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-— LITERARY EXTRACTS.

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— LITERARY EXTRACTS. A DCTCH SERVICE IN THE ORANGE FREE STATE.— It is a wry touching spectale, the sight of the Nacht- mahl (night meal), held every three months among the Dutch Boers of South Africa. Bloemfontein, though the capital of Orange Free State, is closely allied to the Transvaal, its neighbour, by ties of con- sanguinity, of sympathy, and of soil. The city hat an English Episcopal church, and has its bishopric and cathedral. But the pulse of the people beats chiefly toward the spire of the large Dutch church in the ceutre of the town. It stands in the middle of an optn square or park. While the soft moonlight of an African night is falling across the garden and stream., of little Bloemfontein; while the "White House"—the residence of the President of the Orange Free State-i. lit up, a curious scene is going on. From the old red-brick farmhouses far across the plains and hills the farmers and their families have been on the trek since before dawn, travelling towards the Nachtmahl. To trek, in South African par- lance, is to travel in bullock waggons. The "family"that emerges from the bullock waggon is quaint to look upon The Dutch vrowws wear their Sunday clothes, in the shape of a "rappie"(sun-bonnet) and a finlico gown. The farmer who comes to town for the Nachtmahl wears a yellow jacket, a flannel shirt,brown vest and trousers, and schoen (low shoes). His broad slouch hat is lined with green. His face is stolid, but shrewd. His whole body expresses splendid physical endurance. Fires have been kindled all around the church's spire. Groups of these quaint Dutch Boers, men and women, are sitting around the flame, talk- ing of sacred things m the roughest dialect in the world. The solemnity of the Nachtmahl is already on their faces. In the black shadows the oxen are sleeping, and the little children, too, sleeping beside them. It is very still. The Nachtmahlon the mor- row. in the old Dutch church, is a very solemn sight. As the bread and wine are passed around the tears of unfettered devotion stay upon the rough cheek of the Dutch farmer. The good vruuw is weeping quietly. The children are awed in ths sacred silence as they gaze rspon it all. The hymn— 0 Sacred Head surrounded With crown of piercing thorns, started by the leader, is taken up in a great wave of devotion that swells through the church. What vows and tears are in its cadences It unites those shores washed by the Indian Ocean with the home-lands. There is no here, nu there, for those who say together "Our Father"!—Sunday Chimes. THOMAS HORNBLOWER GILL.—From Sunday Chimes we take the following interesting details of a veteran hymn-writer: Thomas Hornblower Gill, the author of We come unto our fathers' God," Lift thy song among the nations," and many other hymns equally well known, is ono of the grand old men among living hymn writers. Born in Birmingham in 1819, he can trace his descent from one John Spicer, a Marian martyr, and on his mother's side from Richarq Ser- geant, the friend of Richard Baxter, and one oft he ministers ejected in 1662. All his life and all his verse have been inspired by his Puritan blood. A determined Liberal, from the time when he was asso- ciated with Dr. Dale in Birmingham down to the present days of rest and seclusion at Grove-park, Mr. Gill has been a fighter. In his hymns there ie always the echo of battle. Mr. Gill's hymns first appeared in Mr. George Dawt>on's collection of 1853, but their general use dates from the publicatioA of Dr. Barrett's Congregational Church HymnaL" The hymns of Watts have been a source of constant inspiration to Mr. Gill, and it is as W&tts's suc- cessor that his name is so widely honoured. In the verses of both writers the same sturdy uncompro- mising Puritanism Snds voice. ■ "The society of paints and martyrs has been," Mr. Gill once said, as it were, the environment in which my hymns were written, ior I am never weary of the.atory el the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The straggles and Victories of these dayfcanptome dear, familiar tales." THE DEATH OF SIR EDWARD HOWARD.—The strug- gle in Gonquet Bay is little known to Englishmen, yefiit ended in one of the grimmest tragedies recorded in our naval annals. It was fought out on a Sunday at the end of April. The sun was already low in the > west on that peaceful afternoon, so many years ago, when into he narrow Passage du Four came rowing two English galleys, manned by eighty then a-piece. A: little flotilla of row-boats followed astern. In the first galley sat Sir Edward Howard, burning to re- < »enge his loss of three days previously. With him irent a certain Spaniard, Charran by name, who seems to have been Howard's evil genius. It was he that had prompted the admiral to this reckless venture, in opposition to the sager counsels of the English captains. The second galley was commanded by Lord Ferrers, a noble of proved courage. They can hardly have expected to surprise the French in broad daylight; if, indeed, such had been their idea, they were -soon to discover that they had failed. On a I sucùNn, from battery and stranded ships there fell upon them a fire of terrible intensity. Cross- bow, quarrel and shot of cannon" came together as thick as hailstones." Yet never for a moment did the English sailors falter. The admiral's galley was driven by their dashing oars against Pregent's own vessel, which the rising tide had floated. Howard -himself, with the valiant Charran and 15 of his crew, clambered on board. But before the rest could follow, the cable of the grappling iron that held their boat to the galley .was either cut or parted of itself, and the rush of the tide swung the pair apart. Thus •the little English band was left alone on the French forecastle amidst a swarm of foes. Springing on to the bulwarks, Howard shouted to his men, if they loved him, to come aboard again but crippled as they were by the heavy fire that atm beat fiercely upor. their crowded benches, that could not answer ;00 that last despairing cry of their gallant admiral. "And when my Lord saw they could not," says an eye-witness of the fight, he took his whistle from about his neok, wrapped it together, and threw it into the sea." The whIstle was the same that he had won as a boy in his fintgreat sea-light; the chain to which it was attached was that of the Lord High .Admiral of England. Such trophies he wonld not leave to-swell the triumph of his enemies. One by one the Englishmen were struck down, fighting the while in astern despair, neither asking nor expecting mercy. Even in the turmoil of that grim massacre, Pregent and his men remembered in after days how they marvelled at. the: valour of a tall swordsman in Tich armour who had had a gold chain about his .neck when first he sprang down amongst them from over their bulwarks. His high rank they did not know, and Howard, furious at his failure, preferred to die rather than reveal his name and beg for quarter. His matchless swordsmanship saved him tor a time, but at last the long pikes bore him back against the bulwarks, and, pierced with a dozen wounds, be fell never to rise again. So died Sir Ed- ward Howard, Lord High Admiral of England. There vras never nobleman so ill lost as he Was," writes Sir Edward Eohyngbam, that was of so great courage and had so many virtues and that ruled se great an army so well as he did, and kept so good order and true justico." It was not only in his own country that his valortr was appreciated for we find the King of Scots writing to his dear brother of Eng- land, we think more loss is to you of the late admiral who deceased to his great honour, than the advantage thete might have been in winning all the galleys." Rest well, brave Rrlnmalt With the wave for winding sheet and the gulls screaming a requiem o'er you, you lie in the same family vault that holds so many of the noblest and best and bravest of our English sailors.—Sea Kings and- Sett Fights. "PlUD SOLDIERS DIE IN BATTLE is the title of an interesting article in Casscll's Saturday Journal. Says the writer: It is only when, as now, the air is full or war that the general public gives a thought to those who fall with their face to the foe. Our military authorities, partly from necessity, partly from choice, arc more considerate. They make eWbc-ate provisions in case a soldier dies on ftctivto rvice, and take care, as far as in them lies, that he is honoured in death. Every Tommy is pro- vided with a pocket ledger, in which he is required to keep his accounts, and enter many personal details, among otners 1 religion and the names and ftddassses of all the members of his immediate family. If Jto in the service, whether during war or ia peace, it is usually easy, therefore, to communicate with his next-of-kin. To them the War Office sends 014 account book, the amount realised by -the tale of his kit, his deferred pay, etc. Should it happen that the man died on active service, they also receive the medal which he would have been personally awarded had he lived. This is the general lYøtem followed in the case of soldiers who die on the battlefield; but for various reasons there are many exceptions to Numbers of brave fellows are buried practicaHy unknown. Reference to their pocket-books shows that, according to the.tatement8 they made, all their relations were dead when they enlisted. As a consequence, the value of their effects, as well as their deferred pay, &c., will fall into the capacious maw of the Treasury. No less praise- worthy than the next-of-kin arrangements in respect of soldiers are those for commemorating such of Britain's sons as give up their lives in fighting her foes. Memorials to her heroes exist in all parts of the world. The spot where Colley fell at Majuba, for instance, is marked by stones, while near are carefully tended graves of brave officers and soldiers who perished in that disaster. So. it is whereever English Mood has been shed. And these resting places of the gallant dead are not forgotten. If you look Zinte John Bull's ledger—a book officially known as the Civil Service Estimates—you will find that a big sum is voted MIoVuaUy for the purpose of keeping in'order the prMMw st those who fswjkfc and died on foreign foil SOME STORIES OF THE RAnK AND FJLB.—An armj chaplain, in the course of his dealings with the mixed members of the regiments under his care, is made the recipient of a number of interesting and amusing stories. The Rev. E. J. Hardy, Chaplain tc the Forces, includes a number of such in an article in the Quiver, on Some Real Talks with Soldiers.* A commanding officer who has studied human nature, he states, will occasionally make a brilliant hit when he gives a man what is called a "chance." The following illustrative case was told to me by the colonel who tried the experiment. One day, when out for a walk, he met a man of his regiment who was only too well known to him on account of this frequent appearances in the orderly room. My friend stopped him, and said—"You're a fine man, six feet three in height, and yet don't you think that you are making a precious ass of yourself with 36 'drunks' in your defaulter sheet? Suppose, now, that I were to put a lance-corporal's stripe on your arm to-morrow; how would it be ?" The man was so sur- prised and delighted that he took the total abstinence pledge, and never drank any more intoxicating liquor. Four years afterwards he married, and the colonel attended the marriage feast. The bridegroom commanding officer aside and said to him. as he pointed to the different kinds of liquor that were on the table—" You see all that, air. Well, I have not tasted a drop, even to-day, and won't, for if I did I must get drunk." After this, the general commanding the-station asked for a sergeant to be re- commended fora:postof confidence. My friend sent in the name of the man whom he had saved, and who had become a sergeant. An indignant letter was re- turned by the general, asking what could be meant by recommending a man who had 36 entries for drunkenness in his defaulter's sheet. The colonel went and told him the story; and the general said— "I never heasd anything so remarkable in my life/ Talking of drinking, a soldier once said to me— II People may pretend what they like, but it is in my opinion that everyone drinks as much as he can get." "Well," I answered, "what abouttheDuke of West- minster? He has an income of a thousand pounds a day, and yet he is a teetotaller." The man thought for some time, and then replied with considerable feeling-" Then, sir, he must be mad." The number of soldiers who could truthfully be called religious may not be a large one, but they compare not unfavourably with civilians of the same class. Being young and healthy, they are not disposed to think of the problems of life; and they have peculiar temptations, arising from the fact that they are taken away early from home influences, are nearly all unmarried, have a considerable amount of pocket- money, and a good deal of idle time on their ihands. When. however, soldiers do give their hearts to the great Captain Jesus Christ, they are amongst the strongest, and most consistent of His followers. They are braced up by the many temptations to yhich they are exposed, and they must be in earnest, for humbug and hypocritical profession could not conceal them- selves from the somewhat fierce criticism of a barrack room. And I think that I never spoke to one of these religiolis soldiers without his attributing his first inclination towards the right way to good home influences. Even when they had fallen below their Own wishes, they think back regretfully upon the opportunities they have lost. I remember one poor fellow, to whom I talked in the punishment, cells at Devonport, saying to me when I suggested the advisability of his turning over a new leaf-" Yes, sir I know that I ought to be good, for my mother is cook to General Booth THE CIIKISHA.V FLAO—One of the newest religious movements in the United States is that which has r cently organised the Christian Flag Extension Society. Mr. Charles C. Overton, a Sunday school superintendant of Coney Island, is at the head of it. Mr. Overton's idea is that Christians all the world over. irrespective of nationality or denomination, should have one flag, under which they could, if occasion arose, march in a body. The idee occurred to him one "Children's Day." when the children's special service WIH held in Brighton Chapel, Coney Island. At that time, each child Was furnished with ttflmal1 American (las, to be waved as they maiched, singing a national hymn. A few days later Mr. Overton noticed in a parade of liquor dealers, each publican also.carried a small American flag exactly like those he had given lilts Sunday-school scholars. In deciding to originate a Christian flag, Mr. Over- ton declared that he did not mean to be unpatriotic, but he felt that the Stars and Stripes" was too far reaching. "Nothing awakens such enthusiasm as a flag," said Mr. Orton. "One cannot con- ceive of an army without its coloun, Aid there is certainly no reason why the army of the Lord should go ban-nerloss." The colours of the Christian flag are the same as those of theOags of England and the United States—red, white, and blue. Theiflag ie white, with a corner space of blue, and a red cross in the centre of the blue. Miss Fanny J. Crosby, the veteran American hymn writer, has dedicated a hymn, called "The Christian Flag," to the movement, the tlrst verse of which ia •"The Christian Flag! God bless it! Now throw it to the breeze, And may it wave triumphant O'er land and distant seas, TilIall the creation Upon its fold shall gaze, And all the world united, Our loving Savour praise." Copies of this hymn have been sent t. many bad- masters all over the world, requesting them te. arrange the mu.s e as a march, and a number of favourable replies have been received. The captains of several excursion steamers in the Bay of New York, and in other American waters, have ordered the Christian flag, with the promise of floating it over their vessels when carrying Sunday school and other re igiotis excursions.— The Quiver. TilE DISFBSCK OF LONDON.—The defence of London is explained by Mr. A- H. Atteridge in Caswell's Magazine: If we were- at war with one or more Continental neighbours, steps would at once bt taken for the defence of London. If our ill-fortune made invasion a nearer possibility, the arrangements already planned would be carried out in their full completeness. As soon as war was imminent the Thames defences would be first attended to. Probably in such a case a large part, of our regular forces, and all the Militia that had volunteered for foreign ser- vice, would be either abroad or under orders for the defence of various parts of our wide extended Em- pire. The Militia and Volunteer gunners told off for the Thames forts would be mobilised and conveyed to their stations. The Volunteers would probably be called out by reliefs, half or a third of each regiment being on permanent duty at a time, &i*d the rest ready to join them at a few hours' notice. The artillery, submarine miners, and engineers would be the first called for. Mines would be laid down, new batteries placed in position along the river the- boom would close the Medway every night; great searchlights would sweep every approach, and scouting vessels would lie well out to sea. In this service Marconi's new wireless system of telegraphy would be a priceless advantage to us. Meanwhile the land defences would not be neglected. Working parties of Militia and Volunteers and organised gangs of navvies, under the direction of engineer officers, would be throwing up the redoubts and earthwork batteries already pianned along the North Downs and the Tilbury-Epp ng line. Not only are the plans for every work complete, but tho orders are ready for the troops who will help in the work, and the requisitions for civilian labour are written out and waitingin pigeon-holeti tl9 be handed to the commanding officers. The grim possibilities of war would be suggested by the organisation of large hospitals, and the enrolment of a small army of trained nurses doctors. All ARTIST s METHODS.—In the course of an article in the Magazine of Art, on Some Unfinished Works by Sir Edward Burne-Jcmes," some interesting de- tails are given of the great artist's methods of work, The following passage deals of his early treatment of a canvas: When the cartoon was completed, it would be traced by an aesistavd; and transferred to the can- yas upon which the finJsbedpieture was to be painted. The design was then drawn iD, usually by an assistant, in thin monochrome (burnt sienna, raw or burnt umber, or terra Terte), and the real work of painting the picture would begin. My father himself would start with the brighter portions in pure flake white, lumping it and patting it on and dragging it over, so as completely to cover the warp and woof of the canvas and form agreeable surfaces, which were allowed to §et bone-dry before the final glazes were applied. Te never painted into a tacky" or half-dry sur- face, believing that such work had a tendency to darken. Indeed, in aU matters relating to the per- manency of his painting he was scrupulously care* ful, and never employed a colour about the durabi- lity of which chemists had expressed any doubt. He would often lament the comparatively limited palette which this restriction implied, and, among colours tabooed, he especially regretted Indian Lake and Dragon's Blood. The vehicle for thinning paint which he always used of late years was a tri- partite compound of equal quantities of copal, lin- seed oil, and spike oil (of lavender). A store of this mixture, carefully measured out, was kept in a little bottle, and a few drops were poured out each morn- ing into a clean cup, and a little more spike oil added to further dilute it. This was used sparingly. He allowed no collection of old or stale paint to accumu- late upon his palette, which was cleaned daily.

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