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"The Great Ice Age in Northi…


"The Great Ice Age in North Wales INTERESTING LECTURE AT ABERGELE. The above formed the subject of a highly interesting lecture which Mr. W. Bezant Lowe, M.A., F.R.C.S., Llanfairfechan, delivered at a well-attended meeting held on Friday evening at the County School Hall, Abergele, under the auspices of the Abergele anc District Antiquar- ian Association The chair was occupied by Dr. J. Lloyd Ro- berts, Colwyn Bay, and among the audience were many of the older pupils, attending the County School. Mr. Lowe, at the outset, said he felt he was coming to visit old friends, having on two or three occasions lectured in that room, and he hoped that on the present occasion they would keep up the interest shown by them in, his sub- jects on his former visits. Ice was a cold sub- ject, but he trusted that the warmth of his hearers' interest in it would be sufficient to keep them from freezing. The lecture was fully illustrated with a fine series of between fifty and .sixty special slides, and these were thrown on the canvas by a in- tern skilfully manipulated by the Rev. D. R. Griffith, M.A., curate of Abergele. The lecturer first of .all treated the conditions for the formation of glaciers and the structure of glacial ice, and then traced their causes and the results of their movements. Glaciers were often called rivers of ice, and they resembled rivers in many respects. They moved more rapidly at the top than at the bottom, and in the middle than at the sides, whilst in open valleys they expanded and filled, and in narrow valleys they adapted themselves to the narrow space. That could be proved t>y placing sticks across the glacier in a straight line, and in time these would attain a curved position, thus prov- ing that the centre sticks moved more rapidly than those in the sides. me speaker made an interesting comparison of the glaciers of Switzerland with those of Norway, Spitzbergen, Greenland, &c., remark- ing that those of Norway extended right to the sea and carried with them a large deposit of moraine matter. Those of Spitzbergen were con- vex, gigantic, vertical walls of ice, with ice- bergs often breaking away from them. In the far north of America were glaciers of enormous .size, some thirty miles wide in the upper posi- tion, and containing deposits of moraine matter. The Greenland glaciers were of a different type of ice—namely, surface ice, or sheet ice, with hardly a rock visible, but a mountain peak occa- sionally sticking out through the sheet. Com- paring the icebergs of the North with those of the South, Mr Lowe said they differed consider- ably. The latter were, he said, tabular, with normous sides, and measured by miles. They became detached from the great Antartic Ice Barrier mentioned by Sir E. Shackleton, the explorer. Continuing, the lecturer said the modem glacier does two- things-it is a denuding agent, and a carrying agent. In the North of Scotland a glacier rounded off the surface of a rock, covered it with scratches, and ori, that rock were perched stones formed of moraine matter, left on the edge of the precipice where the glacier happened to be. Coming to Wales, Mr. Lowe traced the de- velopment of glacial action in several parts of the country. An old view was shown, of Snow- don and the Pass of Llanberis, from a diagram by Thomas Pennant, giving a fair idea of that district as it appeared to him, showing perched rocks found in strange positions. Those rocks were different in character to those on which they rested, which proved that glacial action had taken, place, and that the glacier had a carrying capacity. The great ice-sheet covered the greater portion of Scotland, then the Lake District, crossing the Sea of Ireland, it covered that country also, came back to Liverpool, then on to Chester. From Chester one portion of it covered the great plain of Cheshire, the other portion coming in a westerly direction along the coast of North Wales past Abergele, leaving be- hind it the boulder clays at Llanddulas, Llys- faen, and Penmaen Rhos. Crossing the Pen- maen promontory, it left scratches indicating the direction of its course then over the Great Orme, where also it left further traces of its journey. Thence to Penmaenmawr, Menai Straits, Carnarvon, Penygroes, down to the Lleyn Peninsula, and then (Mr. Lowe supposed) it was lost in the sea. The whole of North Wales was at that period covered with ice in the form of glaciers, and all the valleys were filled--even the small ones at Llanddufias and Abergele. The great accumulating centre was in Carnarvonshire, and from that centre the lecturer pointed out the course of the number of glaciers which issued in several directions. Mr. Lowe said that before the glacial period there was probably no Isle of Anglesey (that is to say, there were no Menai Straits cutting the island from the main land). On either side of the Straits were now to be found the same boulder clays and glacial remains—loose stones, shales, sandstone, and boulder clays and that proved that in pre-gl acial times Carnarvonshire and Anglesey were connected by land, which (in all probability) was scooped out by the ice-sheot. Although Professor Ramsay (the lecturer's tutor at Cambridge) did not share that view, Mr. Lowe said that circumstances were chang- ing and investigation had gone on, with the re- sult that the geologists of the present day were able to explain more fully the nature of those things. Mr. Lowe devoted the latter portion of his lecture to the treatment of re-elevation and re- appearance of glaciers in the Passes of Nant Ffrancon and Llanberis, and in Nant Gwynant; the summit of Snowdon during the glacial period; and a description was given of the glacier that filled, the Pass of Llanberis as it then ex'sted. In conclusion, Mr. Lowe regretted that he had had to deliver his lecture so hurriedly, but he had endeavoured to give his hearers as clear a picture as he could of the counties of Carnarvon and Denbigh during the Great Ice Age." (Applause.) In moving a hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer, Mr. J. Williams, M.A., headmaster of the County School, said it was at his sugges- tion that so many of the older children attend- ing the school had remained to hear the lecture, and he now felt sorry that the whole of the scholars had not been given the opportunity. Geography was taken in all the classes at the school, and the subject was treated from every point of view. They did not adhere to the old style of teaching the subject, but made it a more scientific study by dealing with the com- position of the mountains and the formation of the valleys, and so forth. It afforded him the greatest pleasure to move a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Lowe for his most interesting lecture. The vote was enthusiastically passed. The lecturer returned thanks, and said he would make an effort to come to give the lec- ture again to the school pupils. (Applause.) A hearty vote of thanks was also passed to the Rev. D. R. Griffith for his services with the lantern.

---.-.. The Great Fight.



--------- ---.--..--..............-Death…

--_..--:--Beautiful Dcganwy.

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