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SIR JAMES BARR AND EXPERT EVIDENCE. ADVIOE T'O DAIRYMEN. Writing to a Manchester journal Sir û James Barr gives some further interesting information relatilng to Typhond germs, and incidentally infers what he thinks of expert, evidence in a court of law:- Bi:r M v attention has been drawn to a note on the front. page of your last. issue referring to my evidence on the recent, epidemic of typhoid fever at Llandudno Junction and its neighbourhood caused by contaminated milk. The writer tries to be facetious over a rather serious subject, but. unfortunately for the defendants the jury displayed more intelligence. The evidence that sewer gas contains fewer germs than the ordinary atmosphere was no new discovery of mine, but was merely a statement of fact which was proved as long ago as 1886 by CanleEy .and Hajldane, and which is now accepted by everyone who has studied the subject. The typhoid bacilli have never been found floating, in the atmosphere, nor in the air of sewers, ,exclipt on one or two occasions when they were poured into the sewer in large quantities, and then the sewer stirred up to cause particles to be ejected into the sewer air. Even then when the churning is at, an end the germs quickly subside and perish in the sewer. Dr. Meredith Young truly said thalt if the tyhpoicl germs had been poured into the sewers at Llandudno Junction by the bushel they could possibly have travelled up the sewer against the current to the Woodlands, a, distance of about three- quarters of a mile. The sun st,ancling sit-ill • upon Gibe-on, and the moon in the valley of Aj all on, was not a greater miracle than the imaginary transit of these- germs up this sewer. Sewer gas is not quite innocuous not- Z7, withstanding the aibsence of typhoid bacilli, so your recommendations of a residence in a. manhole, and "conducted health tours in the main sewage pipes" are not likely to become popular, but I can assure your readers that, they can make as many tours as they like to Llan- dudno, Deganwy, and even to the Con- way foreshore, about the sludges of which we have heard so much, without any risk of catching typhoid bacilli blow- ing about in the atmosphere. If tihese bacilli were blown about by any wind --ha', listeth very few in the Llandudno district should have escaped, nor was it explained how these bacilli were to survive the drying process. Science should deal with facts, not the perfervnd imagination of expert witnesses. Now that the two epidemics of typhoid fever in 'that district have been traced to the milk supply from two farms, I hope the Welsh farmers will be very careful in the future, and probably they will be found as clean as the Italians, so that those seeking a summer holiday will run as few risks in the Conway district as on the shores of the Medllterranean, notwith- standing the imaginary epidemic of sewer gas and defective sewers which was dish- ed for use at the trial. This long and expensive triail has íurtherconvinoed me that in the interests of the publia, and in the interests of jus- tice, expert testimony should not be ad- mitted into a court of law. Witnesses should be confined to state- ments of fact, and if ¡the judge and jury wished any interpretation of those facts the j uclges should have power to call in as an assessor a man well versed in the subject under consideration. JAMES BARR. 72, Rodney-street, Liverpool.