Deganwy Action in Liverpool. Sequel to an Epidemic. An action of considerable importance to this part of North Wales, which occupied the atten- tion of Mr. Justice Btay and a special jury at the Civil Court of the Liverpool autumn Assizes, was commenced on Monday. It will be remem- bered by our readers that an epidemic of typhoid fever broke out at Llandudno Junction and the neighbourhood, and one of the places affected was the Woodlands School, Deganwy, the proprietor and headmaster of which was Mr. George Field, who now sought to recover damages from Mrs. Margaret Thomas and John William Hughes, executors under the will of the late Emmanuel Jones, a dairy farmer, oi Marl Farm, for breach of warranty in connec- tion with the milk supply from Marl Farm to the school. The plaintiff suggested that the milk was contaminated and was accountable for the recent outbreaks of fever at the school, which proved fatal in the case of his wife and laid up himself and his little daughter. It was alleged that twenty-four cases of typhoid had occurred in the neighbourhood amongst people who had obtained their milk survply from the farm. Four persons had died during the out- break—Mrs. Field, Mr. Emmanuel Jones, Mr. Richard Conway, and the boy who was em- ployed at Marl Farm. The defendants denied that there was any warranty given, or that there had been any breach committed, and supgested that the infec- tion was carried from Llandudno Junction by the drains. Mr. Horridge,- K.C., M.P., and Mr. Rigby Swift (instructed by Messrs. Field, Sons, and Harrison) were plaintiff's counsel; and the de- fendants were represented by Mr. W. F. K. Taylor, K.C., and Mr. Cuthbert Smith (instruc- ted by Mr J. W. Hughes, solicitor, Conway— agents, Messrs Gradwell, Abercomby & Co.). OLD IDEAS ABANDONED. Mr. Horridge, in opening the plaintiff's case, said that the circumstances in many aspects were extremely sad. Mr. Field, who kept the Woodlands School at Deganwy, was claiming for damages in respect not only of the' death of his wife, but also of the serious illness of him- self and his only child, and injury done to his school—all the result, as he alleged, of their having drunk milk which was infected oy typhoid germs. Substantially the question for the, jury would be whether the milk supplied was contaminated and was responsible for the spread of the disease. But under the Sale of Foods Act the plaintiff would be required to show that he relied on receiving a pure. milk supply, as any purchaser would. It was no answer for the defence to say that they had not been able with reasonable care to discover any typhoid germs in the milk, because in law the 'vendor always sold the article at his own risk. Eminent experts would be called before the jury to tell them what was known by science with regard to typhoid fever. The old idea about drains being the cause of typhoid fever was now practically abandoned. Of course if the specific typhoid baccilus got into a drain the disease would be spread in that way, but ordinary sewer gas did not cause the disease. Water and milk were now recognised to be the most fertile causes. THREE CERTIFICATES. The plaintiff, counsel went on, was an Oxford man, and, after spending some years abroad, he had settled down at Deganwy as a schoolmaster. For a short time prior to 1905 he had run the Woodlands School in partnership with a Mr. Pugb The school had previously been used as a convalescent home for atients from Birming- 'him, and the drainage system of the house was excellent. In 1905, when the plaintiff bougm out his partner, and became the sole proprietor of the school, he was at the pains to secure three certificates of the sanitary condition of the institutionone as. to the drains being in good order; another as to the water supply being good; and a third, given by a local sanitary inspector named Little, as to Marl Farm, from which the milk came, being! properly kept. Be- sides all this, he obtained from Emmanuel Jones, who had himself succumbed to typhoid during the outbreak, a personal assurance that proper precautions were taken to secure the purity of the milk supplied. It was arranged that the school milk should be delivered in two special tins, which were daily cleansed and scalded at the Woodlands. The first case of typhoid to occurr was that of Mrs. Thomas, the housekeeper of Emmanuel Jones. She con- tracted the disease in February, 1909. alftd was taken to the Llandudno Ferver Hospital. She was displeased, for some reason. with the treat- ment she received there, and was, on March. 16th, removed. That date, counsel suggested, was too early for her removal from the hospital. DISEASE IN THE SCHOOL. On April 3rd the first symptoms of the disease were noticed in the school when a boy named Geoffrey Wood showed sigiraes of illness, and was ordered to his bed. There were three scholars who were specially liable to receive any con- tamination there might be in the milk, the boy Wood, already mentioned, and two others named Barlow and Tuxford, who used to drink fresh milk. When infected milk was taken with tea, counsel remarked in passing, it was compara- tively harmless, because the germs ceased to fertilise at a certain degree of heat which was very much less than boiling point. The boy Barlow left the school on March 2ath, and Tux- ford was inoculated on his father's order as soon as he heard about the outbreak. Both Barlow and Tuxford thus escaped the disease. On April 7th two boys named Barron were leaving the school for the Easter holidays, and were each given a glass of fresh milk on their departure, and ten days later they began to be unwell. Mr. Field himself, who used to drink fresh milk atfter his breakfast, and his two-year-old daugh- ter both took ill about this time, and a few days later Mrs. Field, whose case was probably a communicated one, also took to her bed. A boy maimed Tommy Mammatt, the son of some friends who had been visiting the Fields, was another sufferer. On the gth Dr. Woodhouse, who had been attending the boy Wood;, calledl in Dr. Suckling, a typhoid specialist, from Bir- mingham, and as they came to the conclusion that the boy was without doubt suffering from typhoid, be was removed to the hospital. On Easter Sunday, April loth, Dr. Travis, the medical officer, and the sanitary inspector named Little, examined the drains at the house, in connection with which there was an intercep- tion trap, which prevented anything from the sewer getting into the house drains. THE DEATH ROLL. Dr. Woodhouse at this stage warned Field about the milk supply, and an effort was made to obtain milk elsewhere; but this could not be done., probably because people who had heard that there was disease at the school did not care to be mixed up with it in any way. From that day, however, the milk was regularly boiled at the school, and so the spread of infection was prevented. A further examination of the drains revealed the fact that, when the dining-room was added to the old building, the architect's plans had been disregarded in one particular. A drain, which ought to have been disconnected and diverted, was left under the dining-room but as it was beneath 8in. of macadam", 6in. of concrete, and iin. of cement, it could not have caused any harm, even if it had burst. Mrs. Field had to take to her bed on April 17th. Her case was diagnosed as typhoid, and she suc- cumbed about a month later. At the time his wife contracted the disease plaintiff was lying seriously ill; and as her death occurred before his recovery, he never saw her again. There were about twenty-five houses in the neighbour- hood, Mr. Horridge continued, which were sup- plied with milk from the Marl Farm, and in eight of tihe houses typhoid had occurred at this time. One of the houses was a hydro and one an hotel, and it was calculated that there were about 250 persons in the neighbourhood who bad their milk from this farm. uut of this num- ber twenty-four persons, or 10 per cent., had suffered from typhoid. Counsel proceeded to enumerate the various cases which had occurred among the customers. Two of them proved fatal, the victims being Councillor Richard Con- way and a boy who was employed at the farm. Emmanuel Jones himself was taken ill early in May, and died on the Isth. When a typhoid epidemic, said Mr Horridge, originated in the milk supply it was always noticeable that the percentage of children was larger than when it arose from water supply, for the obvious reason that milk was more largely consumed by child- ren than by adults. In dealing with the question of damages coun- sel explained to the jury that Mrs Thomas was not only one of the executors under the will of the late Mr Emmanuel Jones, but had been be- queathed the whole of his personal property, and had a life interest in his real estate. Plain- tiff's losses in connection with the school had been heavy, for he had lost the, whole of the summer term and although for the winter term all the old scholar's had returned, there were no new pupils. Added to. this toss were the medical and nursing expenses and the; expenses of Mrs Field's funeral, making a total of Plaintiff was not entitled to any compeniSta- tioin for the loss of his wife, except on a pecun- iarykbasis, b.ut he was entitled to. recover an amdflnt equal to the actual loss he had suffered by being deprived of her considerable and im- portant services in connection with the manage- ment of the school; and there was a further claim in respect of the pain and suffering he had himself endured. LIKE A HOSPITAL. ir'iamtiif was then called. He bore out counsel s statement g-eneiraiiy as to me outorea.K of typhoid at the scnooi. there were four nurses m .attendance_at the school,, and the place was more like a Hospital than anytnmg else. in connection witn the milk suppiy, piaintifi had cone all he could to' satisiy rmnseli that pioper hygienic precautions were tauten at Marl r arm, ana Mr jones had assured him that he supervised everything hirnsail. jxegardmg Mrs. 1 nomas s removed irom tne nospiiai, piainviit said that her husband had told him that Do-tii he and Mrs. Thomas were disgusted with the treat- ment she had received at tne hospital, and ooin- pi, ained that they thought the charges were very miigh, and that they aid not like the. nurses. 'Ür;at was the reason why they decided that Mrs Thomas should go back home. Incidentally plaintiff mentioned that he had been ieelmg nl tor some time before he took to his bed. Mr. Taylor (cross-examining) Have you ever complained about Victoria-drive, which leads up to your school, being uLiliealthy-i-I have com- plained three times about the road, chieily be- cause it is such a bad road that it is impossible at certain times to walk along it without getting stuck. But have you not complained of its being in- sanitary, and have you not been for some time airaid of some epidemic like this happening?—■ i\o. I have complained of a certain smell I have noticed in Victoria-drive from time to time. Haven't you complained of it as being likely to produce some outbreak of this kind' I think not. What I said was that in case of an out- break of this sort people might, rightly or wrongly, attribute it to the oolndition, of the drive. I L-iaid that in a letter I wrote to the paper. May I take it then that you apprehended such an outbreak?—-No, I didn't apprehend it. PUTTING IT STRONGLY. Mr. Taylor quoted a letter plaintiff had writ- ten to the medical officer, in which he described the nuisance in Victoria-drive as being a menace to the public health. What epidemic," he asked, do you think was likely to arise?" Witness replied that he did not think fevers were caused by bad smells, but he feared that the nuisance might lead to sore throats or some- thing like that. He was trying to put the thing as strongly as he could, because he wanted to stir the Council into action. MEDICAL OFFICER AND THE DRAINS. Dr. Travis, the medical officer, did not take the view that these illnesses were caused by the milk?—Not at first. He had all along taken the view that this farm was properly managed, and that the milk was all right—up to a certain day, if you like?—I think so. The water supply that goes to the farm is pre- cisely the same as goes to the sMool ?-Some of it is, some of it isn't. After Dr. Travis made an examination of the drains on Easter Monday, witness was told that he had tried to make out that they were in a bad condition, and that one pipe across the yard was blocked. On the same occasion he made a complaint about the drain beneath the dining- lioom. Counsel quoted a letter written by Dr. Travis to Mr. Field, the plaintiff's brother, who was ,acting as plaintiff's solicitor. In it he stated that if the drain- which passed under the new wing was leaking it would pollute the soil under the house. The grease trap was choked and in a foul state and open to the outside atmos- phere. All precautions known to sanitary science was taken at Marl Farm, Dr. Travis wrote to prevent infectious disease. A sample of the milk taken on April 13th was examined bacteri- ologica-lly in London without revealing the pre- sence of any bacilli. Mr. Taylor also read a letter written by Mr. Sydney Field, the solicitor, to Dr. Travis on March 14th, in which occurred this passage: You are wilfully shutting your eyes to the obvious origin of the disease-—-viz., the milk sup- plied from Marl Farm." The letter also spoke of the matter as being of the highest importance to plaintiff, and also being of public interest to the district in which Dr. Travis acted as medical officer. The whole case," the letter added, will be laid before the: proper authorities as soon as my brother is strong enough to transact business." On the 8th June Dr. Travis wrote to the plaintiff condoling with him in his irrepar- able loss. Public belalth work," he aid, carries with it very grave responsibilities. At first we were unable to trace the infection which occurred, but subsequent events showed clearly that the contagion was carried to your school in the milk. What were the subsequent events," as far as you know, that had come to this gentleman's knowledge after March 15th?—'He had completed his inquires and formed his conclusions, I sup- pose. Do you know of any events which could have altered his judgment?—Nothing but his own judgment. Excepting the letter which suggested that he would be Drought before the public authorities, do you know of any fact or event which could have added to the material on which he formed his judgment?—No, excepting that his own opinion- changed. Mr. Taylor remarked that the change of views .was rather extraordinary. DEFENCE'S THEORY. 'His Lordship asked what was the cause of the outbreak; according to the defence. Mr. Taylor: Existirnig typhoid cases at Llan- dudno Junction, infection being conveyed through the drains; and also the fact that these sewers discharge into the Conway, quite close to Llandudno Junction. Mr. Horridge: Then you suggest that you can catch it in the air? The cook at the Woodlands denied that the milk cans were ever left near the drain in the yard, and the gardener disposed to having made periodical inspections of the drains and gullies. Thomas Tedmore Thomas, the assistant sur- veyor of Conway, said that wthen a water pres- sure test was applied there were signs of a leak- age in the drain beneath the dining-room, but suggested that it might have been due to the hammering of the pipe. Freeman A. Delamotte, the Borough Surveyor of Conway, in cross-examination, was asked if he had ever suggested as a possible explanation of the cause of the outbreak that rats, had travelled up the sewer from Llandudno to the Woodlands, He replied that he had never ad- vanced that theory, but said there were rats in most sewers, and no doubt they could have travelled in the way suggested. SECOND DAY'S PROCEEDINGS. Segar Owen, architect, of Warrington, saia that the drain beneath the dining-room at the school ought to. have been disconnected when the extension was made, but through the builder's oversight it had been left there. There was no leakage in the pipe, and even, if there had been any contamination of the soil the macadam, concrete, and cement beneath which the pipe was buried would have prevented any injurious effects from arising. UNHAPPY IN HOSPITAL. Miss Williams, the matron of the Llandudno Council Isolation Hospital, said that Mrs. Thomas, the housekeeper at Marl Farm, who was admitted to. the hospital in February, suffer- ing from typhoid fever, was visited daily by Mr Emmanuel Jones, who used to stand about yard away from her bed. As Mrs. Thomas was not happy at the hospital, she was removed on the order of her own doctor. Mr. Horridge: In your judgment, was she quite well when she left? Witness: No, she was extremely weak, and I don't think she was sufficiently recovered to be removed. In reply to his lordship, witness said she thought Mrs. Thomas was suffering from phleb- itis and her heart was weak when she was taken away. His Lordship Otherwise she was fit to be discharged ? Witness As far as I knew. Would there have been any danger of infec- tion from her?—I didn't think so at the time. Have you, thought since that there might be d;a-niger?-Tlh.e,re might be a possibility. Replying to Mr. Taylor, witness said the milk was brought every day from Marl Farm specially for Mrs. Thomas. Sarah Emily Lewis, a nurse at the isolation, hospital, said that two days before Mrs. Thomas was removed from the hospital she overheard a conversation between her and her doctor. Dr. Jones was persuading her to stay until she was better. Mrs. Thomas, however, persisted, said she wanted to go home very badly, and said slie would not remain, any longer. Miss Sharp, the matwilI of the Birmingham Convalescent Home at Deganwy, said that a few days before- his death Emmanuel Jones stopped her in the street, and, pointing to the Wood- lands School, said The trouble over there is killing me." He went on to say how very sorry he felt for the Fields, and he could not sleep at night for thinking of their great trouble. What can I do? he said. I have a certificate." Witness told him not to worry, but he replied that he would sell his cows at an early date and give up the dairy farm. She did not see him again, as he died a few days afterwards. James Percival Barron, one of the pupils at the Woodlands School, said that when h; left the school at Easter for the holidays he had a glass of fresih milk and a cake. Three weeks later he bec.arme ill with typhoid fever at his home in Middlewich. Dr. Melville, Middlewich, who attended the previous witness and his brother, said he saw then on May ist for the first time, and they were then at the end of their first week of the fever. The disease usually showed itself about a fortnight after infection. Evidence was given as to the other cases of typhoid amongst persons who drank1 milk from Marl Fann. Dr. Woodhouse, who attended the typhoid patients at the Woodlands School, gave evidence as to the dates on which the cases occurred. Sir James Barr, who attended the Fields dur- ing the epidemic, produced his notes on the cases, and in regard to Emmanuel Jones, whom he also saw, said there was no doubt that he was suffering from typhoid. Mr. Horridge: There is an old idea that typhoid fever arose from drains ?—That has been exploded long ago. The nuisance in. Victoria-drive which led up to the school, Sir James said, iiad nothing to do with the outbreak at all. It was utterly impos- sible that the germs came up from the sewer to the school; the suggestion was ridiculous. As to the theory that rats had carried the the in- fection to the house from the sewer along the drains, he did not think they could pass the interception. There were no rats knocking about when I was at the school," he added the -lar-e was in a perfectly sanitary condi. tion. I never saw a cleaner place in my life." Sir James expressed the opinion that none of the cases in the Fields' house was a contact case. Mr. Horridge What are the chief carriers of typhoid?—Milk and water and flies. How long do bacilli live in milk?—Oh, a long time. They live and thrive there. A patient might have perfectly recovered, Six James proceeded, and still be carrying the germs i about. She might carry the iinfection about for months, and'even for years. Mr. Horridge: Is it a proper thing for a man who takes out milk to be living in the same house as a woman who has the infection about her?—He should not come into, cntact with her in any way. T'yiphoid germs, Sir James further stated, could only be communicated by contact or by car- riage. They did not fly about. WEDNESDAY. Yesterday (Wednesday) further evidence was given by Sir James Barr and Dr. Meredith Young, medical officer for Cheshire county, after which the Court rose until to-dav (Thurs- day), when the defence will be opened. Im
Talycafn Mart Sale. Messrs Robert and Rogers Jones conducted a periodical sale at the Mart on Monday, when there was a large company present, and a decided im- provement in the tone of the market. The demand was greater, and prices consequently on the increase. The sheep trade, which for some tfme has been slow, was much brisker, and better prices were realised throughout. In the fat cattle section there was also a decided improvement; good prices were obtained and almost a total clearance was effected. The entries comprised 623 fat wethers ewes, and lambs; 96 fat bullocks, heifers, cows and bulls 6 calving cows and heifers. The following were the prices obtained Fat wethers, ewes and lambs, 30s.; fat bullocks and heifers, £ 25; fat cows, £ 16 7s 6d fat bulls,20; calving cows, £ 18; heifers, £ 14. The next%ale is announced for Tuesday, December 7th, which will be the great Christinas Show and Sale. )ft(8 Or
Golf. TREFRIW GOLF CLUB. The monthly medal competition was held on Saturday, Nov. 20th, when the following- were the principal cards rettirned:- A. J. Wright 95 27 68 H. E. Black wall 90 17 73 C. Cooper Morris. 91 12 79 A. Lloyd Griffith no 28 82 Walter Smith 100 16 84
Socialism at Llandudno. BRILLIANT ADDRESS BY MR. G. BERNARD SHAW. For many weeks past great interest had been mani- fested in the proposed visit of Mr Bernard Shaw to LIandudno, on b-half of the newly.formed Fabian Society of that town. Accordingly a large audience gathered together in the Grand Theatre on Thurs- day, despite counter attractions elsewhere. They were rewarded by hearing the famous lecturer at his best, and for over two hours enjoyed his most bril- liant exposition of present-day politics. Beyond all doubt those who were not present missed one of the greatest intellectual treats ever offered to the people of North Wales. Mr J. Allanson Picton, J P., of Penmaenmawr, had been advertised as chairman, but owing to sudden illness, which was most deeply regretted, was unable to preside. Accordingly the position was filled by Mr Francis Nunn, of Oolwyn Bay, who made an ideal chairman. He briefly explained the reason of Mr Allanson Picton's absence, and immediately called upon the lecturar. Mr Bernard Shaw had a splendid reception, and was very soon on the best of terms with his audience. He explained that the lecture was held under the auspices of the Fabian Society, which was noordinary Society, but exclusively composed of intellectual and superior people, like unto himself. (Laughter.) They did not press fji- membership, as this was a privilege to be qualified for, a thing to whom a virtuous and intellectual man might eventually attain. (Laughter.) In this country four out of every five electors were working people, yet they only had thirty representa- tives in Parliament, the remainder representing none bat the upper classes. However, this was but a beginning, and they were certain to grow until a day should come when they would have a majority. (Cheers.) Probably by that time the upper classes would have discovered that Parliament was a mis- taken institution. (Laughter.) The working classes were now to some extent represented in the House of Commons, and so were better off as compared with the middle classes, who were not. This was because the middle clases did not believe that they belonged to the middle classes they belonged to the aristocracy. (Laughter.) No working man objected to the name if he was a decent fellow at all, but no one could tell a middle-class man that he was such. In consequence of his exclusion from Parliament the middle-class man was being very badly left. Certain people put forward THE BUDGET as a means of raising funds to provide Old Age Pen- sions, and to relieve distress caused by unemploy- ment while others held that Tariff Reform was the only correct method of raising these funds. Either method would, in the first instance at any rate, in- crease unemployment. Anyone who believed that Tariff Reform would abolish unemployment was a lunatic. (Laughter.) He would not say that Free Traders were any better. (Renewed laughter.) In the case of America they had reduced the handling of tariffs to a science, yet had unemployment to a fearful extent. Germany had fared no better, and on the occasion of a recent Royal visit to Berlin, many thousands of troops had to be employed to keep the streets (dear of unemployed men who were starving and destitute. Tariff Reform was not so popular in our seaport towns as elsewhere. We paid for our imports by exports, a.nd any attempt to curtail the former would naturally injure the latter, to the immense disadvantage of our mercantile marine, which carried the vast bulk of the world's commerce Again, if a tariff failed to exclude foreign goods, it would merely increase the retail price if it succeeded, there could be no revenue from this source, and the cost of Dreadnoughts, increased OLD AGE PENSIONS, &c., would have to come from additional taxation. The Budget contained a powerful attack upon the land- owners, and would affect all dependent upon them, chiefly the class who administered to the luxury of the rich. He thought the widdle-classes would do well to organise themselves and combine with the working- classes. They had a common bond, the strongest of all bonds running through human society, in that they both had to work for their living. The working classes were organised and were ready for the General Election, at which he thought they would gain con- siderably. It was high time that the middle classes followed this example, for they were slowly but surely being crushed out cf existence. In the commercial world their existence was threatened by the rise of trusts and combines which were invading every in- dustry with their huge aggregations of capital, against which THE SMALL TRADER was absolutely powerless. Ruined by these merciless competitors, the tendency was for former proprietors of small businesses to become the salaried employees of the very concerns which had ruined them. He in- stanced the case of an old acquaintance whose prosper. ous business was assailed and eventually overthrown by the merciless competition of a company of uni- versal providers," who for a time sold goods below cost-price. There were a number of amusing people who went about saying that Socialism would drive capital out of the country, but these very people were themselves carrying capital out if the country, to spend in pleasure. (Cheers.) This capital was created by the hand and brain labour of the working and middle classes, but was taken as rent and interest by the upper classes. Capital that should be utilised to make this country a cleaner, healthier and happier land to live in was being taken by the rich and wasted in luxury on the Mediterranean shores. It was not even required of these people that they should spend the money they took (but did nothing to earn) within the limits of the kingdom, much to the disadvantage of Llandudno in common with all other holiday resorts. (Cheers.) One thing was to be conceded to the Socialists, viz., that they had never made any Droposal which would not have the effect of investing English capital in England. (Cheers ) He had himself toured in the Mediterranean and seen the APPALLING WASTE OF WEALTH taken from a land where hunger and destitution were rife, and he had returned to find in sorrow and anger that the people were thinking of anything rather than the remedy for this state of affairs. (Applause.) Mr Balfour, speaking at Manchester, had said that the proposals contained in the Budget were striking at security. Whose security ? The security of people at Nice and Monte Cirlo. (Cheers ) Nothing was said as to the security of the business men and workers of this country, not one of whom could rely upon escaping bankruptcy and dying in the work- house. One out of every four or five persons in this country died in a public institution. What was the mark one saw on the face of every person with whom one came into personal contact daily ? It was the hateful mark of pecuniary anxiety. (Cheers.) The moment that a proposal was made to put a little taxation on the idle rich there was a terrible scream. (Laughter). They no longer felt secure! Well, he did not wish them to feel secure. (Loud applause.) He desired that all unearned wealth should be taxed and taxed without remorse nineteen shillings and sixpence in the pound if necessary. Mr Lloyd George (cheers) was very angry with the landlords but omit- ted to deal drastically with other unearned incomes. After all, such landlords as spent considerable sums in the up-keep of their estates wore of more benefit to Society than men who drew profits from industrial concerns and spent the money abroad. He advocated a gradual extension of Municipal and State enterprise with more and more public employment, and less of the present terrible dependence on private employers. It was alleged that Socialism would destroy in- dividual liberty, but that was absurd. Individual liberty was destroyed by the present competitive system. Who could call himself free when another man had a grip upon his very life ? Who dare stand up boldly to the man who could give him the sack" and cast him forth into destitution ? (Loud applause ) The ideal Parliament would be one which would represent the workers as against the idlers. (Loud applause ) The lecturer then proceeded, at great length, to explain the manifold advantages of MUNICIPAL TRADING, on which important subject he is admittedly one of the greatest of living experts. The audience followed him keenly, and appreciated to the full his trenchant criticism of the upnolders of private enterprise. He related his experiences in connection with a certain municipal electrical undertaking in London, which retailed current at cost price, and at a figure very much below that charged by private companies. They were adversely criticised for not showing a large profit! It was not their business to make profit out of the undertaking, but to give the maximum of service to the community. (Applause.) Had they made a profit by charging high prices they would have deserved imprisonment. (Laughter.} What would the married men of his audience think if they discovered that their wives made a profit—(Laugh- ter)-otit of the funds provided to maintain the
UNPRODUCTIVE ADVERTISING is the only kind that oosits money. Advertising in the only kind that oosits movey. Advertising, in the North Wales Weekly News pays you. j
Y.M.C.A. Conference at Colwyn Bay. The Associations in the North Wales group held a conference at the temporary premises in Penrhyn Road, Colwyn Bay, on Wednesday last. Representatives attended from Carnarvon, Llan- dudno, Liverpool, Portdinorwic, Colwyn Bay and New York, U.S.A. (the latter being Mr. J. Sum- ner, Emigration Secretary to the State Committee in America, who is on a visit to this country to assist with the organisation of his special department). The afternoon session was presided over by Mr. T. Gwilym-James, National Secretary for Wales. Mr T. D. Johnston, of Liverpool, delivered an excellent paper on Bible study circles." The conference discussed the matter freely, the discussion being enlivened by a spirited address by the Port Dinorwic representative. It was unanimously agreed to recommend the organising of Circles in each branch in this district. At this juncture tea was served through the generosity of Mr. J. Hamm ond and the Colwyn Bay Committee, the Ladies' Auxiliary undertaking all the necessary arrangements. After tea the conference was presided over by Mr. J. W. Adamson, and Mr. F. C. Lewis, B.A., Liverpool University, gave a telling address on the Y.M.C.A. work in the Far East. He commended this work to the sympathy and support of every Association, the object being to raise sufficient money in the Liverpool and North Wales district to send our own Secretary to Bombay. He dealt at length with the work in Bombay, Rangoon, Madras and several centres in China. Mr. T. Gwilym James next dealt with "The Forward Movement in North Wales." He out- lined a policy which he hoped the Council would carry out. This would mean the linking up of every town and village in the district by the means of establishing Y.M.C.A.'s in towns large enough to support them, or in the smaller places the affiliation of existing Clubs, Men's Meetings, Brotherhoods, Bible Classes and the appointment of Corresponding members. This would mean that any young man leaving a small place to reside in a town or city could obtain an intro- duction to the Y.M.C.A. in that place. Following on this address came one by Mr. Adam Scott, Emigration Secretary at Liverpool. He gave the conference some idea of the great amount of good work he was able to do. During eigh weeks he had visited something like 60 vessels outward bound, mostly for American and Canadian ports, and he had given 650 letters of introduction to emigrants, who when presenting these letters would be assisted in procuring suitable lodgings and employment. He nrged upon secretaries to send on to him the names of any young men of their various towns who were going out to fresh fields, so that he could link them on to good influences on the other side. He said it did not matter whether they were Y.M.C.A. men or not, he would always do his best for any man.
Dinglewood v. Abergele County School. To THE EDITOR OF THE Weekly News. Sir,-May I be allowed to correct an entirely misleading account of the above match which appeared in last week's issue of the Weekly News? The report states that the County School authorities allowed others than members of the School to represent them on the football field. Let me at once assure your readers that this statement is absolutely untrue. Neither on this nor on any other occasion has the Abergele County School team consisted of any players but those who are genuine schoolboys. The report further states that it is to be regretted that there is no other team in Aber- gele in which theYOlmg men ot the district can give proof of their prowess. The reply to this is simple. The average age of our team against Dinglewood was barely sixteen-hardly the age when boys are to be accounted as young men The defeat of Dinglewood by II goals to nil was certainly crush- ing, but it is quite in keeping with the scores recorded in our other matches this term. So far the County School has played four matches: against Kpworth College, St. Asaph County School, Abergele Town, and Dinglewood, and our boys have scored 4S goals against their opponents' 5.— Yours, &c., Abergele County School, W. J. EVANS. 22nd November, 1909.
'Taxi-Cabs for Colwyn Bay. To THE EDITOR OF THE Weekly News. Dear Sir,-In your issue a week or two ago, I noticed that Messrs. D. Jones & Co., Carlton Motor Works, Colwyn Bay, intend placing a number of taxi-cabs on the road. This is a most enterprising move on the part of Messrs. Jones, and one in the right direction towards making Colwyn Bay in up-to-date and popular health and holiday resort, and nore especially a winter resort. I trust they will have every ?ossible support, which they certainly deserve.—Yours, &c., FREQUENT VISITOR.
Abergele Sparks. I should strongly advise you not to read "Abergele Sparks this week, because the man who penned them is confined to his bed, fairly and squarely in the grip of that terrible infectious disease, the "flu." If you are infected with a dose of it after this solemn warning, you will only have yourself to blame, as the railway company say when people send crockery by goods train at owners' risk and get them smashed to smithereens. Are you already beginning to feel as if chunks of the North Pole were tumbling helter-skelter down your spine ? Yes ? Well you've caught it! Now for posal triog and mustard plasters. It won't be the fault ol the Abergele National School authorities if the local wives of the future are not immeasurably better cooks than their mothers, the majority of whom are as adept in the culinary art as were their great-great-great, grandmothers of the Stone Age. Every Monday girls from Standards V., VI., and VII. are taken to the County School, where, in a spacious and up-to-date room, they are given several hours practical lessons in good plain cooking by an expert lady cook. Hear, hear! There are thousands upon thousands of married women in this country whose knowledge of decent cooking y Z, is deplorable. Give some of them a roaring fire, and they can cremate a respectable looking red- herring into something resembling a piece of charcoal. But the Abergele housewives Of the future will be cooks, Who will put before us viands Fit for lords and earls and dukes, They'll be able to distinguish Potted shrimps from pigeon pie, And no doubt they'll grill the bacon 11 And forget th'eternal fry." They'll be busy in the morning, Shaking beds and cleaning house, And by noon they'll cook a luncheon Out of scraps, and call it scows." Yes, the housewives of the future Will entrance us with their food, And we men must call them Angels," When we catch them in that mood. But I'm wond'ring, hourly wond'ring, And I have'nt finished vet- Will the" Angel" of the future Style herself a Suffragette? Well, of two evils, I would rather have a bad cook than the best Suffragette on earth for a wife. 6s. NOVEL BOILED DOWN. Her name was Martha Matilda, and she was the only daughter of her agricultural father. She was very lonely, oh so lonely, living on her father's farm. It was a bright afternoon, the sun shining like a silver shilling. Martha Matilda was languidly humming a Welsh air, to the tune ot Mochyn Du," while feeding her father's pigs. Beastly work this, she soliloquised. "How nice it would be twisting ribbons and chiffons ;n a milliner's shop, like Mary Jane Jones." The pigs seemed of the same opinion and grunted in unison like the sound of a great Amen. Bang! Something falls from the clouds right on the back of the biggest hog in the pigstye. It was a man—an aeroplanist, in fact. Martha Matilda screamed with the power of a steamboat whistle on double tap. Heavens," exclaimed the fallen aeroplanist, where am I?" "Well," shyly answered Martha Matilda, with the corner of her coarse apron in her mouth, you have the appearance of being in my father's cwt mochyn for the time being, and your crawling pos- ition suggests that you are a pig, pro. tem." The man got up on his hind legs and said, Datling, you are the apple of my eye and the missing link in the chain of my affections. Will you be mine? Will you not say good-bye to this life of pig-feeding and fly with me to a palace where pigs are only tolerated when nicely sliced and cooked for breakfast with dry toast and but- tered muffins ? Fly with me, ducky, fly < They flew. They were happy for twelve whole months, when Mrs. Martha Matilda Balzaczola returned home, asking her father for forgiveness, and telling him that she would rather feed the pigs for ever than live with a flying Frenchman another week. She did. SEARCHLIGHT.
BLAENAU FFESTINIOG. TEMPERANCE.—The meeting on Saturday evening, was held under the auspices of the Bryn- bowydd Band of Hope, and presided over by Mr John Parry, Park-square. The children sang several tunes under the conductorship of Miss Maggie A. Williams, Church-street. PASTORAL.—On Wednesday evening, the Rev R. Silyn Roberts, M.A., and Mr Owen Jones, Dolawel, on behalf of the Monthly Meeting, took the voice of the Bowydd Chapel with a view of calling a pastor in the place of the Rev John Owen. M.A., when it was found, that the members were unanimously in favour of proceeding at once in respect to the matter. SYMPATHY.—Great symapthy is expressed with the Rerv. John Owen, M.A.. in his bereave- iIIlmt by the death of his .sister, Mrs. Jones, Bodorwel, Morfa Nevin. SAD ACCIDENT.—Mr. William Vaughan DavieSj son of Mr. and Mrs. M. Vaughan Diavies, Maenofferen, met with a mosf serious accident at the Llechwedd Quarry on Friday last. His shoulder was terribly injured, as he was caugihft by the coupIirrug of the saw table, and he had a miraculous escape from death. 1912 EISTEDDFOD.—We are informed on good authority that the Urban Council will call a public meeting shortly, with the view of in. viting the National Eisteddfod of igi2 to thin tonvat. Greaft enthusiasm prevails in regard to the matter, especially in literary circles in the towr so there will be a keen fijht for the Na- tional festival between the Bangorites and Fes- tiniogites.
Markets. FARM PRODUCE. BIRKENHEAD (Tuesday).—Potatoes, 2S. 6d. to 3s. turnips, Swedes is. 4d. to is. 6d. carrots, 3s. 6d. to 4s. onions, dried, 5s. to 7s. 6d. per cwt. Turnips, garden, 8d. per dozen bunches. Cauliflowers, is. 3d. to 2s. cabbages, 8d. to is. celery, IS. to 2s, 3d. per dozen. MANCHESTER (Tuesday).—Potatoes Limestone Edwards, 9s. 6d. to 10s. Cheshire, 5s. 6d. to 6s. 6d. Lincoln, 8s. to 9s. 6d. Turnips, 30s. to 35s. swedes, 25S. to 30s, carrots. washed, 60s. to 70s. per ton. Onions Valencian, 6s to 7s. 6d. per case Bedford globe, 5s. to 6s. 6d. Dutch (white), 4s. to 4s. 6d. per bag. LONDON (Tuesday).—At the Borough and Spitalfields Potato Markets trade was slow. Quotations :—Bedford, 55s- to 65s. Lincoln, 6os. to 70s. Kent, 60s. to 70s. Essex, 55s. to 60s. blacklands, 55s. per ton. BUTTER. CORK (Tuesday).-Small supply, lively demand, and firmer prices. Firsts, 103s., seconds, 95s., thirds, 86s., fourths, 84s. Mild cured Superfine, 106s., fine, 100s. Fresh Butter, 112s. to 91s. MANCHESTER (Tuesday).—On spot business was slow owing to fog, and there was not much heart in the market. Lower figures, some shillings in many cases had to be accepted as compared with last week. Choicest Danish and Swedish, 130s. to 132s. Finnish, 130s to 131s. Irish creameries, 126s. to 128s. a few New Zealands 122S. to 124s. CATTLE. SALFORD (Tuesday).—There was an improved trade for cattle at last week's full prices, a few choice Herefords making a shade over our quotations. Choice Herefords, 7d., other choice small cattle, 6td.; good bullocks and heifers, 6d. to 6Jd. middling cattle and good young cows. 5Jd. to 6d. rough cattle, Sd. per lb. A better demand was experienced for sheep, and prices had an upward tendency. Calves were in fair request, and prices were in favour of the seller. Small North Country sheep, 7jd. heavy ditto, 6-Jd. to 7d. small Irish, 6Jd. to 6|d. heavy ditto, 51d. to 6td. ewes, 4jd. to 5^d. Calves, 6d. to 8id. per pound. LEEDS (Tuesday).—A better demand for all classes at a slight advance on last week. Trade for sheep also a little firmer. Quotations Beef, 5d. to 6ïd. sheep, 4gd. to 7J. calves, 8d. pet lb. Pigs, 7s. 3d. to 8s. per stone; trade good. Beasts, 5S5 sheep, 1,569 calves, 7 pigs, 60. BIRMINGHAM (Tuesday).—Short supply, but an improved demand, best Herefords realising 7d. per lb., shorthorns. 6Jd. to 6Jd. bulls and cows 4!d. to std., wether sheep, 6d. to 7ld., ewes and rams, 4d. to sld. Pigs continue scarce, and trade brisk, bacons making I Is- 4d., cutters, i is. 6d porkets, lIS. gd. to 12S., and sows gs. iod. to 10s. per score.
children and the home in the highest possible degree of welfare ? (Applause.) Turuing to the question of housing, he pointed out that municipalities usually were debarred from attempting any scheme until private enterprise had hopelessly and misera,bly failed. They wore not allowed to take up profitable business—(Applause)—that was reserved for private enterprise. (Laughter.) Their chiet difficulty was to get BUILDING LAND at a reasonable price. They often found discrepan- cies between the value attached to a certain piece of land required by them and the value of the same land as stated in the rate books. (Much laughter) He advocated that the authorities should be empowered to acquire land upon the rateable value, plus a small percentage for compulsory sale. (Applause.) He demonstrated the safety of municipal enterprise, which had ruined no man yet, and defied any person to confront him on a public platform and to assert that private enterprise never ruined any man. Its victims numbered untold thousands every year. (Loud and continued applause ) As with typhus fever, the causes of which had been scientifically studied, and in consequence typhus had been prac- tically exterminated, so with poverty. Poverty could be studied scientifically, and the root causes dis- covered and abolished. rhe root causes were private ownership and administration for private profit of the land and all the necessary means of life. (Loud ap- plause.) Replying to questions he said that the chief busi- ness of local Socialists was to make converts. He observed many eminently respectable and pious persons among the audience (laughter) who should join the local Fabian Society. Another questioner said that the Fabian Society (of which the lecturer is one of the executive) combined with others to support the Labour Party in Parliament. What was the need of such a party, seeing, that the Liberal Party were both capable and anxious to legislate for social needs ? The reply was to the effect that the two great parties had held power alternately for more than a century and had never done much for the wel- fare of the people until compelled. With the advent of a small but powerful labour group, which would increase greatly in the future, much more attention had been paid to social problems, and the Govern- ment had at last discovered the existence of unearned incomes. Had there been no Labour Party (cheers) there would have been no Budget like the present one, the like of which had never been heard of in this country before. (Loud cheers.) It was not for any party to dictate to the people. The people had a perfect right to choose their own parties and policies, and the rise of the Labour Party signified that the other parties failed to meet the needs if the people. (Applause.) The last important question struck a religious note, and the audience awaited the reply in breathless silence. Is not THE CHURCH OF GOD more capable of deiling with social evils than Socialism ?" In reply the lecturer said impressively that it depended what the questioner meant by the Church of God." It would not do for one or two gentlemen to put on black coats and clerical collars, and call themselves the Church of God. The Church of God was where two or three are gathered together in My Name," and thus every meeting, even the present one and ail those held within the theatre, might be the Church of God. (Applause) For some- how it seemed that God needed the ass stance of man to carry out His work in this world. If it were not so, if any other agency would serve, the work would not have been left so long undone. (Cheers.) It was the will of God that destitution and degradation should be abolished from the earth, and we were here to carry out thai; work. Those who turned their backs upon that work, indifferent or hostile, clerical or layman, turned their backs upon God. (Loud and continued applause.) The customary votes of thanks were carried, and thus terminated one of the most inspiring addresses ever delivered to any audience in North Wales. DULYN.