s HEALING VALUE, 1 in the treatment of m ACHES and PAIKS, I OF JtLBAN'S J i^t^o firmly established 1 I to need pressing. (1 For For Rheumatism, Chronic Lumbago, Bronchitis, |g Sprains, Backache, rH Bruises, Cramp, a Sore Throat ChappedHands, ijg from Cold, Chilblains, fi Neuralgia soreness of the if from Cold, L'^fcfter )! ColdattheChest, exercise. K in BottJes, 'I 8-KI., l/l*i 2/9 & 4/- )| ( ELLIMAN, SONS & CO., Slough, England,
LLANDILO. THE weekly temperance meeting was held at Horeb Chapel on Sunday evenling and was "ell attended. The chair was occupied by Mr D. Morgan, ,aind Miss Jenkins, Oxford House, introduced the meeting. An excel- lent papei was read by Miss Maggie Williams Miss L. A. Fox recited a temperance piece, and Miss Dinah Davies rendered a :-acired solo ifrforn iSankey. t^peedbes were delivered by Mr Andrew Geonge, a,iid the Chairman., and the Rev. Marlais Davies pronounced tlhe Benediction.
Carmarthenshire Chamber of Agriculture. A quarterly meeting of the Carmarthen- shire Ghaanlberoi Agriculture was held at the Half Moon Hotel, Carmarthen, on Wednes- day aftenioe!i\, when the president (Mr D. H. Thomas, Starling Park) occupied the chair. There was a large oompany present, and par- took of a capital dimier served up Lm good style !by Host Woodliffe. The usual loyal toasts were duly honoured. VOTES OF CONDOLENCE. The President -aid that since their last meeting they had Icct, through death, three of their anidhe moved that votes of condolence be senit to their families. In the first place, Capt. T. Jones-Parry, Tyllwyd, had passed away. He used to come to their meetings regularly, and always spoke some- thing funny and nice to them. Then Mr. W. Buckley Roderick, one of the most useful men in the county, so far as farmers were cancernect, had joined the great majority. He had the farmers of the county at this heart, and anything he could do for them he was always ready and willing to do it. He came from a good funnily, and he knew of no man in the county who would be missed so much. 'Mr Moses, Maesllan, had also passed away. The motion was carried in. silence, all the members standing. NEW MEMBERS. The Chairman proopsed the following new members, .Messrs T. T. WoodiifEe, Half Moon Hotel; Mr W. T. Thomas, Plough Hotel, and Mr John, James Morris, Voelowan. Mr H. Jones-Davies, (ilyneiddan, then read the following paper on the SMALL HOLDINGS AND ALLOTMENTS ACT, 1907. When I was approached by our faithful secretary i.<u address you this time, I rather unconsciously consented to. On reflection it struck me, inasmuch as the Small Holdings and Allotments Act had come into force on the 1st of January last, and it being the all- absorbing topic in agricultural circles, I thought it would not he out of place to d:s- cuss it here amongst us. Local authorities are preparing to put the Act into operation everywhere, therefore it behoves us to be weLl acquainted with its main, provisions. The Smiall Holdings and Allotments Act, 1907, is one of a series of Acts dealing with the suuject, some twenty Acts of Parliament directly or indirectly bearing on it. More than that, it cannot be said that previous legislative measures have been a success -Jther. The success of the present Act will df.1tend largely upon how fa,r it will facilitate access to the land. Such was not the case with the Act of 1892, the previous statute dealing with Small Holdings. It was not the success its promoters hoped for. Accord- ing to the Report of (the Royal Commission, eight counties only set to work to provide Small Holdings and the total land acquired either by purchase or hiring was quite in- significant. To Worcestershire, Lincolnshire a-nd Norfolk 'belong the credit of beiaiig the pioneers, and the results may be said .to be satisfactory. The main, olbjeot of this Act is ito retain the people on the land, and also to bring the rthritity and inteliugent back to the land. Though it marks an important stage in the progress of legislation, aim-into, at the above- named objects, I do .not for a moment thank it is a panacea for all the evils of the rural exodus. If it will only succeed to check the continual drain to the towns, to retain what are already oai the land, then I say it will have served its day and generation. well. The unsettled question of the well-being of the agricultural classes is now assuming a social land economic importance and interest of the most inrtense, character for almost the whole civilised world. It is becoming in- creasingly difficult in many parts of the world to keep the people on the landj owing to the enormously improved industrial oppor- tunities and social .and intellectual disad- vantages of uriban. life. Take the United States for instance, quite a modern State, and you will find the same problem facing you there. Before we can ever hope to keep on the land we have to construct a life with a basis of physical comfort and decency—a life worth living—to have a character and a, I dignity of its mm, a vista with the honotir and resiponsibiliities of ownership or securilty of tenure. Is this Act applicable to Wales as to Eng- land, Wales being already a country of small holdings? In England the average size of holding is about 63 acres, whereas in Wales it is 47 acres. When tendering evidence before the Departmental Commiiltltee on Higher Agricultural Education last- June the Chairman (Lord Barnard) gave me to under- stamd that the average size of holding in Carmarthenshire was 50 acres. If we approach this quesrtion historically, we will find that from time immemorial the holdings in Wales have been of small extent, inasmuch ,as the system of gavelkind, in which the tenure was divided into equal portions be- tween memloors of the family. That was the rule of inheritance in vogue and must have resulted an the sub-division of holdings no lees than, of estates. The average Carmarthenshire holding being 50 .acres, just what the definition, of a small holding is, does not iallow much scope one would thinik where the act could be freely and extensively adtoiinisttereld. Nevertheless there tare certain districts in the oountv, in my opinion, where it could be beneficially put into operation. What I have in my mind's eye are those districts where cOInsolida tiol1 of farms on a large scale has been carried on. There is no policy that is so utterly anta- gonistic to the general senLiment and tra- ditions of the 'agricultural community gener- ally as the consolidation of farms.' SiTch policy Is. always looked upon as very injurious to the best interests of the country. To j'in two small farms into one, may appear in it self quite a harmless iaot, but that is not the view in which fit i3 held by the tenantry. The farmers' children who till the land anl the labourers are all candidates for farms, so that a reduction in the number of lettable holdings lessens the supply and thereby lessens the chances of the individual appli- cant. Such a system does not conduce to enable as many familfies as possible to settle and thrive on. the land. I am well acquainted with a district in which consolidation was freely resorted to. This had a most injurious and far-reaching effect on the whole countryside. Though tfhie landlord has, Iby this time, appeared to see the errors of those ways and has commenced to rebuild and place them as of yore, there still remain, a large number of unrased farm buildings and cottages to tell the .tale of their one-time existence. By this process of consolidation the population of the little countryside was almost completely swept awav. Land which was formerly well-culti- vated was allowed to deteriorate and some went out of cultivation. Families were oom- ,PelILId to leave their homes and, like their faith and kin, were naturally much attached to then- hearth and where they were able to eke out a pretty comfortable living, maybe a humble one. The evil effects did not stop there: their roots were struck far and wide, they told in their turn on tihe blacksmith, the carpenter and the shoemaker, who also in the train df their employers had to seek fresh fields and pastures new. It -and sterilised rural life. In faot the little hamlet became a social desert. I do not believe many landowners have ever realised first of alll .the strong desire whioh people hiave to remain on th^T land, so long as they are fairly comfortable, arucT secondly, I do not think they have ever reailiised what a value many of these tenancies are to the actual life of the district, the glen and the countryside. Then., it is very oftein argued, look at the state of affairs in Ireland, where there are so many small farms. I maintain there exists in, Wales no necessilty to raise them to the size required for tihe maintenance of a single family, as is so often the case in the con- gested districts. Also, there, they are situ- ated on the poorest land often close by, are rich tracts of grazing land, which they have no access to. Besides, the majority of them cannot come within the defilviction of an **oinomic holding, 'being in extent from one to fifteen acres. I have heard it said that large farms are more capaible of better husbandry, because they have at t:he:'r command more capital, education, enterprise, and can employ mechanical aidis to increase the produce of their farms, thereby lessening the cost of production. The more one .listened to that mode of reasoning, the more the conviction was iborne in upon me, that they were seek- ing to build an impossible future upon a past somewhat imaginary. What do we see around us? There is very little doubt that small tenancies have been able to withstand depression better than large ones. All the small holdings available are eagerly snatched up and the competition for them is very keen whether for sale or to let. I am confident Itestate agents and auctiloneers who are memoors of this Chamber wiii 'bear me out as to this "iboom." With such a feverish demand it is obvious that although Wales is a county of small holdings, more farms of thait character are necessary. Its physical and pastoral chariarter and its proximity to large consuming centres lend themstlves admirably to this system. I believe the future prosperity of agricul- ture depends not upon a system of large farms but upon the more thorough cultiva- tion of small farms, or intensity rather than extensflty in agriculture. As to the large fanner bednig better edu- cated, the educational ladder is now as Rcoessible to the smalitlas the large farmer. The same opportunities of t-echaiical instrao- tdiotn are offered to both; they are on a par. With regard to the advantages of machi- nery, meit/kods and credit of the large farmer, those can be .nullified by organisation, which are wiithin the reach of the small holders by combination. Denmark is a case in point. It is a nation of small farms, almost wholly dependent on agriculture, with a climate far more unfavourable than ours; the Danes have worked out thieir own salvation. They have managed to win from the soil the foundation of a peasant life, the envy of many. I am glad of this opportunity of saying that combination has exceeded our most sanguine expectations in our very midst, end it was .always said that Welsh farmers had no qualities or conilbiiiation. We have long passed the experimental stage. You will be astonished to hear of the, I was on the point of saying, the unparalleled success of rbhe Carmanthen Farmers Co-operative Society. It would not be faiir for me to divulge to you to-day, before our annual meeting on the 22nd of this month, simply to tell you suffi- cient to justify what I have advanced. During the past year the sales amounted to over 1;27,000, and the nett profits over £ 1,192. What is possible at Carmarthen is possible throughout the length and breadth of the Printcfipality. I now propose to deal with, the procedure for obtaining (1) Small Holdings, (2) Allot- ments, and I hope sufficient information to meet lay requirements. (1) SMALL HOLDINGS. A Small Holkling ils a piece of land, being an agricultural holding more than an acre and either not exceeding 50 acres a-nd not ex- ceeding C50 in vallie for income-tax pur- poses. Whether an applicant can have either arable or pasture la.nd, depends upon what land is acquired, 'but the County Council has power to acquire both. They cam acquire lland by purchase or lease within or outside the county, either by agreement or com- pulsorily. The holder must cultivate the land himself. The County Council will do what is required in the way of fencing, road- making, 'draining, providing a water suippljy, and he will have to 'bear a share of the cost. The Council can supply the buildings, but this will considerahly increase the annual payments. They may also adapt any build- ings which may Ihaippen to be on the land. Suppose the County Council was to purchase an estate and divided it up, tihe cost of acqui- sition and adaptation, inoludinrg any allow- ances to officers engaged in the work and registration of title, will be divided amongst the holders. The estate would be offered for safe by the Council in accordance with terms specified in the amies. Those rules have not y,&t been drafted. If the holder hires the land and planted it with fruit trees, or erected a shed, green- house, fowl-house, or pig-stye, all could be taken away, in respect of which you have no claim for compensation. Compensation, is allowed for the following improvements, in addition to what are usual under the Agri- cultural Holdings Act, 1900, viz. p Planting of standard or other fruit trees permanently set. out. Planting of fruit hushes permanently set out. Planting of strawberry beds. Planting of aelwagus, rhubailb, or other vegetaible crops which continue productive for two or more years. If a number of people worked in co-opera- tion, it is specially provided that the Coun- cil may let or seill a holding or holdings and with the consent of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries They may do so to any members formed for the purpose of creating or pro- motin,g the creation of small holdings. The division of profits being prohibited or restric- ted. Any expense ragarding the land purchased or hired by going to your own solicitor will have to be paid out of your own pocket. If the proposed holding is bought, six months at least must be allowed to complete the pur- chase, but that will be ,fixedlby rules made by the County Council. Not less than one-fifth of the purchase money must be paid down., i.e., if your holding is to' cost L250 you must pay the County Council £.50 on entry. Then there is th further provision as to- payment, a portion., but not more than one-fourth of the purchase money may be secured by a perpetual rent-charge and the residue secured by a charge on the holding in favour of the Council .and to be repaid within 50 years, as may be agreed on, on the. termin- able annuity principle by equal half-yearly instalments. The amount unpaid may be discharged at any time in accordance with a fixed table by the Council. Then there are those further advantages as regards non- payment, the Council may postpone payment of all o,r any part of an instalment for not exceeding five years when the purchaser has increased the value of the holding by sub- stantial outlay on it. The Council can acquire rights of way or otiher easement they want. They can sell or let their land to the small holders subject to rights of way or easements required by other holders. If the land is hired the new ease- ments will not continue beyond the period of hiring. The Council, will have to make roles, (to be confirmed by the Board of Agriculture) as to the manner in which holdings are to be let or sold, amd the terms and conditions of letting or selling and for securing proper cultiva- tion, and they must specially guard against any person having a holding who is unable to cultivate it properly. 62 The Council must keep a,n official crecord of purchasers or tenants, with a map or plan showing the size, boundaries and situation of each holding sold or let. There are the following conditions affecting small! holdings which the Council sell. For 20 years and thereafter as long as any of the purchase money Remains unpaid— (a). The periodical payments of instal- ments of purchase money must be kept up. (Ib). Thel'e must be no sub-division of he holding or any assigning or sub-letting, without ithe consent of the CounciT. (c). The holding must be cultivated by the owner or occupier as the case may be, and only be usied for agricultural purposes. (d). There must be only one (house on the holding, but the Council may relax this con- dition, if it will ibe for the benefit of that or adjacent small holdings prù-vid J 1 that there is only one dwelling-house for each small holding. (e). The dwelllinig house must comply with the Council's requirements as to sanitation, etc. (f). No dwelling house or holding may be used for the sale of intoxicating liquors. (g). No dwellinig house ma;y be erected on the holding, without the Council's consent if the holding is considered unsuitable for a house. If any of these conditions are broken, the Council after givintg the Iholder an oppor- tunity of remedying the breach, if capable of remedy, may cause the holding to be sold. The Council can under special circumstances waive the conditions, but they must be ire- corded on the minutes and on such terms as they think fit. Supposing the land was hired end not pur- chased, the conditions would be the same and the tenancy would be determined. If he is the owner and Wants to put a house on the holdings, he must get ouit plans, see they are in accordance with the bye-laws of the district, get tffiem approved by the District Council and forward them to the County Council, who can approve them and make an advance towards the cost of erection. The land is to be used for agriculture only. Agriculture and cultivation, includes horti- culture and the use of the land for any par- poses of husbandry, including keeping or breeding of live stock, poultry or bees, and the growth of fruit, vegetables, and the like. Should there ibe a tenant of some land under 50 acres or £50 value for income-tax purposes held of a landlord quite indepen- dently of the iSmaJil Holdings Act, tiho Coun- cil could heilp him to purchase it by an ad- vance not exceeding four-fifths of the pur- chase money. When this is done, the land becomes subject to the Aots, but the Council cainiiiot guaiantee the purchaser s title and would not make an advance unless the tittle was good, the salle. was made in good faith, and tihe price was reasonable. It is expressly provided that the, land is not to be acquired where, in their opinion, it would result in a The total expenditure of the OouniEy Coun- cil iiDo providing small holdings must not ex- ceed a net charge on the county rate of Id in the £ The money available may not seem large, but where the money is d much can be done for the Id. The Wihdle tremd of the Act is tQ cause small holdings to be provided in one way or the other. The onus is placed oil the County Councils and if they are in default, the Com- missioners under the Act can take their place, or the Board of Agriculture can itself demonstrate the feasibility of the establish- merut of small holdings in any locality. It is the duty of the County Council to make all enquiries and prepare a draft scheme or schemes for meeiting the demand for small holdings in their county. In o)b- taining the land necessary the Oonnty Coun- cil will if ipossulble purchase or hire it by agreement under the Land Clauses Acts. Failing that rtlhey .wilit submit an order to the Board of Agriculture for confirmation, enabling them to put into force the powers of compulsory purchase or hiring. An order for leasing must be for not less than 14 years or more than 35 years. They cannot jacquire any part of a. park, garden or pleasure ground, or part, of the home farim attached to and usually occupied with a mansion house, or is otherwise required for the amenity or convenience of any dwellilng- -house, or land which is wooodll,and not wholly surrounded by or adjacent to land acquired by a Council for small holdings, or which is the property of a looal authority, or has been acquired 'by a corporation or company for the purposes of a railnvy, dock, canal, water, or other public undertaking, or is the site of an ancient monument or other object of archaeological interest. The County Council may promote the for- mation of co-operative societies for the work- ing of land, the sale or purchase of produce, credit-ibaniking, insurance, etc., and may assist them financially, subject to tihe Looal Governmmt Board regulations. The Board of Agriculture may make grants to a society for the promotion of co-operation in connec- tioll) wiith small holdings. It is expressly provided that no single holding of less than 50 acres, nor any part of such holdinig, may be acquired conupul- sorily for small holdings or allotments. All applications for Small. Holdings should be sent to the Clerk of the County Council. ALLOTMENTS. An allotment is a piece of land not exceed- ing five .acres pasture or arable, or both, or a fielid garden, provided by an. authority and to be cultivated by the holder. It is the duty to providie allotmemts of 1. Urban District Councils, Parish Councils, and Parish Meetings. II. The County Council in case of their default; and III. The Commissioners appointed by the Board of Agriculture, if the County Council is in default. The Rural District Councils are not con- cerned after an appointed day to be fixed by the Local Governmenit Board. On that day, all their powers, duties, property, and lia- bilities as regards allotments will pass to the Parish Councils. Applicants for ,an allotment are to forward a representation iin writing to the Urba.n Dis- trict Council or Parish Meeting (thereafter called the Authority) as the case may be, by six registered Parliamentary voters or rate- payers resident in the area, that the circum- stances are such that it is the duty of the Authority to take proceedings under the Acts, which representation must be taken into consideration. If the authority are of opinion, after inquiry or otherwise, that there is a demand for allotments for the labouring population, that they cannot be obtained at a reasoniaiblie rent or on reason- able conditions by voluntary arrangement, the AUltIlrority may purchase or hire land available in or outside the district and let it to persons belonging to the labourirng popu- lation in allotments in the area concerned and desirous of taking the same. The land is to be acquired if the price or rent is such thatt in the Authority's opinion all expenses incurred fin, acquiring and otherwise may (except roadmakimg for the use of the public) reason-ably be expected to be recouped out of the rents to be obtained from it. The land can be acquired by agreement, wlhien ¡Sec. 178 of the Public Health Act 1875 and the Lands Clauses Acts, referring to taking by agreement, will apply. If compulsory purchase or biriing is neces- sary and if it is a Parish Council and not themselves is making and oubmitting an order to the Board, they must represent the case to the County Council, when the latter may make all steps regarding an Order and carry it into effect, the land being assured or demised to the Parish Council, and all ex- penses incurred (by the County Council have to be Tepaid by Jtlhie Parish Council. Should the County Council refuse to proceed for a compulsory order, the Parish Council may petition the Board, who after inquiry, may make such an order as the County Council might have made and generally act as if they were the County Council. The powers of compulsory purchase or hiring .are the same as those applying to oompulsorypurchase or hiring by a County Council for Small Holdings'. The Authority can improve u.pon the land they have acquired and adapt it for letting, by draining, fencing, and dividing, acquir- ing approaches, making roads, erecting build ings or adapting existing buildings, but there mulSlt Jbe only one dwelling house for one allotment and no house for an allotment of less than an acre. The Authority can make regulations re- garding the letting, etc., and have to be confirmed by the Board. All regulations aare to be binding on the allotment holders, and are to be made known as the authority think fit, and each inhabiltalllt of the district or parish is entitled to, have a copy on applying for it. The Authority have power to appoint Allotment managers and prescribe the, pro- ceedings and powers of the managers, which may be simitarto their own powers, and such managers may incur expenses to such an amount as the authority may prescribe. The rent of an allotment depends on the cost of its acquisition!, etc., but the ipent must be such as may be reasonably expected to insure the authority from loss (expense's of an unsuccessful attempt to obtain land beill1.g excluded) but otherwise to be reasonv- eible and not more than, a quarter's remt is to be payaMe in advance. The Authority will in the first instance pay rates, taxes, tithe-rent charge, etc., but the amounts will be apportioned amongst the allotment tenants, who, on notice, will pay the same as part of their rents. The tenants will not be depri,ved of the franchise, local or otherwise. An allotment hoflder cannot have more than five acres of land nor less than one acre unless the circumstances are exceptional, and it must not be sub-let. The Authority can 'let to a body of persons and have the same powers as the County Council have in such a case under the Small Holditngs Acts. All fruit and other trees and bushes planted or acquired and for which there is no claim for compensation can be removed on quitting the allotment. The Authority can recover reaiit or posses- sion, when necessary, in the same wtay as an ordinary landlord. A record will be kept with the particulars of each tenancy, with the acreage held and the rent payable, also particulars of any un- let plots. These are to be open. to the inspec- tion of ratepayers without fee and they may makei. copies or extracts free of charge. The Authority must also antmially within one month of the 25th of March, make out a statement of their receipts and expenditure and Liabilities in respect of allotments, the same to be kept open for inspection, etc., without fee. In case olf default the County Council cam step in. Schoolrooms in respect of which Parlia- mentary igraants are received, may be used free of cost for inquiries, and under certaim circumstances for ipublio meetings, to discuss the question of allotments. Any damage done or expenses incurred by the School Authority must be made good. Before a public meeting can be held, at least six days notice, giving the day and time of the meeting and signed by the oonl- veners, being not less than six in number and qualified to make a representation under the Act, must be given to the Clerk, or one of the managers, and if the room is already engaged for that day, aaiotbor day is to be named, when it can be had. If th use of 'the room cannot be obtained, an appeal may be made to the County Coun- cil, who may make such order, regarding use, as they deem fit. There imay be determined opposition, both by the landowner and the large farmer, to the parcelling out of their land. I venture to think that should not be so. I appeal to the large farmer to view the question from a broad sense, because the operation of the Act would tend to increase the labour in the country land thus to secure good workmen. The best are always those that have been- tnained from childhood in farm work, there- fore very iiiaturally more devoted and inte- rested in the work. To the landowners to assist in grafting a system for the regenera- tion of rural life. THE DISCUSSION. Mr E. Stephens, The Grove, said that the large farmers ainid small farmers followed the excellent and clear paper very closely. The big farmers, he thought, were looking at the loss to their farms (laughter). One thing that pleased him was that under the Allot- ment Act he would be one of the first to apply for an acre or two. (laughter). (Mr J. Phillips, Caerlleon, said he thought the County Council had plenty of work now without givinig thorn, small farms to supervise (laughter). Mr T. Rule Owen, Haverfordwest, said he had been connected with agriculture all his life, and he could not resist the temptation of he.atring their friend who had given them such a lucid explanation—as far as it was possible to explain it, because it was like all Acts of Parliament they could drive a coach and four through it-of the Agricultural Holdings Act. They were not told who was going to pay the piper. Would the farmers have to pay more than at the present moment, which was far too. much (applause). It was 'happy to hear that they could not go beyond a penmy in the E, but with the heavy rates and heavy expenses, he was in hopes of hearing that the Act would have saved them a ponmyilllJ the £ (applause). There was a good deal to say in favour of the Act, be- cause there were two sides to the question. The small farmer would want a little more, and the large farmer would grumble at land being taken from him. With regard to the cry of Iback to the land, some authorities said that this -Act would not, have the desired effect, because when a man could only earn 18s on the farm, and earn t 1 5s in the hills or industrial districts in popular centres where there were 'attractions and entertain- ments, he would not come back to the dull- ness of country life. The County Councils were a powerful force in the country, and he only hoped they had men on them with broad thoughts, who would apply its powers to the benefit of the whole country. Until they got those men oa them, he would not think so much of the Coun/ty Councils as he would (laughter). The danger in the admin- istration of the Act was favouritism and giving certain people the first pick. They would have as applicants, men who ha,d never done any farmiing iini their lives, and in a couple of years would comie and say "Oh, bang it all, I have lost all my money, and must give it up (laughter). Then there was the situation of the land, if they offered a man a plot on the Presceliy mountain he would refuse it (laughter). As agricultural- ists they wanted something done for them, but the Government went iiau and out and did nothing for them (laughter). Boards of Agriculture, Chambers oif Commerce, and Co operation were all very well, and the last was til. best of the three. Co-operation was un- doubtedly a fine thing for farmers and was very helpful, but they wanted a head society in London. Why did they not send more agricultural memlbers to Parliament? Look at the Labour party, what they were doing. Once they had got what they wanted then good bye agriculture. They had 120 lawyers in the House of Commlons, what the 'Dickens' did they do for them ? (l/aiughter). Why diidn't they put their own men in. They had plenty of intelligent men am South Wales, who knew all about Agireti,llttire land wh did they not send these up to St. Stephens, to represent them. Until they had a compact body of men who knew a great deal abouit agriculture in the House, their wants and grievances would not receive the attention it was so justly entitled to (applause). Mr lD. Hinds, Cwmin, said that the question after all was not what one wanted for one- self but what was .good for all of them. He thought th Act ii-oilld prove useful when it came into workable order. He thought the Act would be a factor in bringing the people back to the land, and he hoped they would receive the support of the landloaids in that respect. They must bring up their own children on the land. Let them practice what they preached. Farmers puj; their children to more profitable businesses, and then cried out "Back to the land." Let them adopt their own, principle and work their own salvation out (applause) Mir Williams, Pentlan, Llanginning, said the. Act wias passed to meet the depopulation of 'agricultural districts. Small holdings should be given to the most suitable people because lagriculiture now required a knowledg foif faience. He thought the should unite and have a large and strong society with an agricultural daiwyer to plead their cause. Mr Harries, Dryslwyn, said thlait the ser- vajnft girls had become very scarce and they wanted inducements to Ibring them back. Now they thought of white aprons and caps, but yea.rs a.go they took a pride in the cattle, milk and butter (applause). Rev. J. Mansden, Llanillwch, said that per sonially he would be, very gliad to see every effort made to retain those on the land, and to bring back those who had left. The more people they retained on the land, the more was the strength on land in which they bred morally and physically. People who crowded to the land crowded there, for little more money, and a great deal more pleasure, and 'much more wickedness. Wheire did they get thelir best physical men from, but from Car- diganshire, Carmarthenshire, and Pembroke shise. There was a great deal of degenera- tion agoing on in great industrial centres, and unless they could recruit from the land, there Was only one, way for the country and that wias downward. Mr S. H. Anthony, Penylan, thought that something ou/ojht to be. done to keep the people omi the land. In his opinion the reason was the want of decent houses for the wonk- ing men. If good houses were found them, and a few acres given them which they could utilise in their spare time, and bring up their children to agriculture. ThePresidentt thanked Mr Jones Davies for his splendid paper and the support he had always given the. Chamber. Personally he did not thinik it wias an act which was going to work well in that county. The County Councils had a great deal of work to do now, but the members were men who had given their brains and time for the benefit of their country. They had done their best to the best of their lights, and if they had a Council
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Charge of Game Trespass at Llandilo. At Llandilo Police Court on Saturday be- fore Messrs A. S. Gulstan. L. N. Powell and H. Jones Thomas, Roger and Ed. Williams, brothers, W. Pritchard, and J. James, all of Glanajmman., were charged with trespassintg in pursuit of game on lands reserved for shooting by Lord Dy.nevor—Mr T. G. Williams lappea,red for the, prosecution, and Mr Leyshon defended. Mr Leyshon wished to ha^re the case ad- journted, but Mr T. G. Williams objected, as his chief witness would have, to leave for Ireland in a few days and the expense of bringing him back would be very (yreat.-A-lr Leyshon: I don't think my friend would be serious in asking us to pay for this trip.—Mr Williams did not regard it as a trip at all.— Mr Leyshon: You have one of the peerage bohind you, and you ouight not to grudge ex- p(M]se.—Mr T. G. Williams: The same law for the rich and the poor.—Mr Gulston: We have come to the conclusion, to take the ca,se. —The case was adjourned for a while to give two of the defendants who had not arrived in court an opportunity of arriving. Mean- while another case was talken. The case was subsequently taken arcT* lasted some hours.—Mr T. G. Williams, said the four defendants were charged with trespass'ng in search of game on land at Lilandyfan, amd which was in the occupation of one W. Walters, the game on which was reserved to Lord Dynevoir, which, for the purpose of the case, was immaterial. Probably the defence would attempt to prove an ailtbi on behalf of three of the defendants. If the bench decided to convict, he asked them to with- hold their decision, as he had something to stay.—'Mr Leyshon, objected. It was a sug- gestion that- should not have been made at that juncture. It was most irregualr.—:Mr T. G. Williams replied that what Mr Leyshon was saying was a reflection on tho bench. His remark would not have inifluencpd them, and Mr Leyshon ought to have known bettnr. —Mr Leys-horn: It is too silly reacry. -Clpr:k The bench will not notice any remark of the kind.AIT Williams said his friend should not arrogate positiolb there any more than in his own. court.—Mr Leyshon I have no coairt. It is as silly a remark as possible.- iCfter fufither wrangliinig the case proceeded. Edward Reet, under keeper in. the employ of Lord Dynievor, said that 0.11 the 11th of January, be was in Gwyddfaii Wood, about 3 o'clock, and at 4.30 he saw the four defen- dants there. He saw them first on a fielld, the, name of which he could not pronounice in Welsh. They were going towards the high- way, which they crossed. W. Pritchard parted from the rest. The highway was between LI and yfan, and Llwynderys. Prit- chiard went towards Lliand yf an. farm. He had a gun. He next turned over a bank on the farm, and came in lthe direction of the three o-ther defendants. He was walking zig-zag fashion, dogs working him. His gun was carried "at the ready." There were three dogs, two spaniels and a sheep dog. Roger Williams had a gun. The three defen- daints moved ouit 20 yards and Pritchard came to them. The four then spread out and walked through a thin oak wood. It was not enclosed. The dogs were before them. Witness rounded and got in front of them, and spoke to them. Witness asked if they had any right to be there. They gave no ainswer. Roger Williams said "e would show them." His gun was under his arm. Witness cauight hold of it with his right hand, land Roger Williams pulled it away. They all talked in Welsh, and had a rush, and Roger Williams pushed against witness, and he fell into the ditch.Witness got up, a,nki followed and caught Jones. Witness asked for his name and address, and he gave it, but he refused to give those of the, others. They made off.Pilchard's gun was double- barrelled. Witness Raw Roger Williams on the 16th January at his home, Glanamma.il. Witness saw hiim iu the house, and asked him if he had had permission to have been on the farm. He denied he was there. He safiid he went no. further than the "Square and Compass," and came back to the Angel. The former was half a mile, and the latter a mile from Llandyfan. farm. On the 17th of J a miliary, witness saw Edwlard Williams and W. Priltchard. Witness asked each Albont being on the'lan,d, and he denied, as did also Ed. Williams. The four defendants were the men he saw on the 11th of January.—By Mr Leysthon: He had spoken to Roger Wil- liams before the 11th and knew him by name. Witness knew he had no permission, and his object in asking him on the 17th was to hear what he would say It was noit because he was not certain. Witness asked J. James who the man. was that had the gun.—Mr Leyshon;: A gamekeeper to his lordship does not understand the question- What a re- flection* daughter). — Witness went oil: He took James up to Llandyfan farm, and asked him again who carried the guns, and asked again for the names of the men..—Mr Ley- shon Think of your responsibility. A game- keeper for a peer of the realm No wonder you are going to Ireland.—He admitted ask- ing. That again was to hear what he would is.aY.I.lJr Leyshon: Try and do one better than that. Do you mean to say you are in the habit of wasting time. Were you per- sonally conducted on ithe 17th by an eminent policeman of this county to interview Roger ivi,lll,a,,ms? -There was a P.C. with me to protect me. The P.C. did not help him in the intervieiv.-i-llr Leyshon: Did he not say "How are you, Roger," as if he was address- ing the claimant? (liaughter).-He was speak inc in Welsh. Witness stood outside the door—Did not- the P.C. say "Do you know this man. You said he is Roger Wil- liia.ms.—■-vj.r Leyshon: Think of your going to Ireland. Some of these districts axe, very much disturbed. Think of your i esponsi- bilities (more laughter)..—Using a Latin quotation to the policeman, Mr Leyshon said You don't mind my addressing you in Latin. You are a representative of a peer of the realm.—Witness: He may have said it in Welsh. He asked "Were you on Llandyfan, farm last Saturday, and had you permis- s;on p" As Mr Leyshon continued with his banter about the police, Mr Williams said it was tautology1.—Mr Leyshon: I am deaLing with exalted persoTis. My friend seems to be very annoyed because I am rising to the occasion, ,a,nd he can't do it.—Witness went on: As to Ed. Williams, he knew him by sight. It was not in consequence of what he said to anyone tihatt the P.C. knew who they were. He had seen Priitlohard before, and knew him well. He., therefore, only went to Pritchard to hear what he would say. He suggested to J. James who Roger Wrilliaims was. He knew Pritchard's name, but he did not think he gave his name to anyone. It was not after the 17th he got it.-By the Clerk: He gave the name to no one before the 17th.—Mr Leyshon: Then I would sug- gest it was the P.C. who told you.—Witness was a hundred yards away when he saw them first. It was 4.30.Re-examined by Mr T. G. Williams: Witness did not know James until he collared him. He had no possible doubt but that they were the four men oai the land. Plritchiard had told witness his name last Spring.—Mr Leyshon. submitted it was a case should be proved by his friend not by him. The witness had been argued into the belief, by the intelligent officer. The evid- ence showed that the gamekeepa- did not know the men. No one in their senses could think it would be right to adopt his evidence. His friend's ingenuities was greater than his other peculiarities, and so he had suggested a loophole for the game keeper. It was childish to say that when he knew they had no permission., and the P.C. had time to waste to go with him. The keeper was so nervous that he wanted a P.C. to protect him. He (Mr Leyshon) did not appear for James, who was the only one whose case was proved. The summons was not issued until the 22nd of January, although the alleged offence took place on the 11th. For the defence he called RogerWillianis, who denied being on the farm on the 11th of January. Witness was in bed when P.C. Tudor and Root called. He came down, and the P.C. asked the keeper if he knew him. He denied knowing the keeper, who asked him if he had a right to be on the faTm.-By Mr Williams: He ihlad been in the Square and Compass with Ed. Williams and Pritchard. James was with them. He had never beeen in James's company that day. He had no gun. They had only gone for a walk. He went to the Angel and left about 9.30. The keeper was there to lie. He (defendant) was not in the habit of carrying a gun. He had only once ha,d a gun in his hand. He had not asiked the landlords of the inns to be present. Ed. Williams also denied the offence. He was a brother of Roger. He had not spoken to James since the 11th. W. Pritchard also denied being oin. the farm. H corroborated the evidnece of the brothers Williams. The Bench retired to consider their deci- sioin, aald on returning to court, Mr Guilston announced that they were unanimous for a conviction, and were prepared to hear the defendants's records.—Mr T. G. Williams, referring to the nature of the convictions, asked "the bench if only convictions for the same kind of offence could be put in. A conviction was a conviction, and need not necessarily be of the same kind.—Mr Ley- slhoni thought Mr Williams might establish a precedent in his own court at Ammanford. —The Clerk said it Was not the custom at that court to put all convictions in.—Mr Guilston It depends upon the bench.—Mr T\ illiiams submitted that all convictions were admissible. The list against Roger Williams was a formidable one—Sureties of the Peace (Mr Leyshon Hardly a conviction), two for keeping a dog without a. license, twenty- eight days for larceny, drunk and refusing to quit, drunk and disorderly, resisting the police, and carrying a gun without a license. Edward Williams, for resisting the police; and W. Pritchard, resisting the police, and carrying a gun without a license.—Mr T. G. Mr Williams said he did not wish to press the case uiniduly against James, as he was the victim of the other men.—The first three defendants were nned Bl and costs 14s 6d each, and James 10s and costs 6d 6d.
Interesting Lecture at Babell, Pensarn, Carmarthen. THE Rev. Isaac Thomas, Feirryside, will deliver his popular lecture on "Kilsiby" at the above place next Thursday night, Feb- ruary 13th, at 7 p.m..The lecturer is so well known that he needs no introduction to Car- marthen. audiences, as wherever he is an- nounced to deliver a lecture he invariably draws a crowded congregation to hear him, and we hope that it will not be different at Ba,bell on this occasion. The reverend geaitla man preached the last sermon at the old Babell. OIL the last Sunday in March, 1906, and in the course of am encouraging address delivered after the sermon, that Sunday night he ve,ry kindly promised to give a lecture in aid of rthe buildi.ms fund and the one to be giveni on "Kiilsby" next Thursday night is a fulfilment of that promise the proceeds of which will be used towards reducing the debt on tbe iieii- chapel The Rev. Mr Thomas also (jln his capacity as chairman of the Monthly Monthly for the time being) pre- sided at the opening services of the new chapel last March, and, as usual, delivered an eloquent address. The Rev. David Phil- lips, Priory-street, has 'kindly consented to preside at the tectLii-P. and Miss Gwladys Isaac, Cambriani /House, will render solos during the service. It is to be hoped that many many will avail themselves of this opportunity of hearing a very interesting lec- ture.
of angels from Heaven to rule them, then they would not be satisfied. But he belir red they did their best. The subject was one of great importance, but yet he did not think it would go very well in that county of Car- marthen. It did not seem to him to be exactly what they waaited-holidings of 40 or 50 acres. They must have tar,e farms and small farms, and they would have large farms as long as they lived. The question was that they wanted to keep on the land the people who were on the, land at the pre- sent time. He did not think they were going to do any good with the people who had lived half their ffiivelS Ü1 tihe towns. They had been used to entertaiin/meinits and what they called "life," whatever kind of life it meant, and counltry life would not go down with them. They wanted the men on the land to remain there, and bring up their families there, and something givean them ito induce them to stay bl1 th land. They Wanted an agricultural parity and to secure that the landlords and tenants must be in the same boat. Of course there were some bad landlords, and they knew very weill the worse landlord was the farmer who bad saved a bit of money and bought a farm. Farmers (always tried to get under the Ibig landlords 'because they knew that as he would always be on the tarm, was never interfered with and treated well. If landlord and tenant oomIbined they would be able to do something for themselves. Th,ere was more farming that day than any other industry. He wouild like to know what inter est the County Council was likely to charge for tne money they expended under the Act That was the crux of the whole question. Perhaps the rate imight be greatter than the fa.rmer could ibuy at that day. They wanted to help the, labourers and small tenant farmers. They wanted to see cottages built on large farms and the fanner agreeing to allow ihiis liatbourer land at the same rate of rent as he paid to the landlord (hear, hear). Where there iwfehte ferge ifMmfel tthey would find the land let to the labourer cost him a great deal more than, it did the superior tenant. He thought it was in that way they would keep the people on the land. When labour ers had some land iand a few cows and pigs, they would find they would not ieavethe land amid those were the men they wanted to en- courage in the country. They did not want rubbish from the towns back to the land. They would do no good to, themelves or the iand (applause). Mr H. Jones-Davies im refplymg, said that the rate suggested was 31- to 3-1 per cent, but they could depend the county council would work it as cheaply and effectively as they possibly could. THE RAFFLE. The laffie; resuilted as follows Saddle, Mr Geoiige, Carver, Weniallt; harrow, Mr D. Griffiths, Lleohdwni; tarpaulin, Mr W. W. Prosser, Capel Dewi; wheelbarrow, Mr E. W. Lewis, Penltrewen; carriage rugs, Messrs Henry Rees, Llwynfortune; and E. Colby Evans, Carmarthen cross cut saws, J. W. Harries, Pilroath, .and J. Davies, Rush- moor; .hatchet with handle, Messrs Ben Stephens, Esplanade, Carmai^fchen.; J. Carver Trecadw.gajiii; D. J. Harries, Penillwyne R. A. Brockie, L. and P. Bank, Carmarthen; H. Davies, pastel Howell, Llanegwad; -and Evan Bowen, Gellydeg; dung forks, Messrs. James Jones, Owmoernant; W^uam Wil- lilams, Llwynpiod; Percy Thomas, Derllys Court; S. H. Anthony, Penlan; Thomas Griffiths, Gelly; and R. R. Carver, Wenallt; hammer, IMeteisris. T. Williams, Pontcarreg; J. Isaac, Cambrian Forge, Carmarthen; H. Williams, Penlaiu; H. Jones Davies, Glyn- eiddan; W. Harries, Dryslwyn, and J. Foot- man, Hafochvon).