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Welsh Topics. The Book f the Week, [" Y Flodeugerdd Newydd." Edited by Professor W. J. GrufFydd, M.A., Cardiff, pp. 253. Educational Publishing; Com- pany, Ltd., Cardiff. Price 5/- net.] It is a sure sign of healthy national activity when the young litterateurs of the nation set out to compile what is best and purest in our poetry. This volume forms the second which has been published this year, and this volume deserves to take its place as a worthy attempt to provide Welsh students with the cream of Welsh poetry. The compiler is Mr. Gruffydd, of the University College, Cardiff, a scholar who is doing splendid service to his country in the field of literature. The present volume contains some of the chief cywyddau of the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The plan pur- sued seems to have been to choose those which occurred oftenest in the manu- scripts, thus giving us an idea of what had captured former days. It contains no introduction, for the simple reason that the writer is engaged on a history of the literature of the period, and the selected portions are given so that they may be of assistance both to the students and the bards of Wales. The collection is designed to meet the requirements of University .and Central Welsh Board syllabuses and of the literary public. Only cywyddau of high literary merit have been selected. The difficulties of grammar have been explained, and a full' glossary of rare and difficult words is given. The volume contains some sixty cywyddau from the days of Gruffydd Gryg to Sion Phylip. Twenty of them are elegies; seven are of nature; six deal with historical events and persons, and the others are divided among love., praise. requests, peace, strifes and personal affairs. The cywydd since the days of Dafydd ap Gwilym (1340-1400) has formed the medium of the poetical expression of the Welsh bards. It may have existed before I the days of Dafydd ap Gwilym, but the reason that there are 110 written material extant is not known. The cywydd, by its exclusivenesis1 and its strict rules, has been the means of preserving the language, and kept up its classical standard. Purified and practised, as it was bv Dafydd ap Gwilym, and his imitators, it became the standard of the language of the Eliza- bethan days and of the Welsh Bible. The cywydd consists of rhyming couplets, each line containing a wonder- ful arrangement of consonants and vowels, giving a series of melodious rhythm and cadences with a, true corres- pondence to nature. The ode has a wide and varied range of subjects, treating: of love, life, and death, man's woes and fears, the ruddy cheek and the golden hair, grievances, requests, wit, and all the realities of life and nature. Here are a few extracts from these old poems, hoping that they will create a desire to procure the volume. "Y DON. Y don ewynlon wenlas Rhed i'r gro, rhaeadr y gras." Trwyth yn tywynnu hyd drwyn Mawr ferw am walllt morforwyn. Ei mwng a fwnv am angor, Ymennydd marwerydd mor." -Gruffydd Grug. A very fine and masterful cywydd is that "I'r Gwynt (p. 58): "T'ydi'r gwynt, tad eira ac od, Trawls cefnhir trOis y cyfnod, Anadl oer anwadal wyd A'th wyneb a wnaeth annwyd. Diane yr wyd o'r deau I berfedd y gogledd gau; Oer yw d'aros o'r dwyrain, Ell" Daw, cyrch i'r deau cain, Ac o'r dwyrain, blygain blin, Ac o'r lie i'r gprllewin. Blinder fydd blaen d'arfeddyd, Bwhwman bedwar ban byd. Deuddeg gwynt y'th fedyddiwyd, Ac yn y twyn un gwynt wyd." One of the greatest masters of the cywydd was Tudur Aled. Here is an extract from his Cywydd i ofyn March," in which he describes the horse with his bear's muzzle; the fiery steed with his two eyes prancing and rearing, striking fire from every nail of his shoe, &c, Ffroen arth a chyff i-o'n ei en, Ffrwyn a ddeil ei fFriw'n ddolen. Friwf yn dal ffrwyn o daliwn, A'i ffr'oen gau fal ffroen y gwn; Llygaid fal dwy ellygen, Llymion byw'n llamu'n ei ben; Dwyglust feinion aflonydd, Dail saets wrth ei dal y sydd. Truseio fal goleuo glaint Y bu wydrwr ei bedrain; Dry thy lit ar bedair wythoel, Gwreichionen o ben pob hoel; E!i flew fel sidan newydd A'i rawn ar liw gwawn§y gwydd, ffl Sidan ym mhais ehedydd, Siamled(*) yn hws(t) am lwdn hydd." Friw, mien; t glain, gem; X drythyll, prancing ;§ gwawn, gossamer ;(*) siamled, camlet; (t) hws, covering. And again to the Maiden's Hair." Llis eurwallt lliw arian Llewych mellt ar y lluwoh man." Mawr y twf, mae ar iad hon ..Mil o wynwydd melynion." Penwn o blu paun un blaid, Perth hir fal y porth euraid; Hyn o wallt hoyw iawn ei wedd, Haul rhin, haul rhianedd." The compiler merits, as he certainly deserves, the haertiest congratulations for all lovers of Welsh literature for the care and exactitude, on a work sorely needed. It will be of immense value to Welsh students,. The Notes and Glossary" are most helpful and suggestive. The print- ing, paper and binding reflect the treatest credit on this enterprising Welsh rm.

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