on the Modder. General French had meanwhile arrived at Kimberley. General Cronje bad thus been completely out- flanked and the position rsf the Boer army at Spytfontein was untenable. Starvation or retreat was the only alternative. The Boer commander chose the latter, and at the moment of writing we are uncertain whether it is his whole force which is retreating via the Modder to Bloemfontein or only a portion of it, while the rest is going away to the north of Kimberley. According to the latest reports General Kelly-Kenny is pressing hard on Cronje's rearguard, following him and harassing his retreat. There are three points to be noted in connection with the movement-viz., General French's mobility, the efficiency of the transport arrangements, and the splendid marching of the infantry. 1. It has been proved that a large mobile force is able to move on exterior lines with sufficient rapidity to completely outflank the Boers, although they are so wonderfully mobile. The effect of General French's march upon the enemy has been sufficient to move them out of a strong, indeed, almost im- pregnable position which they had been preparing for two months. So far, the relief of Kimberley has not cost us 50 men. 2. The transport arrangements have been beyond praise. The long marches were made across a veldt of deep sand, without water. Pr1.fre88 was neces- sarily slow, and four divisions had to be fed while they were purposely cut off from their base. It is hardly possible to adequately appreciate the marvel- lous work accomplished by the transport department under such conditions. Added to all the work of the day was the duty of issuing stores during the night, so that the transport officen toiled continuously. This they did with the utmost cheerfulness, and with- out the slightest fuss they everywhere evolved order out of chaos. 8. The marching of the infantry, considering the great heat and the absence of water, once more proves that the British soldier is willing and ready to respond to any call. The men never faltered. Some fell out of the ranks from sheer exhaustion, but these, as soon as they had sufficiently re- covered, aeized the first opportunity to re- join their companies. It was, perhaps, a finer sight than any battle to see the battalions moving through the heavy sand under a broiling aun, every man determined, persevering, and cheerful. Not a murmur was heard, and the whole force was animated by a grand faith in their com- mander. It is no exaggeration to say that nearly flhe whole of the troops, horae, foot, aad artillery, and especially the transport service men, had not more than three hours sleep on any of the last three nights of the movement- Yet there was no sign of any falling off in their health or strength. All are willing and cheerful, and ready and anxious to do all that men can do. General Kelly-Kenny is still pursuing General Cronje's army. He has capture" over 100 waggons and a German ambulance. The prisoner s state that if the pursuit is continued the whole force will pro- bably surrender. According to Dutch reports received here, General French twice charged home through the retreating Boers to the north-west of Kimberley. u General Pole-Carew and the Guards Brigade occupy Magersfontein, the Boer former position. The Boer laagers have been deserted everywhere and a great quantity of stores, tents, &c., has been taken. The repairing of the railway is proceeding. The enemy are fighting a good rear-guard action. They are occupying succve kopjes in order to allow the moving of the convoy, which, however, is forced to go at a slow pace as apparently the animals are dead beat. The Boers in the neighbourhood of Jtlipkraal's Drift are undoubtedly disheartened. BRABANT AND THE BOERS AT DORDRECHT. General Brabant's force has had (said a message irom Bird's River Camp of Saturday's date) some iharp fighting with the rebels, who were eventally forced to abandon the country between Penhoek and Dordrecht. The British loss was 16, including eight killed, among the latter being Captain Crallan and Lieut. Chandler. Brigadier-General Brabant, in command of a mounted division of colonials, left Penhoek on Thursday of last week early in the morning. The column, which was 2000 strong, took their slow- moving transport oxen and mules, not by the mail road, but over the trackless veldt and through a mountainous and most difficult country. Bivouack- ing on the first night in the heart of the rebels' territory, we next morning pushed on our cam" close to the Boer position. Early on Friday we were fired on, and fighting continued all day and night. We cleared the enemy out of successive positions under a terrific rifle fire which was kept up for nearly eight hours, until at length towards midnight we forced the enemy at the point of the bayonet out of their last position-an important one overlooking Dordrecht. On Saturday the position taken up by the Boers, who have retired beyond the town, was on the highest mountain behind it. Our artillery shelled them at intervals, the Boers replying with one gun of bigger calibre than our mountain artillery. The in- fantry were scouting and holding all the hills in the neighbourhood. We command all the enemy's posi- tions, while the Boers have been driven back north of Dordrecht, and.cannot further invade the colony. Our laager is safely ensconced behind our positions. So far the work accomplished by the colonial division is beyond all praise. BULLER IN ACTION AGAIN. CHIEVELEY, February 18 (7.20 p.m.). On Thursday of last week (says a Reuter's tele- gram from Chieveley Camp, dated Sunday evening) our operations were confined to shelling the enemy's trenches. Our front line of infantry advanced from Hussar Hill, and took up positions on the low range called the Red Belt, which connects with Hussar Hill, and runs in a north-easterly direc- tion. The enemy's artillery fire was heavy, but did little damage. The new positions were strongly entrenched, and the infantry advanced further into the plain, which was strewn with bushes and trees. The enemy fired through the trees, using a Nordenfeldt posted on a bill. The casualties on our side were few. On Friday morning the enemy sent several shells in the direction of the naval 12-pounders and the eminence of Hussar Hill, where General Buller had established his headquarters. Two of the General's escort were wounded by shrapnel. The artillery duel continued throughout the day. On Friday evening the attack developed. The infantry in the centre forced the enemy through the wood into the hills. They crossed a deep spruit, and took possession of the small kopjes at the base of Monte Christo. In the meantime a force under General Lyttelton moved up the mountain on the extreme right. The enemy fired from the summit over the road over our men's heads. Lyttelton's force advanced, meeting with little opposition. They worked their way along the fringe of the Boers from six in the morning. Our artillery incessantly shelled Monte Christo with the neck separating it from the hill on the right, called Blauw Krantz. Six lyddite shells burst within a few minutes on the left spur, causing great havoc. The trenches were searched with lyddite, while shrapnel was poured into the trees." The enemy fired a large Creusot in the morning, but app-trently shifted it, as it was not heard in the afternoon. The Nordenfeldt was not used, and it is supposed that the enemy moved their big guns across the TugeJa. The infantry advanced steadily in the centre up to the neck between the hills, the musketry lire being very heavy at times. By Friday night they had gained a couple of hundred yards on the hill. The whole range is called Cigolo, and is very thickly wooded. During the heavy musketry fire a subaltern successfully took ammunition up the hill to the men on the right, who used a Maxim effec- tively. THE RENSBURG RETIREMENT. The retirement from Rensburg was (says a message from Arundel) carried out in the most orderly manner. The stores were withdrawn by railway on the previous day, the baggage waggons leaving before the evacuation by the troops began. Two companies, however, were left behind. They were presumably asleep after cutpost duty. A portion of them have since arrived at Arundel, but some have probably been capt.ired by the enemy. On Saturday morning Colonel Henderson, of the Inniskillings, made a reconnaissance northward, with four guns of field artillery, and a company of Dragoons, together with a squadron of Lancers, under Captain Hay, and two companies' of Aus- tralians, under Captain Legge and Lieutenant Homes. This force proceeded towards Kuilfontein homestead, which is situated in the middle of a wide flat. They rode in skirmishing order, with flanking parties, approaching the hills on the right and left. Those on the right found Vaal Kop occupied by one or two Boer scouts, who fired the usual three shots as a signal, and retired towards Rensburg. Those on the left found the enemy occupying, several hills to the southwest of Kuilfontein, and brisk musketry fire ensued for a few minute", Our scouts then took shelter and firing qeased. As soon as they reached a suitable position our mins opened fire on Kuilfontein, and about 500 Boers were seen to leave the homestead and gallop away to the westward. We continued to shell what appeared to be their camp. In about half an hour the enemy sprang a sur- prise on us in the shape of a Pompom gun, which opened from some hills on the left. As the musketry fire had come from there our artillery was immediately sent in that direction, but no smoke re- vealed the position of the guns, though the shells came up in a quick succession of five or six at a time, even as many as 10 falling in a row across the flat, sometimes in front of us, sometimes behind, and again right in our midst. But we were well scattered, dotting the whole plain, and never a man was hit. Our guns took up a more favourable position, and reopened fire. In the course of a couple of hours the enemy were seen about a 100 strong creeping along a ridge from Rensburg towards Vaal Kop, P, with another" Pompom gun, which soon got into position on our right flank, and opened very briskly, firing its full 10 shots every time, but, like its mate on the left, always finding ground in which to lodge them. The position was now uncomfortable for us. A slight ridge which had afforded some cover from the first gun was subjected to a cross fire, and there being nothing to gain by affording the enemy further target practice we came home, having ascertained the enemy's strength and position. Capain Longhurst, R.A.M.C., speat a night with the Boers at Hobkirk's Farm, looking after the wounded Australians. He says the enemy were remarkably kind both to him and the wounded. They provided mattresses for them and gave the Boer doctor all the eggs they had for the sufferers. The doctor rode a fine charger, well accoutred, and the Boers cast longing eyes at him but he, on the other hand, discovered that both he and Captain Longhurst had many mutual friends in London, and soon they were on the best of terms. The Boers and our wounded also fraternised. Noticing that most of their bandoliers were filled with softed-nosed bullets, one of our men re- marked that they ought not to bring such things as these to fire at us; whereupon a Boer replied: We must bring whatever we can get to fire at you." Then the friendly doctor explained that this coatingent consisted of Boers from the north- of the Transvaal, who were used to hunting big game along the Limpopo, and had obtained their ammuni- tion for that purpose. One of our fellows, whose thigh was shattered close up to the hip, interjected Well, I wish you had been kind enough to shoot me a little lower down." After the retirement of our forces the Boers met and held a prayer meeting to thank God for their successes. Captain Longhurst appears very favour- ably impressed with the treatment received at the hands of our friends the enemy, who assured him that the war was hateful to them, and they would be happy to see it at an end. THE SOLDIER'S PRAYER. Beuter's special correspondent at Cape Town has received communication of the following prayer by the Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, which Field-Marshal Lord Roberts has ordered to be distributed for the use of soldiers in the field: Almighty Father. I have often sinned against Thee. O, wash me in the precious blood of the Lamb of God. me with Thy Holy Spirit that I may lead a new life- Spare me to see again those whom I love at home, or fit me for Thy presence in peace. Strengthen us to quit ourselves like men in our right and great cause. Keep us faithful unto death, calm in danger, patient in suffering, merciful as well as brave, true to our Queen, our country, and our colours. If it be Thy will, enable us to win victory for England, but above all grant us the better victory over temptation and sin, over life and death, that we may be more than conquerors through Him who loved us and laid dowa His life for us, Jesus our Saviour, the Captain of the Army of God.-A-en." The letter of Lord Roberts's private secretary directing the distribution is as follows: J Army Headquarters, Cape Town, January 23, 1900. "Dear Sir,—I am desired by Lord Roberta I to ask you to be so kind as to distribute to aU ranks under your command the short prayef for the use of soldiers in the field,' by the ¡ Primate of Ireland, copies of which I now forward. His lordship earnestly hopes that it may be helpful to all her Majesty s soldiers who are now serving in South Africa.—Yours faithfully, II MELVILLJiJ CHAMBERLAIN, Colonial Private Secretary. "To the Officer Commanding." THE GALLANT LONDON VOLUNTEERS. On the receipt at the London Mansion House on Friday night of Lord Roberts's cable announcing ;he engagement at Jacobsdal, in which the City of London Imperial Volunteers took such an im- portant part, the Lord Mayor promptly telegraphed co Colonel Cholmondeley at Jacobsdal: '"tv Well done, City Imperials." A cablegram received by the Lord Mayor from Cape Town on Sunday stated that the City Imperial mounted men drove the Boers out of Jacobsdal, and further announced that a strong section of the City of London Regiment.. with their commandant, Colonel. Mackinnon, were leaving Cape Town for the front, accompanied by Mr. Newton, hon. sec. of the C.I.V. in South Africa. Colonel Cholmondeley's men are highly praised on all hands, and were reported to have behaved at Jacobsdal "like fire- hardened veterans." THE IMPERIAL YEOMANRY. The Duke of Cambridge inspected at Southampton on Saturday the corps of Imperial Yeomanry which bears his name, prior to their embarking on the Dun- vegan Castle. They had an enthusiastic send-off in London on their way to Nine Elms. The transports Gascon and Guelph also sailed for the Cape on Satur- day, and further contingents went out subsequently in the Cymric and other transports. BOERS DRIVEN OVER THE TUGELA BY BULLER. SEVERAL CAMPS CArTVItIED. On Monday evening the War Office issued the fol- lowing deslpitt(:h: "From General Buller to Secretary of State for War. "CIIIEVELEY CAP, February 19. I yesterday moved round the enemy's flank. The Queen's, who had bivouacked on the northern slope of Cingolo, crossed the nek and, supported by the rest of the 2nd Brigade, under General Hild- yard, assaulted and took the southern end of Monta Cristo the 4th Brigade, on the left slope, the western. The Royal Welsh c Fusiliers, supported by the rest of the 6th Brigade; assailed the eastern flank of the enemy's position while the 2nd Brigade ofCavalry, on the extreme right, watched the eastern slopes of Monte Cristo, and drove back those of the enemy who went there to escape from our artillery fire. Assaulted by a heavy artillery fire on their front and flank, and attacked on their flank and rear, the enemy made but slight resistance, and, abandoning their strong position, were driven across the Tugela. I have taken several camps and waggonloads of ammunition, and several of stores and supplies, and a few prisoners. The weather has been intensely hot, and the ground traversed exceedingly difficult. The energy I and dash of the troops have been very pleasant to see, and all have done well. The work of the irregular cavalry, the Queen's, the Scots Fusiliers, and the Rifle Brigade was per- haps most noticeable, while the excellent practice of the artillery and the naval guns, and the steadiness of the gunners under at times a very accurate lire, was remarkable. "The accurate fire of the naval guns from Chieveley was of great assistance. Our casualties are not, I think, heavy." CIUEVKLET CAMP, Monday (10.30 a.m.). A Reuter's message, dated as above, said To-day the enemy's line of fortresses has been broken, and an important success has been achieved by the British arms. Yesterday the whole of the enemy's position facing up from Hlangwana to Green Hill was shelled with lyddite, and shraphel was poured into the Boer sandbag trenches, which could be distinctly seen. It seemed incredible that human beings could out- live such a storm. Our infantry was well advanced last night. The Fusiliers Brigade held the enemy in check in front, while Ljttelton's division moved along the crest of a high hill to the right, called Monte Cristo, which was separated from Green Hill by a low kopje. About noon to-day General Lyttelton's men appeared on the extreme point of the Bummit of Monte Cristo Hill. The General had found a chink in the enemy's armour, and decided to strike without delay. The Scottish Fusiliers commenced advancing up the slopes of the little kopje which intervened between Monte Cristo Hill and Green Hill. They were met with a very scattered fire, to which they paid no heed, and the summit was easily gained. The Irish Fusiliers at the same time commenced the ascent of the Green Hill heights, where the enemy were in position. CONDITION OF LADYSMITH. LADYSMITH. Sunday (by heliograph to Weenen). A Central News despatch thus headed, said: All is well here. Dr. Jameson is ill in bed with an attack of fever. Three Natal Dutchmen, alleged to be rebels, and awaiting trial here on the charge of high treason, made a determined attempt to escape last night. They had cut through the solid iron window-frame and the bars of their cell, and were in the act of get- ting out when they were discovered and seized by the sentries. THE COLONIAL DIVISION AT DORDRECHT. The subjoined official despatch was published by the War Office on Monday Lord Roberts to Secretary of State for War. (Received 11.30 a.m., Feb. 19.) JACOBSDAL, 11.40 p.m., Feb. 18. "Brabant wires from Bird River, 17th, that he attacked Boer position previous day. "He gradually closed in on laager during day, fighting lasting trom nine a.m. till dusk. "At midnight Captain Flanagan, 1st Brabant's Horse, attacked, and took laager at point of bayonet, capturing stores. Enemy has now taken up position on heights, near Dordrecht, where they have a Krupp gun. Our casualties slight-seven killed and eight wounded. Clements reports from Arundel that he made a reconnaissance on February 17, and found the enemy in position, west of Rensburg." THE CAPTURED BRITISH CONVOY. Reinforcements have been hurried to Lord Kitchener, and, according to reports, he has had hard fighting with the enemy's rearguard. His men are said to have taken a great quantity of stores, in- cluding 150 waggons and a vast number of cattle. The waggons necessarily move much slower than the mounted Boers, and have been doubtless abandoned, as the oxen have sunk one after another exhausted. Against this loss of the Boers we have to set the capture of a British convoy, which is now definitely ascertained. Still, it is difficult to see what the enemy can do with this convoy, as Lord Kitchener's troops must lie between it and their main force. BOY BUGLER'S VISIT TO OSBORNE. A great honour was conferred on Monday upon the boy Dunne, of the 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers, who, on duty as bugler in the Battle of Colenso, was wounded in the breast and right arm. When visited at the Netley Hospital by Princess Chris- tian and Princess Henry of Battenberg, the little hero is said to have made a characteristic answer to the question as to what he would like the Queen to do for him. "I should like her Majesty to send me back to the front," he is reported to have replied. Instead of sending him to the front her Majesty commanded him to proceed to Osborne, and the little fellow, clad in khaki, and wrapped in a military overcoat, ,on Monday morning crossed the Solent from Southsea on the first ordinary steam-packet, for the purpose of paying a visit to his Sovereign. He had a hearty reception at West Cowes when he left the boat at the side of Lieutenant Knox, who had charge of the lad. A great number of people lined the pon- toon to catch a passing view of him. Entering a carriage, which had been sent for them, they pro- ceeded direct to the palace, and were admitted to the Royal audience chamber. Her Majesty gave the boy a gracious welcome, and presented him with a new bugle, to take the place of the one he lost at Colenso. After lunching at the Palace Lieutenant Knox and Bugler Dunne drove back to West Cowes pontoon, and returned by the noon boat. Dunne, a manly little chap of 15, was born at Ballingawn, Isle of Man, but his father is a native of Tipperary. He is a member of the Army Temper- ance Society. During his absence at the front from home he left his mother half his pay. Since his return to Portsmouth he has been quite the hero of the hour. A large number of presents have been sent to him from all parts, one being a goat, which he has turned over to the drummer boys as a regi- mental pet. Naturally the little bugler is proud of the honour conferred upon him. I saw him (says a correspon- dent of the Daily Telegraph) at his mother's quarters in Cambridge Barracks in the old town of Ports- mouth soon after his return in the afternoon. He was still in khaki, and was evidently well-pleased with his reception by the Queen. Of course I was a little nervous," he said, in answer to my question as to how he got on; but her Majesty was very kind. When I was ushered in by Sir John McNeil, I found the Queen sitting in a small room, near a table. I bowed and stood still, but was called, up tip the Queen's side. Her Majesty I seemed pleased to see me, and asked me where I was wounded. I pointed out the place on my right arm, and, in reply to another question, I explained the circumstances. This took me two or three minutes. The Queen did not ask for any particulars about the battle. I told her that I was in A' Company; we were doubling towards the Boer line late in the day, and I was in front with the officers, when I was hit on the muscle of the right arm and on the chest with pieces of shell. My arm was badly wounded, but I was so excited that I did not feel any pain. My arm dropped powerless by my side, so I shifted my bugle to my left hand and ran on with the others. About five minutes afterwards, though, I fell to the ground from loss of blood, I suppose, and I was carried to the ambulance waggons in the rear by a stretcher party. There my wounds were dressed. I had dropped my bugle in the river. I knew the spot, and wanted to go back, but of course could not do so." The Queen questioned the little fellow as to his future: I told her," Dunne said, **I liked the army, and wae anxious to get on in it, and her Majesty, who was very kind, wlshed me; a Successful career. She then presented me with this bugle." With a natural pride little Dunne then showed me the bugle. It was silver-mounted, with a green bugle-cord attached. On a silver plate was the fol- lowing inscription: Presented to Bugler John Francis Dunne, 1st Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers, By Queen Victoria, To replace the bugle lost by him on the field of battle at Colenso on the 15th December, 1899, when he was wounded. As her Maiestv had been desirous of having Bugler Dunne's portrait he took several to Osborne, including a large-sized portrait of himself taken soon after his return to England. This 'he gave to the Queen. The interview soon afterwards terminated, and Bugler Dunne and Lieutenant Knox returned to 'Portsmouth.
ESCAPJC OF ELEPHANTS AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. Just before four o'clock on Sunday, the hour at which the usual Sunday afternoon concert at the Crystal Palace begins, and while the audience were settling themselves into their places, a terrible acci- dent happened ia Mr. Lord George Sanger's menagerie, which is housed in a building on the other side of the South Nave. It appears that two of the elephants — one of them an enormous beast known as Charlie "suddenly escaped from con- trol and, trumpeting loudly, charged for the door. There were, it is understood, but few attendants about at the moment, and these l6st ho time in making their escape. All but one succeeded in getting away, but he was overtaken just at the door, ripped up, and trampled to pieces by the "infuriated Charlie." Meanwhile, the other beast had made his way across the nave to one of Messrs. Lyons's buffets, the doors of which be smashed, and then he transferred his attentions to the concert-room. He broke through the doors and proceeded to walk up one of the aisles. The people, fortunately, were mainly gathered near the orchestra, on the side furthest away from the brute, and made their escape by other exits. The scene for a few moments was of the wildest description. Mapy women were there, and their shrieks resounded through thit btiilding. The elephant did not attempt to pursue the fleeing crowd, but, turning in an opposite direction, began to force his way through the glass and wooden frame- work of that side of the hill which connects it with the theatre in the centre transept, where a series of circus performances have only iust concluded. Tearing down some 15ft. of the wall, the elephant walked leisurely around the ting, and then made his way by numerous side courts and the roller skating- rink to the door opening on the north tower gardens, by which he weat out. By this time the menagerie attendants tod other persons connected. with the palace had got to work,.andef%,hile a party went in pursuit, attempt* were made to cajole the other animal, Charlie," who now stood quietly over one of the numerous statues in the South Nave, back into custody. The elephant refused to be coaxed, and at last 4oe. of fcyanide of potassium were ad- ministered to him on some bread in the hope of poisoning him. Although the poison did not have the anticipated effect, the animal became dazed and stunefied. and in this condition was led back and chained to a younger elephant. Meanwhilei the remains of the unhappy man, Chippe wOod," as he was commonly known, had been removed and the police communicated with. Later on it was decided to put an end to Charlie by shooting him, and for this purpose a London firm of gunmakers was communicated with. The animal was shot just after 10 p.m. by two ele- phant guns of "450 calibre and three Lee-Metford rifles. The first volley brought the elephant to the ground, but a second was considered neces- sary. The younger animal was then still at large, but was finally captured in the neighbourhood of Beckenham, whether he had been pursued by men on horseback and others. The extent of the damage he worked was not stated, but trees and fences in the grounds of the Crystal Palace were torn down where they had arrested his progress. In conse- quence of the incident Mr. Gillman, the manager, abandoned the Sunday evening concert.
A REMARKABLE RAILWAY ACCIDENT. Lieutenant-Colonel H. A. Yorke, R.E., has reported to the Board of Trade-the result of his inguiry into the accident that occurred at 3.22 a.m. on December 8, to the up Irish mailtrainat Norton-bridge, on the London and North-Western Railway. As this train was approaching Norton-bridge on the up fast line it ran over a bale of cloth, which had fallen from a goods train some time previously, and one of the bogies of a sleeping saloon was derailed. The train travelled some distance in this condition- i.e., with one coach partlY derailed until it reached the junction with the North Stafford- shire Railway. Here the bogie was slewed across the rails to the right, causing the whole of the rear por- tion of the train to leave the rails and to foul all the lines. The engine and four leading vehicles re- mained on the track and ran through the station before being stopped, the driver being in ignorance of what had occurred. An up goods train which was approaching on the up slow line, all signals being off for' it, ran into a portion <?f the mail with disastrous effect. Some of the coaches were wrecked, the goods engine was overturned, and 16 waggons were derailed. One passenger was killed, one lady had her wrist broken, and three passengers were slightly injured. The driver and fireman of the goods train were thrown off their engine, the former being badly hurt and the latter severely shaken. Lieut-Colonel Yorke says that the bale of cloth was loaded at Manchester in the 9.10 P-M. goods train from that place to Birmingham. It must have been somewhat loosely loaded, probably on the top of other goods, and have fallen off the waggon towards the left side of the train' in the neighbour- hood of the up distant signals for Norton-bridge at about 11.45 p.m. It must have been lying on the ballast for nearly three-and-a-half hours when the Irish mail reached the spot, and what happened to it during all this time can only be conjectured. Numerous trains passed the place, and probably the package was struck first by one and then by the others, the covering being thereby ripped off it, and the cloth gradually unrolled, and whatever may have been its original position, there can be no doubt that when the Irish mail passed it was in the four- foot way of the up fast line. It "lost at this time have been to a great extent unrolled, as otherwise it would have come in contact with the ash-pan or brake beams of the engine. The engine, tender, and first four coaches passed over it Safely, but in some way or other the cloth, or a portion of it, got under the right-hand wheels of the leading bogie of the fifth vehicle, which was a sleeping-car, thereby giving the bogie a twist to the right, and at the same time causing the wheels to mount the rails and drop off on to the ballast. The car travelled in this fashion with one bogi& aflf' the raflai, for 1120 yards until it reached the intersection of the down North Staffordshire line with the up fast line. Here the derailed bogie was turned sharply to the right, and the train became divided into three parts. Tne engine and four front vehicles broke away from the rest of the train and continued on their journey on the up line, until they were stopped by the vacuum brake, which was automatically applied owing to the separation of the train. The fifth vehicle, which was the one with the derailed bogie, turned to the right across the down main line on to the up slow line, where it collided with an up goods train which was travelling with clear signals at a speed of about 30 miles an hour. The car was upset and pushed on its side in front of the goods engine as far as the north end of the station, where the engine fell over in the space between the fast and slow lines. The rest of the mail train followed the direction of the up main line, though with some if not all its wheels off the rails, until it reached the junction between the fast and slow lines, where it also was diverted to the right, and again fouled the up slow line, causing a second collision with the goods train, and completing the wreckage of both trains. The presence of the bale of clow upon the ballast is, says Lieutenant-Qolonel Yorke, evidence that it was carelessly loaded or insufficiently secured, and to this fact the very serious accident above described must be attributed,
IxViPKHlAL PARLIAMENT. HOUSE OF LORDS.—FEBRUARY 19. VOLUNTEER RANGES. Lord Dartmouth asked the Secretary of State fci War how the sum of E40,000, which was in last year's Estimates appropriated to Volunteer ranges 9 had been applied and Lord Northbrook suggested that the county councils should have compulsorj Sowers granted to them for the purpose of hiring md for moderately long ranges. MILITARY WORKS. Lord LansdoWfie replied that since the Military Works Loans Act was passed last year the authori- ties at the War Office had placed themselves in com- munication with the General Officers of districts, and bad called upon them to make recommendations as to the most advantageous manner in which this com- paratively smalt sum of E40,000 might be spent. The last of the answers to these interrogatories had only just been received, and no allotmenf of the money had yet been made. With regard to the sug- gestion of Lord Northbrook, it was a very reason- able one, and he hoped to be able to find some means of using the agency of the County Councils in obtain- ing suitable rifle ranges for the Volunteers. INEBRIATES BILL. On the motion of Lord Balfour the Inebriates Amendment (Scotland) Bill was read a second time. IMPERIAL YEOMANRY. Lord Raglan asked whether the Secretary of State for War was aware that the granting of temporary rank in the army to officers of the Imperial Yeomanrj and Imperial Volunteers had superseded all Militia officers of equal rank. Lord Lansdowne considered it was likely that there would be some supersession of the kind referred to. The Imperial Yeomanry had neces- sarily been enlisted as part of the Regular Army, and consequently- temporary commissions in the Regular Army had been given to the officers. tie perceived the difficulty to which the noble lord alluded, but he did not clearly nee how they were to get over it. He could not help thinking, however, that the practical inconvenience would not be a very grave one. Lord Raglan asked her Majesty's Government whether they would include embodied Militiamen in any bill they might introduce to prevent the Reserve men, Yeomanry, and Volunteers being dis- franchised by doing permanent duty. Lord Lansdowne replied that he had seen the draft of the bill and that Militiamen were included in it. HOUSE OF COMMONS. THE IMPERIAL FORCES. Mr. Wyndham, replying to Mr. Drage, intimated that it was likely that the colonial Governments would be invited to express their views on the subject of the permanent reorganisation of the forces of the Empire. RUSSIAN TROOPS IN CENTRAL ASIA. Lord G. Hamilton, in answer to Mr. H. Roberts, stated that he had received information as to an increate in the number of Russian troops stationed in Central Asia, and that the relations of the Indian Government with the Ameer had undergone no change. THE PATRIOTIC PUND. Mr. Balfour informed Mr. Kearley, with regard to the administration of the Royal Patriotic Fund, that the Chairman of the Committee of Inquiry would be Lord Justice Collins, and that among the members would be Lord Northbrook, the Right Hon. William Lidderdale, and the Lord Mayor. The committee would be neither Parliamentary nor departmental in qharacter. CONSTABLE RESERVISTS. Sir M. W. Ridley introduced a bill to legalise the granting of allowances and gratuities out of police funds to the families of constables who have rejoined the colours as Reservists, and Mr. T. W. Russell brought in a measure respecting the census for Great Britain next year. THE ARMY INCRE/SE. The vote for the addition of 120,000 men to the land forces of the country was considered on re- port. The debate was listened to by comparatively few members, the benches usually occupied by the Opposition being for a great part of the evening almost empty. Mr. W. Redmond, who began the discussion, re- sisted the proposal to increase the Army permanently, and asked what would be the amount of the annual expenditure necessitated by the plan of the Govern- ment. For the rest, be descanted once again upon the iniquity of the war. Mr. Sinclair tendered to the Government the thanks of his constituents for the scheme of defence which had been submitted to Parliament. Mr. Bryn- Roberts deplored the Government's departure from the South Atrican policy of Mr. Gladstone, and attributed the war to the influence of the capitalists. Mr. Pike Pease regretted that the House of Commons should have to listen to speeches from Nationalist members, which would not be tolerated at any public meeting in Great Britain, and, after some remarks by Mr. Austin in denunciation of the war. Mr. Gibson Bowles congratulated the Government on their refusal to introduce conscription because no compulsion of that sort was necessary in this coun ry, where men were always ready to respond to an appeal to arms. That there was any reason to feel alarm for the safety of the country he refused to admit, but lie believed we ought to make ready to face difficulties on the frontiers of India and else- where. Sir W. Lawson censured the Government once more for the militant policy which they had pursued, and Mr. MacNeill characterised the conflict as one of the foulest transactions in the history of man- kind. Mr. Atherley-Jones held that the steps taken by the Government for defensive purposes were more than sufficient, while Sir J. Colomb regretted that this question of military preparation had been treated almost exclusively from the point of view of the territorial defence of the country. He feared that this might be regarded by the colonies as an in- timation that they would have to take care of them- selves in the future. What we wanted was a mobile field army for service abroad. This the proposals of the Government were not likelyHto supply, and he was afraid that there would be an unfortunate waste of the resources of the State, ,< After speeches by several Nationalist member* a division was taken, and the vote was confirmed by a majority of 134 votes against 32. The supplementary vote of £ 135000,000- fejtrtnili- tary purposes was next considered, and was opposed iby the Nationalists. Mr. Flavin moved a large re- duction, and was supported by Mr. W. Redmond, who made a second long speech. Mr. Dillon called attention to several subjects, in- cluding the pay of the colonial troops, the possible employment of natives in the war, and the pressure alleged to have been exercised upon Irish Militia regiments to induce them to volunteer for foreign service. Mr. Wyndham, commenting on the persistent re- sistance of the Irish members, remarked that it would be strange if they should be right in their attitude and all the rest of the House should be wrong. With regard to the precise amount asked for in the vote for the payment of colonial troops, he stated that the sum was £ 52,000. The future pay of colonial troops would be one of the questions discussed with the representatives of the colonies when they came to this country. As to the native question, he reminded Mr. Dillon that the Government undertook from the beginning to I dissuade the Basutos and other tribes from taking up arms. To that pledge the Government, of course, adhered, but they, could not prevent any of the natives from defending themselves if the Boers should attack them. He repeated what he said on Friday with reference to the Irish Militia regiments and the order of the War Office that no pressure was to be put upon them, and showed that influence was being exercised'on the other side by reading docu- ments which were being circulated in Ireland with the express object of deterring militiamen from volunteering. Mr. J. Redmond, after affirming, amid loud Minis- terial cries of No," that the opinion of every Euro- pean nation, except Turkey, was against England at the present moment, told the Government that in their endeavour to suppress the independence of the South African Republics they would be opposed to the end by the Irish members. After other speeches from the same quarter of the House, The motion for the reduction of the vote was nega- tived by 235 votes against.81. t There being indications that the discussion was to be continued, Mr. Balfour moved the closure, which was carried by 207 votes against 30, and the money vote was then confirmed by 207 votes against 31. The report of the Ways and Means resolution authorising the, Exchequer to issue the sum of £ 13,000,000 for the pnrposes of the war was agreed to by a majority of 157, after the closure had been applied.
A GOOD example has been set by Mr. Mellin in supplying his food gratuitously to the babies who have been rendered fatherless by the death of soldiers killed in the war. Other manufacturers might see their way to follow in Mr. Mellin's footsteps, and lighten the burden of the widows of some of out fallen heroes. t FRANCS has paid its last pension to Napoleon I. s soldiers. In 1869 a law was passed granting fcl a year to all non-commissioned officers ana priva who had served 10 years in the armies of the first Republic.or the first Empire and had received a wound. For the first year the payments amounted to E120,000, last year the sum was £10, and the last recipient i. now dead at the age of 105 years.
CURRENT SPORT. The Southern Counties Cross-Country Champion- ships, both senior and junior, took place on Saturday over the usual course at Wembley-park in miserable weather. The lap-very heavy and sodden turf- Consisted of something under three and a-half miles both inside and outside the park, the full distance for both races being estimated at 10 miles. The nine clubs in the senior championship gave 95 starters. Passing the judges for the first time C. Bennett. last year's champion, led, with A. W. Cook (Essex Beagles) second, and J. Weaver (Highgate H.) third. After one complete lap C. Bennett and J. Pratt (Highgate H.) passed the judges stand almost level in 21min. 13 2-5secs., W. R. Davies (S.L.H.), being third in 22min. 10 4-5sec., quite 250 yards behind the two leaders G. F. Flint (F. H.), was fourth and C. F. Morgan (Bath and Somerset A.C.), fifth. At the completion of the second lap Bennett and Pratt were still level in 41min. 47 l-5sec., Morgan being third, a long way behind, in 43uiin. 29 l-5sec., J. R. Muncer (F.H.), A. W. Clark (E.B.), T. Bartlett (E.B.), and G. Martin (E.B.), next in the order named. In the final circuit Bennett rapidly drew away from Pratt, and eventually won easily for the third time in succession in 62min. 23 4-5sec. from Pratt, who was also second last year. Pratt's time was 62min. 42 4-5sec. The order of the next 10 was as follows: A. W. Cook (E.B.), 3, 65min. I-Dscc.; J. R. Muncer (F.H.), 4, 56min. 7 3-osec.; T. Bartlett (E.B.), 5, 65min. 14 4-5sec.; C. F. Morgan (Bath and Somerset A.C.), 6, 65min. 19 3-.1sec.; S. J. Woolley, 7, 65min. 24 4-5sec.; W. J. Clark (E.B.), 8, 65niin. 32 l-5sec.; G. Martin (E.B.), 9, 65min. 48 l-5sec.; A,, Horne: 10, 6min. 26 2-5sec.; E. Reeman (H.H.), 11, 66min. 34 358ec. G. Flint (F.H.), 12, 66min. 38 2-5sec. The club placings were as follows: Highgate Harriers (holders), champions (2, 7, 10, 11, 13, 16), total 59 points Essex Beagles, 2, 65 points Finchley H., 3, 77 points; Polytechnic H., 4, 201 points; South London H., 5, 225 points; Ranelagh H., 6, 268 points; Blackheath II., 7, 297 points. The Bath and Somerset A.C. and Tee-To-Tum teams were counted out, not finishing six men in. The 11 clubs entered for the Junior Championship pro- duced 115 starters. A. E. Hutchings (Bexhill H. and H.) ran a grand race all through with G. Still (Unity A.C.), and finally won by a couple of yards from Still in 66min. 3 4-5sec., the latter's time being 65min. 4 1-5sec-: the next four men being D. G. Harris (Reading A.C.) third, time 66min. 52 2-5sec.; H. F. Darby (Queen's Park H.), fourth, 65min.; J. Johnson (Thames Ironworks A.C.), fifth, 66min. 10 l-5sec.; J. J. Mayhew (Unity A.C.), sixth, 69min. 47 2-5sec. Hutchings was junior champion last year. The club placings were as fol- lows: Unity A.C., second (6, 7, 8, 12, 22, total 57, junior champions); Thames Ironworks A.C., second, 99 points; Herne-hill H., third, 147 points; Queen's Park, fourth, 165 points. The Bexhill H. and II. did not finish six men home. On Saturday, the 18th annual Northern Cross- Country Championships were decided at Rotherham. The venue chosen was the racecourse where the national championships are to be brought off next month. Thaw had converted the ground into a perfect quagmire, and the going could not possibly have been heavier. There was a good show of runners; 15 of the 17 clubs on the card entered for the junior race, comprising about 136 runners. The course was about seven miles. All twelve clubs appeared in seniors, the course being about ten miles. R. E. Hughes (Gateshead Congregational), who ran gamely throughout, won the junior race in summary fashion, his time being 43min. 41sec. The local men ran well, and Clayton (Rotherham) was second, with Baxter (Rotherham) a good third. The club placings showed: Rotherham, 1, with 117; Gateshead, 2, with 131; Sankey, 3, with 132; and Leeds Parish Church, 4, with 145,Ezard (Bolton Primrose) last year's winner, finished fourth for the Senior Championship. Hosker, who won the pre- vious two years, was greatly fancied, and ran well in the earlier stages of the race, but the ground seemed to suit the Satford men a great deal better, and Marsh, of that club, was the winner in 66min. Sacc., gaining an easy victory over Hosker, of Farnworth, near Widnes. Club; Morris (Salford) was third, Preston (Dalton) fourth, Parsonage (Warrington) fifth, and Holt (Warrington) sixth. The club plac- ings were: Salford 1, 52 points; Bolton 2, 97; Dalton 3, 100. The annual Midland Senior Cross Country Cham- pionship took place on Saturday at Halesowen. near Birthingham, in fine weather and before a large attendance of spectators. There were 36 com- petitors, representing Birchfteld, Small Heath, Northampton, and county clubs. The distance was 10 miles. S. J. Robinson, the captain of the North- ampton Club, took the lead soon after the start, and, never afterwards being passed, finished the distance in 54min. 27sec., lmin. Msec, in front of Stokes (Birchfield). who was second. Twenty completed the distance. The clubs placed were:, Bircnfield, 1; Small Heath, 2 Northampton, 3. There was a large crowd to see Cambridge Univer- sity v. Richmond Rugby football match on Saturday on the Richmond Athletic Ground. Cambridge won by two goals and four tries to nothing, a victory that was largely the work of their brilliant set of for- wards. Indeed, the University seem quite as good scrummagers as they were last term the way their men shove and their method of keeping on the ball were splendidly, efficae-iotis on Saturday, when they were meeting a pack of very good quality. Indeed, Richmond fought a losing game with splendid courage and their many tremendous scrummages. Schwarz, the Richmond half, broke down in the first few minutes of the game, and Frank Stout was taken out of the scrummage to fill his place. Other Rugby matches played on Saturday re- sulted thus: London Scottish beat London Irish by one try to 0. Kensington v. Old Leysians Drawn. Harlequins v. St, Bartholomew's Hospital: Drawn. Swansea beat Newport by two goals and onb try. Northampton beat Croydon by three goals, thrse tries to 0. Leicester beat Treherbert by two goals to 0. Gloucester beat Cheltenham by three goals and two tries to 0. Cardiff beat Moséley by one goal four tries to a dropped goal. Rosslyn Park beat Old Merchant Taylors by two goals one try to 0. Of the matches left over from the first day Of the second round of the Football Association Challenge Cup competition, five were played on Saturday, and three were brought to a definite issue. But the holders could only draw with Sheffield Wednesday, and had to meet, again on Monday, when Liverpool and West Bromwich had to also replay their game. Great interest was aroused on Saturday by the suc- cess which attended the football of Southampton,' whose team may be said to have won their spurs two years ago, when they made such a gallant fight to beat Notts Forest, the ultimate winners of the competition. Southampton have played con- sistently well this season, and with; Totten- ham Hotspur may be said to share the distinction of being the best side in the South. They had for- midable opponents in Newcastle United, who have doqe very well in the home matches in the League; but their supporters were pretty confident, a conn- dence that was not misplaced, seeing that South- ampton won by four goals to one. In the draw for the third round Southampton again had the good fortune to secure choice of ground, and they now have to meet either Liverpool or West Bromwich. Millwall v. Queen's Park Rangers was marked by the vigorous way in which it was conducted, rather than for any particular skill in foot- ball. The match ended in a win for Millwall. Preston North End, by their clever win over the Blackburn Rovers, qualified to meet Notts Forest at Preston in the third round. The frost, snow, and rains left the grounds in a very bad condition, and thus was the pace of the play reduced from its usual strength. The public seemed as keen as -ever for the cup ties, and there were huge crowds every- where. The Cup-ties reduced the League championship programme to somewhere about half its normal length on Saturday, and to make things oriefer still, the weather prevented the playing of Stoke v. Sunderland. With Sheffield United engaged else- where, Aston Villa had an opportunity for getting, anyhow for the moment, the first position in the League, and the opportunity was not lost, for the famous Birmingham team beat Notts County by no less than six goals to two. The Villa advantage of one point is little more than nominal, for when the record comes to be closely examined, it will be found that Sheffield United have played two matches less than the Villa, and with even one of these a ▼ietory for them they would again go to the first place. In the Second Division of the League on Saturday th. foUowing results were arrived at! Grimsby Town beat Bolton Wanderers by two to one. Newton Heath beat Small Heath by three to two. Gainsborough Trinity v. Woolwich Arsenal Drawn, one goal each. Leicester Fosse beat Middlesbrough by one to aiL -r- 41 1 Walsall beat Luton by seven to three. New Brighton Tower beat Loughborough by twt to one. Chesterfield beat Barnsley by two to one. Burton Swifts v. Burslem Port Vale: Drawu, two goals each. The following Southern League games were decided on Saturday: Tottenham Hotspur beat Bedminster by five to two. Thames Ironworks v. Bristol Rovers: Drawn, no score. Swindon beat Reading by two to one. Gravesend v. Sheppey United Drawn, one all. Bristol City beat Chatham by four to one. New Brompton beat Brighton United by one to nil. In the Amateur Cup, Old HalVernians beat Col- chester by eight to two, and Lowestoft beat Leytott* stone by nine to nil. In the third round of the Scottish Cup; on Satur- day, Glasgow Rangers, Dundee and Celtic wntvtheiyi ties. At their third meeting on Monday on the Wednea* day ground at Sheffield the two Sheffield clubf brought their match to a definite decision. The Sheflield United, the holders of the cup, played very good football and won by two goals to none. There were 20,000 spectators, bringing the attendance foi the three matches to over 70,000. Sheffield United meet Bury in the next round on Saturday at Bramall* lane. The Cambridge Eleven were beaten by Reading at Cambridge on Monday by two goals to one.
THE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE'S SON. In the Brompton Oratory, on Saturday afternoon,, took place the marriage of the Hon. Frank RusseHL son of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Ltu^ Russell of Killowen, with Miss Mary RitchiflL daughter of the Right Hon. C. T. Ritchie, M. President of the Board of Trade. The bride wgq. attended by two train-bearers, the Misses Elapealp and Joan Young, her nieces, and by three brides maids-Miss Maud Ritchie, her sister; and the Hoot Lilian and Hon. Margaret Russell, lthe bridegroomTl sisters. The bride, who was accompanied up the. church by her father, wore a gOwn of white satin, draped with Brussels point gauze, over a petticoat of white chiffon, the long Court train being trimmed with chiffon and orange-blossoms. She wore spray*' of flowers in her hair and a tttlle veil; her ornamenta" were diamonds, and she held a bouquet of lilies of the valley. The two young train-bearers were entirely ia white, and the bridesmaids were effectively dressed la, white muslin and lace, with sashes of pink crepe do chine tied high under their arms, and white pannt hats trimmed with pink chiffon. They wore enamfel and opal pendants, and carried bouquets of red and pink roses, the gifts of the bridegroom. Mr Laurieten Barren acted as best man, and the Rom Herbert Thursion performed the ceremony, assisted by priests of the Oratory. Among those who assembled to witness the rite,and afterwards attended the reception in Wet.herby-gardens, were Lord and Lady Russell of Killowen and family, the Right Honw. the Speaker and Mrs. and Miss Gully, Lady Binr, ham, Lady Tenterden, Amy Lady Coleridge, Sië James and Lady Ritchie and Miss Ritchie, Lord Justice and Lady Romer, Lady Armstrong, Dowaget Lady Westbury, Lady Ellis, Lady Carbutt, Mr. Justice Mathew, Mr. John Aird, M.P., and Mist 1 Aird.
ssam-gsERssasaa THE STORY OF KHAKI. AN INDUSTRIAL ROMANCE. The story of khaki (says a correspondent of tht' Dtfty -VJW) is one of the industrial romances of th# century.' It is worthy to rank with that of th« Jacqiinrd loom; the mercerising of cotton, or the invention of bleaching powder. It has never been told at length, and the time for doing so has not yet come. But the following brief account will serve to; show that. as in other discoveries of far-renching impiirrmice, energy, and patience, and skilled know- ledge were brought into play before success was ai > lerigill, attained. 11 The use of an olive dyo in connection with the clothing of our troops in India dates back for iiianv years. The tint was (levised, in the first instance, by native dyers, who used for the purpose pigments which they were unable to fix, and also unable to prepare, in a uniform state. A traveller for a Man- chester firm was one day taking a railway journey in Northern India, and found himself in the company of an Anglo-Indian military officer. The conversar t.iori d to cotton drill, and the regimental officer mado the remark that the first Manchester man who succeeded in producing an absolutely fast khaki dye would make his f(\l'tune. The remark made a deep im- pression upon the traveller, who upon returning home set to work to study the reason why the olive and brown dye? hitherto used always washed out after a few applications of soda. He put himself into com- munication with a skilful dyer, and the two exprrte set, themselves the task of discovering a method of fixing these dyes upon cotton yarns or fabrics. Many experiments were made, and at length an effective dye was obtained, but, unhappily, it yielded at once to the soap and soda test. Instead of giving up in "despair, the two inventors pursued their researches, and one day the dyer produced a piece Of fabric which upon being tested was found to retain its colour even under the severe appli- cation of a caustic alkali. He was requested to try again, and again he failed. Then the two colleagues put their heads together, and went over the condi- tions again very carefully, and they at length ob- served that, whether accidentally or not, the cloth in which the dye was fast had been dipped in a dish made of a certain metal, whereas all the unsuccessful experiments had been made with a dish of another metal. The invention was assured from that day, and fortune was the result. The first deliveries of fast khaki were produced by means of mixtures of oxide of chromium and oxide of iron, which were carried into effect by mixing a solution of chrome alum and sulphate of iron, and, after being dipped into this, the cloth was passed through an alkaline solution, such as carbonate of ammonia or pfrta-h. Darker tfhades were obtained by redipping, and the darkest shades of all by dry- ing the fabrics betpre passing them through the alkali. Th.s process is now open to any dyer to employ, but improvements in it are the subject of a patent which is still in existence, and within the last 18 months a rival genius has patented an altogether different process, which ie beinir used In the manu- facture ot floods already supplied to various Govern- ments. The so-called Government shade is that which has been adopted by the War Office, and it is now in general use at the seat of war, while, during the month of February, it has been adopted by the New Zealand Government as well. The shade used in certain branches of tha Indian Army and othejr ,v. Asiatic States is somewhat darker, and a ruddy tint which differs from both of them is supplied for use in Egypt. There are many difficulties in the productionof a uniform tint, as firms who have gone into the trade without previous experience are learning to their cost. During the present pressure, the Government factory at Pimlico has had to deal with deliveries in which the shade of khaki varied from light to dark in one and the same piece of oloth. When khaki cotton is said to be fast-dyed, the meaning is that no amount of washing, either in laundries at home or by native dhobies upon the banks of running streams in India, will affect the colour. The rapid test for arriving at this result consists in boiling the fabric for a prolonged period in a solution of caustic soda or a similar alkaline re- agptiU By means of peroxide of hydrogen it ia also determined whether the colour is fugitive under the prolonged action of sunshine and air. It is never pre- tended that the our is impervious to the attacks of acid, and indeed the now fashionable material is being introduced for ladies' dresses at home in a form in which striped and spotted designs are produced upon the-cloth in a printing machine by the action of an acid, which turns the parts affedted to a whitish hue. It is for this reason that when khaki uniforms are worn for a length of time the wristbands and collars show lines of white, Where the dye has been dfiven out by the oontact of the acid perspiration from the skin. There is another fortune awaiting the inventor who produces a dye which is fast not only to alkali, but also to acid. Up to the present less success has attended the d attempt to impart a khaki shade to woollens. Not only is the dye less permanent, but the peculiarities of the woollen fibre make it difficult to produce any uniformity of tint. Half a dozen pieces of serge, ■ dipped in the same vat, will give almost as many variations of colour. For this reason troops when clothed in serge, as the men now under arms in South Africa will presently be, as the southern winter comes on, cannot present the smart appeaf* anoe of a regiment wearing cotton drill. appft41.
ALL the railway bridges along the line from ^ourenco Marques to Rhodesia are now guarded be .Portuguese troops to prevent Boer evasion of neutralitv. BLOCKS of industrial schools at Bishopriggs ar* proposed to be built on the Eenmure estate. A. site of about 70 acres has been purchased, and it is pro- posed to erect five blocks, each providing accommo- dation for 20 children. This oldest letter in the world is in the Briti4 Museum. Although written over SO centuries ago, the characters are still legible. It gives an interest- ing picture of life in pt during the reign of Rameses II.