Vv -Sll Topics. hoO a e the We:sh 1" interesting and M ■ t.-e iiev. M. H, J cues, .0,i. ion, at Jerusalem Chapel last Saturday evening. It was good to see so many turn up, and judging by the attentive manner of the audience, one should say that the subject had an attrac- tion for a la,rge number of folks. The lecture was in English, at the request of the committee, though the audience was Welsh in appearance and tone. However, let us approach our subject. Who are the Welsb P is a question which has stirred many minds and has received an equal number of answers. Strange theories have been advanced, some being moi-e erlgen-iaus than true, and some more capricious than reasonable. Of these ingenious theories Mr. Jones men- tioned four or five; one that the Welsh are the oldest race on the face of the earth, and that Adam was a Welshman; another that the Jews were the oldest and that the Welsh came next; another that Bomer. the grandson of Noah, was the ancestor of the Welsh, and that on account of this fact the Welsh should be Gomeriaid," and their speech Omeraeg • and still another, the theory of the Middle Ages, derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth, that the Welsh are to be linked with Troy, and that they are the descendants of Brutus. All these are interesting to-dav, as showing what were the common beliefs held during the eleventh, twelfth, and down as far as the nineteenth centuries. Happily, these false creations of the mind are giving way to a more scientific explanation. History, to-day. is more of a science than an art, for it makes its bases on geolosrv, ethnology, and the great chronicles of the nations. The theory of evolution has also helped to disclose the true and possible history of our native land. It was upon such grounds as these that the lecture proceeded. It clearly showed that the two great elements in the Welsh mind to-day were Iberic and Celtic, and that the ethnological, linguistic, and mental characteristics -of our nation lay far back in prehistoric times. To the Iberian we owe that mysticism, that strange longing for a communion with the highest in nature and religion; to it we also owe that yearning called hiraeth our oldest place-names are Iberic and so are the syntactical con- struction of our tongue. To the Celt we are indebted for our restlessness, our zeal and our uncurbed imagination. A good feature of the lecture was the happy method of taking the illustrations from the relics which have been discovered on the Gelli Mountain. The lecture ought to be an incentive to the youth who were present. Best Welsh History Books A question was asked as to what are the best books which one should read in order to obtain a clear grasp of the trend of Welsh history. Mr. Jones directed attention to a few, and I have pleasure in submitting a list which is fairly com- prehensive and varied. It is necessary to bear one important fact before one's eyes when studying Welsh history. A com- plete history of Wales is as yet impossible, for two reasons first, the material is so scattered, and has not even been cata- logued second, much pioneer work remains to be done, and one may also add 8 tl-n"d reason—the amount of traditional jcb surrounds Welsh history. Here in the list of books,, then, which are easily obtained — 1. "Welsh People." By Sir John Rhvs and Sir D. Brynmor Jones. Published by Fisher IInwin. 2. Wales in the Story of the Nations." By O. M. Edwards. Fisher Unwin. 3. A Popular History of the Ancient Britons." By John Evans. Scott. Others at a cheaper nrice and forming splendid introductions are: — 4. Hanes Cymru." Rhan 1. a'r II. Gan 0. M. Edwards. Swycldfa Cymru," Caernarfon. (Period: Earliest Times to 1137). 5. "A Short History of Wales." By 0. M. Edwards. Published by Fisher Unwin. (General). 6. Outlines of the History of Wales." By Prof. J. E. Lloyd. Published by i Swvddfa" Cymru," Caernarfon. (Period: Earliest Times to 1282). 7, "Readings in Welsh History." By Ernest Rhys. Published by Longmans. (General). 8. Flame-bearers of Welsh History." by 0. Rhoscomyl. Educational Publish- ing Co., Cardiff. (Period: Earliest Times to 1485). 9. History of England and Wales." Bv Hvwel T. Evans. Educational Pub- lishing Co., Cardiff. (Period: Earliest Times to 1485). There are others which a student may with service, such as Woodwards, Warringtrns, Carnhuanawc, and that of Jane Williams, which is to be again pub- lished hv Davies Bros., Brecon.
pa riy Difficulty S IVisd. For many years Tonypandy has had to face a serious difficulty. Whilst evidence i plentiful, it was difficult to o b. aise it was always the evidence 4 ame s in distant towns. But now (.tie;^ is an abundance of local evidence, r j. TOM cndy cases are reported in our i ii„ eexi after week. Mi- vlary Miles, of 32, Eleanor St., Tonypandy, says:—"Some months ago I began to complain of pains in my back, and'there were swellings in my feet. At times my back was very painful, and I was unable to do much stooping. I used Doan's Backache Kidney Pills, and one box of them did me so much good that I got a second one, which quite cured me. The pills also sent away the difcsjv attacks I used to get. I have no occasion to use Doas's Pills now, but I It a 1M as speak well of them, for I found them to be a reliable remedy i Ii'ev tiouble. (Signed) Mary Miles." kaohe Kidney Pills are two o o n,ar box. or six Is and ninepence. ■ d --es,. or post free ? i .n the Frste -MeCIellan Co., 8, elli Street. Oxford Street, London, W. Be sure you get the same kind of pills as Mrs. Miles had. 4905s
8.LL 44 il Wash the floors with Fels-Naptha soap and you will get them as white as if you had scrubbed them hard with some other kind of soap, and done as quickly as if you simply had to wish them clean! Washing Floors with Fels-Naptha Washing Linoleum with Fels-Naptha Plenty of water—cold or warm-and a little Fels-Naptha soap. Don't use a scrubbing brush it isn't needed if Wash the floor over first, then scrub, ever so lightly, having first Fels-Naptha be used. Rub some soap on the flannel, rubbed some Fels-Naptha on the brush. Rinse well, then dry, wash the floor well, rinse thoroughly and dry. It'. and the cleanliness of that floor will gladden your eyes, and wonderful how the pattern on lino shows np after you'll realise the value of the soap. being washed with Fels-Naptha soap, iow SOAP ="r.> r. 1""
Pentre. On Saturday, the mortal remains of Mrs. Mary Powell, of Llewellyn Street, Pentre, were laid to rest at Treorchy Cemetery. The deceased was taken ill some months ago with an affection of the heart. She rallied for a while, and was later seized with complications which con- fined her to bed. After much suffering borne with fortitude and resignation, she passed away peacefully. Mrs. Powell was a faithful and very active member at Nazareth, Pentre, and her home was a veritable Bethany to her numerous ac- quaintances. Much sympathy is felt for the husband. Mr. John Powell, and chil- dren in their sad bereavement. The Rev. Daniel Davies, Nazareth, officiated at the house and graveside. The following were the chief mournen: -On foot—Mr. John Powell (husband), Evan James and Johnny Powell (sons), Messrs. Stephen Jones, B.Sc., London, and Ben Jones (brothers), Mr. Thomas Powell (brother- in-law), Mr. David Davies and sons (bro- ther-in-law and nephews), Messrs. Evan James, David James, William Jones, and Thomas Davies (cousins); first carriage- Miss Annie Mary Powell (daughter), Mrs. E. J. Powell (daughter-in-law), Mrs. Mar- garet Powell (sister-in-law), Miss Annie Powell (niece), and Miss Ann Powell (niece) second carriage—Mrs. John a Jones, Barry, and friends. The funeral arrangements were carried out by Mr. Wm. ^Thomas, undertaker, Ton. On Saturday, the 23rd inst., at Jeru- salem, Ton, the Rev. M. H. Jones, pastor of the above church, delivered a lecture, entitled" Pwy yw y Cymry? to a fair attendance. On Wednesday evening, at the Maindy Schools, the Rev. J. Stitt Wilson spoke on The Bible Argument for Socialism." On Sunday, at the Workmen's Hall, the same sneaker elaborated upon the argu- ment. The Salvation Army arranged an ex- cellent series of services for the young people during the last week, and these proved extremely successful. Similar ser- vices were held at Bethel (P.M.) Chapel, Mr. Hoskings and others being leaders during the week, these services ending in an anniversary on Sunday, when addresses. recitations and songs were given by various members- of the church. St. Peter's Church has also held its annual thanksgiving services for the harvest— several sermons being preached on Thurs- day by very eminent men-the services being, as usual, well attended. The foundation piles of a proposed skating rink have already been sunk- the operation proving intensely interest- ing to a number of spectators. The pros- pects of Pentre skaters are now improving I line materially, and about Christmas-time these prosnects will materialise into actual possibilities.
Tylorstown. On Friday evenink, a Budget meeting was held at Ebenezer Chapel, under the presidency of the Rev. Rowland Hughes, B.D. The speaker was Mr. Edgar Jones, M.A., who dealt with the Budget in a masterly manner. A resolution was put when over 500 hands went up for the Budget and not a single hand against. With deep regret we announce the death of Mr. Arthur Aplin, Edmund Street. Deceased was 28 years of age and was at 'work on Monday last. The funeral took place to-day (Thursday), the remains being interred at Llanwonno Cemetery. The Rev. D. Roberts-Davies, formerly curate of Llanfabon, now curate of Tylors- town, commenced his ministry at Tylors- town on Sunday last, where he delivered two eloquent and inspiring sermons. On Sunday last, quarterly meetings were held at Horeb (Welsh Baptist) Chapel. In the afternoon, solos and reci- tations were contributed by Misses Mabel Voyle, Jenny Davies, Olwen Griffiths and Charlotte Voyle, also a number of glees by the Children's Choir, under the con- ductorship of Mr. Tom 'Evans, A.C. In the evening, a book of praise, entitled Joseph," was given by the adult choir, under the conductor ship of Mr. Tom Evans, A.C. A Boys' Brigade in connection with Holv Trinity Church will be started at Tylorstown shortly.
Nantymoel, Successful Eisteddfod.—A grand eis- teddfod in connection with Soar (W.C.) Church, Nantymoel, was held on Satur- day last at the Workmen's Hall, Nanty- moel. Despite the wretched weather, the attendance was excellent, and there was a large number of entries. There were as many as 17 competitors in some of the solos, and each was allowed to sing upon the stage, as no provision had been made for a preliminary test. Four choirs had entered for the chief choral competition, but one-the Garw Choir—failed to put in an appearance, owing to the inclemency of the weather. The various competi- tions throughout were very keenly con- tested. One of the most interesting features of the eisteddfod was the ambu- lance competition, which brought forth squads from Ogmore Vale (3), Blackmill, Nantymoel, and Gilfach Goch. The dis- play of the Ogmore Vale Seconds was very fine and generally admired. Viewed from every standpoint, last Saturday's eisteddfod was one of the most successful held at Nantymoel, and the promoters are to be warmly complimented upon the success of their arduous labours. The officials were —Adjudicators Music, Mr. Llewellyn R. Bowen (conductor of Swan- sea Male Voice Party); literature and conductor, Rev. R. M. Rhys (Myfyr Cynon), Hirwain; ambulance, Dr. Ander- son, Ogmore Vale; accompanist, Miss A. Watkins, Blaenogwy chairman of General Committee, Mr. Jacob Edwards, D.C. vice-chairman, Mr. James Davies; hon. treasurer, Mr. Thomas Rees. The secre- tarial arrangements were carried out by Mr. John Lloyd, Llwyncelyn, Nantymoel, who deserves great credit for the success of the day's proceedings. Awards: — Boys' solo, under 14 years of age, Cludydd Arfau," Master George Owen, Blaenogwy; solo for girls under 14, Addewidion," Miss El. M. Morgan, Ogmore Vale; pianoforte solo for chil- dren under 16 years of age, Moorland Rambles," Miss Ceridwen Morgans, Nantymoel; soprano solo, Y Gardotes Fach," Miss Annie Williams, Nantymoel; tenor solo (open ti Valley), Yr /(user Gynt," Mr. Wm, Davies, Nantymoel; bass solo (for those who had not previously won over 10s. 6d.), Y Bachgen Am- ddifad," Mr. J. Parry Williams, Nanty- moel; contralto solo, Flee as a bird," divided between Miss Kinsey, Ogmore Vale, and Miss Patty How ells, Nanty- moel bass solo, Breuddwyd y Morwr Bach," Mr. Gwilym Kinsey, Ogmore Vale; penillion singing, Mr. Chas. Jen- kins, Nantymoel; duet (tenor and bass), Man i Garni," Messrs. W. R. Griffiths, Gilfach Boch, and John Rees, Nantymoel; tenor solo, "0 na byddai'n haf o hyd," Mr. W. R. Griffiths, Gilfach Goch male voice party (12 in number), Myfanwy," Ogmore Vale Party; mixed choirs (not under 50 in number), 0 Father, Whose Almighty Power," 1st Ogmore Vale Choir (conductor, Mr. W. M. David), 2nd Nantymoel (conductor, Mr. Morgan Wil- liams)). Literature:—-Recitation, "Y Groes Ddu," Mr. Thomas Lewis, Caerau traethawd, C'adwraeth y Sabbath," Mr. David Thomas, Vale View. Nantymoel; englyn, Oer Nwy yr Aber," Mr. Gwilym Rees, Llanfyrnach; cyfansoddi darn heb atalnodau, Mr. Thos. Rees, Blaenogwy; llythyr caru, Mr. Charles Jenkins, Nanty- moel; Glogyrnach y Carwr Siomedig," divided between Messrs. Henry Williams and David Evans (Dewi Arfon); ambu- lance competition, Ogmore Vale Seconds. Social.—On Wednesday, the 20th inst., a successful social in aid of St. Paul's Church Fund was held in the Workmen's Hall, Nantymoel. The hall had been prettily decorated with flags, bunting and Chinese lanterns kindly lent for the occa- sion by Mrs. Dr. D. J. Thomas, Bryn- bedw. A very large number sat down to the excellent tea provided. The catering was undertaken by Mrs. John Adams in a highly successful manner. After tea, the hall was cleared for dancing, which lasted up to eleven o'clock. Great praise is due to the Social Committee, presided over by the vicar (Rev. A. J. Edwards, M.A.), ably assisted by his genial wife, Mrs. Edwards, for making the gathering a huge success. 'I
"Soutn Wales Women's Temperance Association. Quarterly Meeting of Mid- Rhoridda Branch. The quarterly meeting of the Mid- Rhondda Branch of the South Wales Women's Temnerance Association was held at Seion (C.M.) Chapel, Trealaw, on Tues- day. The afternoon meeting was pre- sided over by Mrs. T. E. Davies, Blaen- clydach, when two excellent papers were i read by Mrs. Lewis, Llwynypia, and Miss Roberts, Penygraig, dealing with different phases of the temperance question. Mrs. Fletcher, of Treherbert, also bore testi- mony to the evil effects of the drink. A strong resolution condemning the jug and bottle department was unanimously passed. In the evening, a public meeting was held, with the Rev. M. H. Ellis, the re- spected pastor of Seion and a strong advo- cate of the Women's Temperance Asso- ciation, in the chair, when Mrs. Fletcher again gave her experiences, and Cran- ogwen, the organising secretary of the Union, and a veteran in the cause of temperance, addressed the meeting. The address was pregnant with useful and valuable information. The speaker proved in a most convincing manner that the spirit of the age is decidedly in favour of temperance, and predicted for the cause a most brilliant future. A pleasing and educative item in the form of a dialogue on the evil results of moderation was con- tributed by a party from the Blaenclydach Branch. The usual votes of thanks ter- minated a most successful meeting. t1k};
Colliers' Ear»rsmgs« How they are affected by Mew Act. The Problem of Clearance. [By Our Special Correspondent.] Considerable prominence has been given by our daily contemporaries to the reduc- tion in wages of the Rhondda miners con- sequent upon the introduction of the Mines Eight Hours Act. A special corres- pondent of the Leader has been making enquiries among a number of colliers and other workmen affected by the new condition of things, and state- ments made to him afford an interesting light upon the matter. With reference to the earnings of colliers under the Eight Hours Act," writes our special representative, I called upon several colliers in the Rhondda, and elicited some important statements from well-known and experienced colliers. Their chief cause for complaint lies in the fact that the clearance so necessary to their proper earning capacity is very much curtailed and disarranged. Where pre- viously two men working the stall were able to have four and five trams per day, under the present system three and an occasional four trams is about the limit of their day's work. This, therefore, must mean a reduction in their earning capa- city. Where previously they were able to earn jointly four pounds or four pounds ten per week, this is being consequently reduced through ineffective clearances to three pounds and three pounds ten per week. They have no particular cause, they say, for complaint against the shortened hours, their grievance being that the officials do not or will not give due effect to the Act by instituting a shift whereby a clearance could be made to enable them to work continuously for the eight hours. We have," they say, to wait sometimes in the mornings for two and three hours before the turn comes round to clear the first full tram, and, in the meantime, we are simply doing nothing but sitting down and whiling away the time as best we can." This is in a large measure due to the large num- ber of working places which are kept open, and a paucity of trams to enable the traffic hauliers to stock the partings. Speaking to some men employed in Barry roads, they told me that, as far as they are personally concerned, clearance does not acect them in the same way as those employed in stalls, as when trams are scarce they have other work to which they can attend to whilst waiting for trams. However, we learn that the day- wage men are most seriously affected by the new working hours. Speaking to a haulier, our representa- tive found that under the old system he was able to work extra time to the extent of a turn and a half to two turns a week, which, at the present rate of wages, would be about lls. per week. Now, this has been practically done away with, as they are compelled under the provisions of the new Act to be on the surface at a pre- scribed time, except in extreme emer- gencies, when they are paid as heretofore. Hauliers also are privileged by custom of long standing to clean the roads at the end of the shift, and also fill whatever coal may have been broken along the roadways at rate per ton mid for such seams as they may be employed. This again has been done away with, which meant an average of about 7s. 6d. per week per haulier employed in this work, so that hauliers especially are very hard hit by the introduction of the eight hours work. Labourers, repairers, and their assis- tants also suffer more or less serious re- ductions in their earnings, varying from 5s. to 10s. per week. Haulage and incline men have had the privileged bonus turn per week stopped, and much dissatis- faction exists amongst this class of work- man, although it is anticipated by ap- proaches which have been made to the various colliery managers that the bonus turns will be reinstated, and that the haulage men will have their deferred bonus as from the introduction of the Act, so that the strict adherence to the provisions of the Act have worked detrimentally to the earnings of all classes of underground workmen. Surface men also have their grievances, and many little jobs, as one of them stated, for which they received a quarter and some- times half a turn per day extra, now has to be done within the 8l hours prescribed for surfacemen by the Act, which means that whereas previously they made some- times an average of 30s. per week this has been reduced to 25s. and 26s. Speak- ing to a father and son, our correspondent gleaned that the effect of the clearance by the reduction of working hours affected their filling capacity, and they were unable to bring home to the family exchequer wages approaching their pre- vious earnings to the extent of 12s. to 15s. a week less. With reference to the day-men, they are loud in their denun- ciation of the Act, because, except in cases of emergencies they cannot put in any extra time; therefore, they say that simply bare time was not sufficient for them to live on, and it was these extras that helped to lift un their wages to a living standard, and thev say that the only remedy for this state of affairs is an uniform increase in the standard rate of wages to meet the deficiencies made by the,, loss of extra tjme. And it must come to that," says one, before we can hope to get anv benefit from the Eight Hours Act." With reference to the col- liers, as already stated, thev do not com- plain- only as far as it affects the clear- ances. The refusal of the night work- men to work the eight hours system on Sunday night contrary to the old custom of six hours for the Sunday night shift, tells greatly upon their clearance, for the stocks of Saturday evening are on the road and in the faces on Sunday morn- ings, and these all have to be cleared before the colliery can get into full swing. This also interferes with the weekly out- put. If the management at all the col- lieries would only adopt a clearance shift to enable colliers to have their stalls clear, this would greatly facilitate and assist the earning capacity of all colliers.
Penygraig. DUNN'S NEW BOOT STORES, near New Empire, DUNRAVEN STREET TONYPANDY, NOW OPEN, NOW OPEN, with a full supply of their well- known HARD-WEARING BOOTS HAVE YOU GOT YOUR PLATE? 5056 BY SPECIAL ROYAL WARRANT TO HIS MAJESTY THE KIW,, Colman's Mustard