National Union of Teachers. IMPORTANT MEETING AT COLWYN BAY. MR. A. R. PICKLES ON EDUCATIONAL POLICY. THE TEACHER AND THE CHILD. A combined meeting of the Llandudno and Colwyn Bay branches of the National Union of Teachers was held on Saturday afternoon in the Higher Grade School, Colwyn Bay. The object of the meeting was to hear an ad- dress by Mr. A. R. Pickles, M.A., of Burnley, member of the Executive and ex-President of the National Union of Teachers. The Rev. John Edwards, Chairman of the Colwyn Bay Education Authority, occupied the chair, and there were present Canon Hugh Ro. berts, Vicar af Colwyn Bay; Mr. S. Glynne Jones, B.A., Higher Grade School, Colwyn Bay; Mr. J. H. Roberts, B.A., Colwyn Bay; Mr. H. Bedford, Abergele; Mr. William Wil- liams, Eglwysbach; Mr. H. Barnwell, Llam- gernyw; Mr. Daniel Owen, Colwyn; Mr. J. Roberts, Llandudno; Mr. Tom Thomas, Llan- rwst; Mr. William Williams, Llanrhos; Mr. B. H. Jones, Llanddulas; Miss Gittens, L.L.A., Abergele; Mr. Hugh Hughes, Llysfaen; Mr. H. D. Roberts, Llandudno; Miss M. Hughes, Llandudno; Miss L. Morris, Llandudno; Mr. J. Vaughan Humphreys, Llan- dudno; Mrs. Tegarty, Bangor; Miss Evans, Mochdre Miss Kate Owen, Colwyn Bay; Miss M. E. Owen, Colwyn Bay; Mr. F. Phillips, Rhvl; Miss Nevitt, "Llandudno junction; Mr. W.' Tegarty, Secretary of the Llandudno branch, and Mr. M. Evans, Secretary of the newly-formed Colwyn Bay branch. Mr. M. Evans, the local Secretary, stated that the Colwyn Bay branch had sprung from the Llandudno and Vale of Conway Associations. Some years ago it was decided to live apart, and since then they had not met in a combined meeting. This was the first meeting of the com- bined Associations, and the desire was to cement old friendships, and he hoped that the meeting would attain its object. Mr. Pickles was pre- sent with them that day as a deputation from the Executive. He (the speaker) had written asking Miss Hovey, of the Penrhos College, to be present, but he had received a letter from that lady regretting very much that she could not attend owing to a previous engagement. He had also received a lengthy reply from Mr. Ro- berts, late Inspector of Schools, also regretting his inability to be present owing to the departure of his sister for abroad. Mr. Roberts wished the meeting every success, and paid a high tribute to the great organisation, of the National Union of Teachers. The Rev. John Edwards said it gave him great pleasure in being present, although he was asked rather suddenly to do so. He knew the advantage there was whenever he stood in the presence of teachers. In fact, he felt very humble. However, they dealt with one branch of education, and he and Canon Roberts dealt with the other. (Hear, hear.) The subject that afternoon was education. He could not but think that the reason for Llandudno and Colwyn Bay being disunited in the past was because the towns were in two different counties and they lived apart. There was a great ad- vantage in a combined meeting. It brought them nearer as individuals and as an organisa- tion, and the more they did so the more highly they thought of one another. A great deal of the strain now so apparent was due to this liv- ing apart. It was a great advantage to belong to a great organisation like the National Union of Teachers. (Applause.) Speaking for the Local Education Authority, he could say it was deeply interested in the work. They were really in the world to help one another. The Local Edu- cation Authority criticised them, and they criticised the Local Education Authority. Re- ferring to the work of education, he was not quite sure whether they all grasped the mean- ing of that word. It was said by some that education was to lead out," but he thought it was the putting in for ever and ever. There was a great deal in the child, and it was their privilege and duty as teachers to draw out the good there was in the child. They were living in an age of trials, and it was said that second- ) ary education was a bugbear on the path of progress. There were two opinions on that. (Hear, hear.) He hoped they would meet often. (Applause.) Mr. A. R. Pickles, M.A., who was warmly received, said that recently he looked up the figures of membership relating to Anglesea, Carnarvonshire, Denbighshire, and Flintshire. He was delighted to find that whereas in 1902 there were but 473 members of the N.U.T. in these four counties, in 1909 their number had increased to 697. (Hear, hear.) This improve-, ment, however, was not really so satisfactory as it at first appeared, for during the past four years there had only been a net increase of four members, or one to each of the counties in ques- tion. The speaker would commend this fact to the notice of Mr. Harry Thomas, of football fame—(laughter),—and to other old members. The membership of the combined Llandudno and Colwyn Bay branch at the time of the lat- ter's secession in 1905 was 58, but last year the total number of the members of both branches was 78-a satisfactory increase. (Hear, hear.) The speaker thought that were the North Wales members of the National Union of Teachers to use their influence with those of their colleagues who were outside the fold, it would not be long ere their numbers had in- creased to a thousand. The speaker yielded to none in his loyalty to the Union but he could not help but feel that its members were living in a state of specious security. He remembered the names of the GRAND OLD WARRIORS of the past who had made it possible for the country in which he stood, and also for the smaller country across the Dee-smaller, that was, in self-esteem, Celtic fire and eloquence, but probably more largely endowed with the more valuable qualities of endurance and cau- tion--(laughter),-to boast such an organisation as theirs. In 1889 the Union had 13,950 mem- bers, and at the present time, twenty three years later, the number had grown to 67,612. (Ap- plause). Practically two-thirds of the teachers were members of the N.U.T., but of the remain- ing third the women teachers out-numbered the men by two to one. At a time when the pro- fession of teaching was so largely in the more able hands of ladies, it was to be hoped that ere long many of them would join the ranks of the Union. An interesting feature of the present day was the way in which the product of the elementary school was taking his place in the public and the social life of the nation. Without having had any of the advantages of a University career these men were yet figuring more and more prominently year by year. In the present House of Commons there were a hundred mem- bers of Parliament who had received no educa- tion other than that given in the elementary schools. (Hear, hear.) This meant added re- sponsibilities for them as teachers, because if the best product of those schools were to con- tinue filling high positions the present system of elementary education must be changed. The notions of many of them concerning education were becoming radically altered. Referring to the work of the Union since 1870, the speaker claimed that many of the comforts teachers to-day enjoyed were owing to the efforts put forth on their behalf by the Union. The success of the N.U.T. had been due not to those like himself who went from place to place lecturing, but to the local secretaries, men like Mr. Evans and Mr. Tegarty, who worked day by day among their colleagues' in the interests of the Union. Tracing the history of the Union back to its earliest days, Mr. Pickles related how in 1862 a few teachers went to the Board of Education ¡ I to protest against the way in which the Code was being cut down to the minimum, and to enquire why the promise made in 1846 concern- ing Pensions had not been fulfilled. They were LAUGHED TO SCORN, and as a result the National Union of Teachers came into being. It was a difficult matter to make young members realize what their pre- decessors had done for the liberty and pro- tection of teachers. An excellent thing would be for each branch to hold a meeting once a year at which old members would speak of what took place in the-period of 1870 and 1880. In those days it was a common thing for 70, 80 or 90 children to be in one class. The teachers were expected to train all the children in exactly the same way, as if their scholars were inani- mate objects that might be woven or fashioned in the direction required. There was payment on the basis of the number of passes, and the tricks and subterfuges by which teachers sought to hoodwink the inspector and enable the children to get the sums given them correct or to write their dictation free from error were numerous and elaborate. Those days had long sinced passed away, owing in a large measure to the efforts of the Union, but they were still troubled with fussy Inspectors, as unfortunately all Inspectors were not Roberts's. (Laughter and Hear, hear.) The Union had much trouble in ensuring that certain teachers of fifty years and upwards remained in their positions until they reached the age of sixty-five, and many a one owed it to the N.U.T. that he had not long since been displaced by a younger and more up- to-date man. It was a difficult matter for a man of fifty or sixty to alter the methods he had been in the habit of using for so many years. The Union had been instrumental in raising, the leaving age of the child to fourteen, and it had done what it could to substitute education for cram. (Applause.) The salary and status of the teacher had been raised mainly through the N.U.T., but neither was so high as it should be. The cause of education had been subordin- ated to a clamour for Dreadnoughts, and the Board of Education was thrusting the cost of education more and more upon the locality. A few days ago the Manchester County Council, one of the most enlightened in England and one that never grudged money spent on education, passed ten hours considering an amendment to reduce the cost recommended by sub-com- mittees for teaching salaries, buildings and up- keep, and only by 33 votes to 23 was it rejected. The Manchester County Council it was who in 1902 raised the salaries of the voluntary teach- ers at a cost of thousands of pounds, so it would be seen how difficult it was becoming to secure money for education purposes. It was taking the Union all its time to hold its own in England and Wales. It was their business to prevent the engagement of unquali- fied teachers at inferior salaries to those com- manded bv certificated ones. At the age of twelve the speaker was in charge of a class, c standard IV., numbering 65 children, and a friend of his, aged fourteen, had entire control of a whole country school for three summer months in the year, whilst the head teacher, who was a good bowler, played cricket for his county. These were some of the things that the Union had agitated to stop. The N.U.T. pro- tected teachers against VIOLENT PARENTS. It had secured a measure of superannuation, the improvement of which it was seeking to secure, and it had a splendid Benevolent and Orphan scheme. The N.U.T. had been honoured by having two of its secretaries invited to sit on a Royal Commission, and included in its mem- bers were three or four members of Parliament. One teacher-Dr. Macnamara-was a member of the Government—(hear, hear)—and the Union had been honoured by the Knighting of its General Secretary, teachers having thus been recognised as a body. A brilliant member of Parliament who had been a teacher was Mr. Edgar joiies-(hear, hear)—who had been re- turned at the last election. The Union had Z25,000 invested funds, the annual subscription of each member being less than three pence a week, and it had secured reforms which had proved more beneficial to the welfare of the children than Education Bills could have been. Mr. Pickles enumerated other improvements which the Union had brought about, including the institution of smaller classes than it was customary to have, and spoke of the endeavours it made to exclude from the profession the in- efficient teacher. Certificated teachers were being turned out at a great rate, and in London they were to be found acting as waitresses and in other capacities owing to their inability to find positions. The cost of the education of each one was not less than £200, and the best face the Board of Education, who were furious with the N.U.T. for bringing the matter to light, could put upon the matter was a statement to the effect that but seven teachers out of a hun- dred were without a post twelve months after leaving College. However, even if those figures were correct, the Union considered it was far too high a proportion—(hear, hear)—and it was endeavouring to check the over supply. The Union had given its attention to securing instruction in HANDICRAFTS FOR BOYS and in housecraft for girls. (Applause.) It was well that a girl should receive an insight into domestic matters whilst yet at school. It was the custom of certain schools when their scholars were unable to pass the Prelimin- ary Examination for Certificated Teachers, to enter them for a much simpler examination, the Oxford Local, and thus qualify them as uncer- tificated teachers. The N.U.T. wished that this should be put a stop to. (Hear, hear.) It would do all in its power to prevent any lower- ing of the standard of code required. The Welsh Central Board examination was quite twice as hard as the Oxford Local. Speaking of the growing tendency to throw the cost of education on the local authorities, Mr. Pickles remarked that whereas in 1902 out of every ,f ioo spent on education £68 came from Government sources, and £32 from local sources, the position to-qay was that over £5° per cent. was derived from the locality. (Shame.) More money was required for edu- cation, and if teachers wished for scales, proper provision must be made for them. The speaker hoped that now Mr. Lloyd George, who was such a happy combination of Celtic fire and the Lancashire grit, was Chancellor of the Ex- chequer with a Budget surplus of three or four millions he would see his way to aid education to the extent of the cost of one Dreadnought. It was only right, now that medical inspection and certain new subjects were insisted upon, that there should be larger grants for education purposes. The N.U.T. encouraged teachers to fill their rightful position in life, and it was high time they took a foremost place in local, civil, social and political work. The Union was also in favour of certain alterations in the curriculum of the schools, and considered that teachers had a high sphere of labour, for not only had they to instruct children but to teach them how to live. (Applause.) Canon Hugh Roberts, in rising to propose a vote of thanks to Mr. Pickles, said he had great pleasure in being present to hear the able, inter- esting and very stirring address from him. He could not help feeling that there was some Celtic fire in Mr. Pickles. (Hear, hear.) The Chairman had said that he was a man in the know." Well, he (the speaker) was one who was not in the know. It was some years since he had experience, and he was delighted to find great progress and great improvement in the manner of teaching since those days. In those days it was impossible to teach a child in a rational way. The old schoolmaster of Martin Luther, it was said, took off his hat to the child. He (Canon Roberts) felt ready to take off his hat to the teachers. Their work as teachers was more glorious, more divine than any he could think of. They all had their work to do. One man had to see that two bfades of grass grew where one was before. Some had to work for their comforts of life. All were doing work but the work of the teachers was the noblest I work of all. To cram a pupil with dates and figures was no education. It was like the filling of a water bottle with water, and letting it run out before the Inspector. (Hear, hear.) The bottle was then put aside. And so it was witu the system of cram. To train the mind of children they must have the co-operation of the I children. Children were more capable of reason than they—clergymen and teachers—gave them credit for. In obtaining THE CO-OPERATION OF THE CHILD they must treat the child as if he was a grown up, and the effects would be surprising. Dr. Johnson had said light a fire, and the fire will go on." And the beauty of the learning of the child was that the zeal for knowledge should burn after leaving school. He was of opinion that it would be a good idea if in their schools they had pictures hung on the walls of dis- tinguished men and women. Pictures which could be told scholars were concrete instances of success. Let them take Prof. Henry Jones, who was an authority all over the world Arch- deacon Temple, who as a boy, could not afford lights to do his reading, and take another man, Mr. Lloyd George, whom the lecturer had referred to. (Hear, hear.) He saw "by the way they listened to Mr. Pickles that they magnified their office. May they go on and prosper doing the best thing for themselves and education as well. Mr. Tegarty seconded, and stated that it was 22 years ago that seven of them met at a way- side hotel in Talycafn and formulated a scheme for their interests as teachers. Four of them had passed away since. The National Union had done for teachers generally what thev would not do for themselves. They should stick together, and no authorities, such as Local Education Committee, could upset them if thev became A SOLID ARMY of teachers. (Applause.) The vote was carried with enthusiasm, and Mr. Pickles briefly returned thanks for the kind- ness which he had received. Mr,, M. Evans proposed a vote of thanks to the Local Education Authority for the use of the room. Mr. T. Thomas seconded, and it was carried. Upon the proposal of Mr. T. Thomas, second- ed by Mr. Tegarty, a vote of thanks was passed to the Chairman. Tea was afterwards served, the proceeds being in aid of the Benevolent Fund of N.U.T. -.c
A Hardened Criminal at Colwyn Bay. FRAUDULENTLY COLLECTING FOR THE WHITEHAVEN FUND. John Parry, an ex-soldier, aged 46 years, who bore a military appearance in the dock, was charged before Mr. J. W. Lumley and the Rev. Thomas Parry, at a Special Police Court, on Monday morning, at Colwyn Bay, with fraud- ulently obtaining alms for a charity on the previous Saturday. The accused is a brick- layer by trade, and is a native of Penycae, near Ruabon. Superintendent Beresford stated that the charge against the man was obtaining subscrip- tions from gentlemen in the district by fraud- ulent means. The accused had been seen in the district for some days. He had' promised to turn over a new leaf, but he was not making much effort to do so. P.C. Holgate stated that from information received he kept a look-out for the prisoner, and at 12 p.m. on Saturday he saw him in Col- wyn. Witness asked him where he was going, and he replied that he was looking for lodgings. The prisoner seemed to answer the description given, and witness asked him to accompany him to the police station. Witness asked prisoner where he was the previous day, and he replied that he was in Llandudno. Witness searched the prisoner and found the book produced. Prisoner had been seen in Dol. wen on Friday afternoon. Witness examined the book and noticed the signatures of Mr. Andrew Hunter, who was head gardener at Coed Coch, and who had given 2s., and that of Mr. Peter Hughes, farmer, of Llety Du, Dolweu, for 6d. Witness said he would detain him for obtaining money under false pretences. Prisoner replied, Quite right. I might have done something worse." Mr. Andrew Hunter said that the prisoner came to him with a book and stated that he was collecting for the Council of Penmaenmawr for the Wbitehaven Relief Fund, and witness gave prisoner 2s. The Chairman (to witness) Did you read what was in the book? Witness replied that he did not. The Chairman stated that there was what purported to be a doctor's certificate in the front of the book, stating that John Parry, of ib, Cross-street, Rhymney, was suffering from debility, &c. Witness stated he had not observed that cer- tificate. Mr. Peter Hughes, farmer, of Llety Du, Dol- wen, said he had nothing to say, only that he gave the prisoner sixpence in response to his appeal. Superintendent Beresford read a long list of previous convictions dating back as far as 188.2, and it appears that the prisoner had served many years in penal servitude, twice for five years, twice for three years, and numerous other terms of a shorter duration. The Chairman (to prisoner) Have you heard this list? Prisoner: Yes. The Chairman: Is it true? Prisoner Yes. After a consultation with Mr. Amphlett, Clerk to the Justices, the Chairman, addressing the prisoner, said:—We feel that we are deal- ing with a very bad criminal, and we are only sorry you are not charged here under a differ- ent Act. Had it been so, you would have been sent to the Assizes. It is a very mean action you have done. It is no use lecturing a man like you. We give you the full penalty, that of going to prison for three months with hard labour. Should you appear here again, you will be treated in a very different manner. We feel that the penalty you are now receiving is not sufficient.
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I The Innocents Abroad." ABERGELE CURATE'S DILEMMA. I At the Rhyl County Court, on Friday, His Honour Judge Moss was called upon to solve a somewhat difficult legal problem, by an Aber- gele butcher named David William Vaughan, of Gwalia House, and a curate from the same town, the Rev. D. R. Griffiths. The problem was brought before the Court owing to the butcher suing the curate for £3 is. iod. for meat alleged to have been supplied to him. Mr Crabbe, on the butcher's behalf, in unfold- ing the story to the Court, at once said that there was no feeling between the parties. It ap- peared that when Mr. Griffiths first came to Abergele he opened an account with the plain- tiff, and from time to time ordered meat. Sub- sequently the orders were given by his landlady (Mrs. Parry, of Albert Cottage), and other times by the servant. Somewhere about 1907 the de- fendant ceased to place orders regularly with the plaintiff, transferring his custom to a butcher at Pensarn, who was a member of the Church. QUESTION OF AGENCY. That was quite right, and the plaintiff did not coinpidin, but there were occasions when, Pen- sarn being too far from Abergele, Mrs. Parry would send to the plaintiff for meat for the de- fendant. There were sums paid on account, but there was a balance due of £3 is. iod. He understood that the defendant contended that he gave his landlady the money to pay the ac- count, but she did not do so. Mr. Joseph Lloyd (who appeared for the Curate) That is not our defence. We say it is a question of agency, and that we never ordered the goods, nor authorised the landlady to do so. Plaintiff in the box stated that he had carried on business at Abergele for many years. In 1903 the defendant came to Abergele and dealt at his shop. Sometimes defendant ordered the meat, other times Mrs. Parry or the servant would do so, and he sometimes sent his boy down for the orders. Defendant's name was al- ways mentioned, and the account was entered to his name. There used to be a book, but after a time he failed to get it, and then he sent in bills to the defendant. Getting no satistactory reply to the bills, he sent the ac- count by post direct to the defendant. The next day the defendant called on him and asked what was the bill he had sent in. He told defend- ant it was for the meat he had supplied, where- upon Mr. Griffith said he had always paid Mrs. Parry. Plaintiff replied to that that he thought it curious that defendant should have left his shop when there was an account owing, and asked him to get it from Mrs. Parry. EXIT THE LANDLADY. His Honour asked Mr. Crabbe if he was call- ing Mrs. Parry. Mr. Crabbe No. I don't know where she is at present. She has left the district. His Honour said he could not quite see how the case was to be decided without Mrs. Parry being called. He would like to know when the entering in the book ceased. Mr. Lloyd We have never seen the book. Plaintiff added that he tried to get the book and failed. The dealings ceased in 1907. Mr. Lloyd elicited from the plaintiff that it was possible that Mr. Griffiths came to Aber- gele in 1902, but his book showed the account from 1903. It was the practice of the defendant at first to pay for the meat himself, but after- wards he paid through Mrs. Parry. He had a separate account against the lady. It was true that as soon as he posted the account to the de- fendant he called on him, and said he did not owe him anything. Defendant had not been in the shop for years, but sums were paid on account. When he asked Mrs. Parry about the account she said that Mr. Griffiths had not had his stipend, but whether that was likely plain- tiff would not say. He did not remember whether he suggested to Mr. Griffiths that he should keep the money owing back from the weekly amounts he paid Mrs. Parry. DEFENDANT'S STORY. Mr. Lloyd said his defence was that the de- defendant never owed the plaintiff a penny; that he had not ordered the goods, nor had he authorised Mrs. Parry to do so. When defend- ant ceased ordering the meat himself he asked Mrs. Parry to get what he required, but he no more told her to buy it from a particular shop than he told her to get the morning's milk from a particular dairyman. Defendant was dealing with a Pensarn butcher, and it was not likely that he would have two accounts. The real fact of the case was that the landlady had re- ceived payment for the meat supplied to de- fendant, but had not paid her accounts. The Jiidge had to decide which of these two inno- cent men should suffer through the misconduct of the woman. It was evident that Mr. Griffiths did not know there was an account in his name or he would not have gone to see the plaintiff as soon as he received the account bv post. THE WEEKLY BILL. In bearing out this statement Mr. Griffiths said it was in 1902 that he first went to Aber- gele. He commenced to buy his own meat, and paid plaintiff for it, if not on the day, the next time he was in the shop. He never asked Mrs. Parry to order anything for him, and when he became dissatisfied with what he was getting he asked Mrs. Parry to get what meat he re- quired, and she charged him for it in her week- ly bill in the same way that she did other things. He produced accounts from a Pensarn butcher for the meat he ordered and paid for during the period covered by the plaintiff's ac- count, and he also produced the only bills he could find from Mrs. Parry, but they were dated 1909. He had not kept the others. He never saw a bill from plaintiff until the one came by post, neither did he ever see a book. His Honour said he thought there was some agency, as defendant had dealt with the plain- tiff, and as soon as he ceased to call himself his landlady ordered the meat. Mr. Lloyd said that surely it could not be held that a lodger was liable for any debts his landlady liked to incur at a shop where he formerly dealt. A SUBTLE POINT. His Honour said it was certainly a fine point. He thought some intimation should have been given to plaintiff that Mr. Griffiths was no longer ordering the meat. Defendant further said he never gave Mrs. Parry any lump sum as shown in the books to pay plaintiff. He paid for his meat at first, as he went on, and afterwards week by week settled Mrs. Parry's account against him. He had no idea that she was ordering from plain- tiff. By Mr. Crabbe: He certainly had no feeling against Mr. Vaughan, nor did he think plaintiff had any feeling against him. It was a case of which of two innocents should suffer. (Laugh- ter.) It was quite true that if a friend called to see him he would ask Mrs. Parry to get chops or steaks for tea, and no doubt there was not time to go to Pensarn for them, but he did not tell Mrs. Parry to go to any particular shop for them, and would settle the extra items in the usual weekly bill. LODGER'S PITFALLS. The Judge considered that there was some presumption for the plaintiff thinking that when defendant ceased to order himself that his land- lady was ordering for him. Mr. Lloyd said in that case no lodger would be safe against such bills unless he went to each shop where he had dealt and told the tradesmen not to allow his landlady to pledge his credit. His Honour said he was afraid that he would be liable in law if after dealing for some time at a shop one of his domestics ordered goods in his name. He did not see how he could decide the. case without Mrs. Parrv. Mr. Crabbe replied that he would try to find where the lady had gone to. He heard that she went to service after her husband died. The case was then adjourned for Mrs. Parry to be called.
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