St Asaph Board of Guardians. An Assorted Batch of Appicants for Relief. Ashplants for Wastrels. The fortnightly meeting of this Board was held on Friday, when there were present the following members:—Mr Edwin Morgan (presiding), Mr J Frimston (vice-chairman), Messrs J. Pierce, Aber- gele; R Davies, Bettws R E Griflibs, Bodel- wyddan; W S Roberts, Bodfary J F Jones, Cwm; Robert Jones, Hugh Williams, Mrs Gee, Denbigh Messrs'1 Thomas Salusbury, Llannefydd: Robert Jones, T Pennant Williams. Prestatyn W Conwy Bell, Llew. B. Evans, Rhuddlan S Perks, I Batho, Hugh Edwards, G F Gunner, J Roberts Jones, Mrs De Ranee, Rhyl Messrs J Lothian, St Asaph; J D Jones, St George; and the Clerk (Mr C Grimsley). INMATES AND VAGRANTS. It was reported by the Master that there were in the Workhouse that day 16o, as against 166 on the corresponding date last year. During the fortnight the number of vagrants relieved were 196, as against 156 in the corresponding fortnight. b It was also stated that Mrs Fosbery had sent a gift of tea and sugar to the aged and infirm women in the Infirmary, and on the motion of the Chairman, seconded by the vice-chairman, a vote of thanks was passed for the same. ABLE-BODIED INMATES. The Foard had several able-bodied men brought before them, and in the case of a man named Parry, from Rhyl, aged 37, it was stated that he had been trained as a dentist, but his eyesight failed. He said he could not get work. The Chairman thougtht it a shame that the rate- payers had to keep an able-bodied man like this. It was pointed out that the man's sister-in-law was also chargeable. The Clerk said it was very hard on the father of Parry, who had been a bard working and respectable tradesman in Rhyl. Not long ago the man was chargeable to the Union, and be (the Clerk), wrote to the father, who sent a cheque for £ 4, at the same time pointing out that he considered it unjust that he in his old age should have to keep a son who was 37 years of. Of the £ 4 the Guardians took 16/ for the man's maintenance, and Parry had the remainder. Replying to questions, Parry said he had spent 4 o when out of work I Mr Gunner said he felt that it was a shame that inen likc Parry should be in the Workhouse, when there were many ratepayers who did not know how to make both ends meet. Mr Pieree thought they should prosecute such men for not maintaining themselves. Mrs De Ranee suggested that they should allow the man to stay in the Workhouse until the hard weather was over, and then to make him take his discharge. The Cierk said the man spent his money on drink when he got any, and it was hard that a father should have to pay towards the support of anidle son, as the law laid it down. A The Board decided to take steps to discharge the man, and to secure the repayment of the cost of his keep in the Workhouse. A DRASTIC REMEDY. Next an able-bodied man from Abergele came forward. He was described as an idle, worthless, fellow, who was well able to work. He said he could not get work, but admitted that he had been in the habit of sleeping out when in work. Mr Pierce considered that a man like this one deserved an ashplant across his back. Such wastrels should be treated as they deserve,d and this man when in work spent his money in drink and would rather sleep in a barn than pay for lodgings. So long as he was able to get money for drink he did not care. Two years ago in the Workhouse he was threatened with an ashplant, and did not trouble the Guardians for a long time. The Chairman You ought to ciear out and find some work As the man left the Board Room he muttered something of a threatening character to Mr Pierce. The Board decided to discharge the man from the Workhouse. a DILIGENT BUT HANDICAPPED. The next case was that of a young man whose eye- sight had failed him, but he was now better, and said that if helped a little he would be able to keep himself out of the Workhouse. The Master said the man was of the most willing, diligent and industrious workers he ever had in the Workhouse, and if light work could be found for him ion a farm he was sure to give satisfaction. After considration, the Board suggested to the man that he bad better stay in the Workhouse a little while, to see if anything could be found for him after the hard weather was over. THE GUARDIANS BLESSED. An Irish hawker, from Denbigh, appeared before the Board, and after blessing all present, wished them joy and prospertty and a good summer. She said that 15 months ago the Board gave her a little ont-relief. and with that she was able to procure a hawker's license and a bit for the baskeif." Since then her stock had run out, and the police wanted 5/ for the license. She asked for little out-relief, and would not trouble the Board itgain for a long time, as she preferred to, work than to be in the House. The Chairman: Is it not too soon to go out ? The winter is not over. The old lady replied that she would rather be out in the fresh air, and she wanted to keep herself from being on the parish more than she could help. She had been out for ovr 19 months after the last 7/6 was granted her. Saveral members remarked that it would be better to give the old lady a little than to keep her in the Workhouse, and she was granted 7/6. On hearing the decision she thanked the members and hoped they would all have health and strength, and many prosperous years, and a bright summer before them. NEW ASSISTANT OVERSEER FOR LLANDDULAS. A letter was received from the Chairman of the Llanddulas Parisb Council intimating that Mr Thomas Morris Jones, Tynewydd,had been appointed assistant overseer for the Parish of Llanddulas, at a salary of ^23 per annum. THE CLERK'S EXTRA WORK. Mr Gunners said the Finance Commiitee had been considering the extra work done in connection wfth the preparation of the Poor Law Returns. The Clerk bad written to the Local Government Board as who was to pay for this work, and the reply came back that they would not, but the Guardians had power to pay him for the work. As the Clerk's salary was repaid to the Board Mr Grimsley felt that he was also a servant of the L.G.B, and as such he had to obey their orders. No fixed amount had been arranged for the work, but the Board had learnt that in Rutbin £20 was paid in Hawarden 433 was allowed, and in Conway the fee was £44. It was suggested that inasmuch as returns bad not been received from Bangor and other unions that Mr Grimsley should be paid Z20 on account. In ad- dition to the collecting of the figures and information the work of drawing up the return had taken five weeks. Mr J D Jones said he could not quite understand matters. He wanted more informaton. j The Clerk explained that being a servant cf the L.G.B. he could be called upon by that body to prepare the return or resign. Mr J D Jones did not consider it right that the Board should pay for the preparation of the return. He dij not say the Clerk should not be paid, but he wanted to do what was fair. There was something funny about the whole thing- Of course he had nothing to say against the Clerk. Mr Gunner said that other clerks were paid extra. Mr J D Jones said they might not be in the same position. Perhaps other Boards had instructed their cierks to prepare the return, but in this case Mr Grimsley had himself prepared it, and took the res- ponsibility upon himself. THE CLERK'S CURIOUS POSITION. Mr Gunner If he did not do it the L.G.B. eould tave called upon him to resign. In reply to questions the Clerk said that the figures *ere wanted tor the Royal Commission on Poor Law. Mr Pennant Williams said that if the Finance Committee could have honourably got out of paying ey would have done so, but they felt that as work had to be done Mr Grimsley should be paid J Mr Robert Jones (Prestatyn) said it iwas felt that 20 was not enough, but they gave that now as part. If they compared the returns rhey would find that in Ruthin there were 641 paupers Hawarden, 330; Conway 1342, and St Asaph 2133.
LLEGED PERJDk* bY CALDWELL. In t w^rrant for ^0 arrest Robert Caldwell, a Prominent witness in tho Druce case, on a charge of t>er;urv has been authorities found that Caldweil had disappeared, 13 ti' *> I Mr Gunner proposed, and Mr Robert Jones (Pres- tatyn) seconded, that the £ 20 be paid on account. Mr Robert Jones (Denbigh), said he had nothing lo say against the Clerk having fair play, but he thought these Royal Commissions put the country to a lot of expense, and if they wanted returns let them pay for them. He did not believe, either, in paying ^20 on account. If they had to pay ^40 let them do it and finish with it. Let them act fairly to their Clerk, and in order to get the full returns from all the North Wales Uinons, he moved that the maiter be deferred. Mr J D Jones seconded, and a vote this was car- ried by a large magority. CALLS IN ARREARS. The Clerk said that at the previous meeting he had had to report that the calls due on Dec. 4th from Llansannan and Llanfairtalhaiarn had not been paid. As regards Llansannan the call due in Sep- tember was not paid until the middle of January, although by the monthly sheet of the Assistant Overseer's sheet there was money in hand in Oct- ober, in November, and December. The Chairman declared it was noi fair to the rate- payer and the overseers that a parish was reported for being in arrears with the call when there was money in hand the call was not paid. The Cleark said he had received a letter of ex- planation in which the Assistant Overseer said the books had been to Denbigh to be made up, but he could not get the person to do the work. For three month the books bad not been touched. Mr Robert Jones (Denbigh), moved that the Clerk require the outstandingjjcails due from Llan- sannan and Llsnfar on December 4th to be paid at once. f 0
Christ Church (English Congregational.) ANNUAL MEETING. On Wednesday a largely-attended meeting was held in the Lecture Hall of this Church, Mr J Terfyu Williams in. the chair. From the minutes of the annual meeting held in January, 1907, it transpired that the membership had increas-ed during the year from 159 to 217, but 16 of (these had removed or died, leaving 201 actual members on the 1st January, 1907. Dur- ing 1907 the -membership had reached 232, but the actual number, after making all reductions, was 222 on the 1st of January, 1908. The Chairman, in his remarks, pointed out that the most important item on tho agenda was the election of officers. To his mind the church was like a ship without a captain; there were plenty of lieutenants and able-bodied seamen, nevrtheless the officers missed a good minister to take the lead, Messrs F C Tailby, James Holt, and Ernest Nelson wer-a appointed as scrutineers. The following deacons were duly elected -Nilessrs Isaac Batho, John Emlyn, Edward Jones, Geo Nutt-ell, F L Rawlins, David Rees, T Harding Roberts, John Terfjm Williams, and 1- Moityu Williams. The annual statement of accounts, read by the Secretary, was considered highly satisfac- tory. Messrs G Nuttall and Wm Freeman, the auditors, in moving the adoption cf the ao counts, said they felt it was .the least they could do to pass a very hearty vote ("t thanks to the Secretary for the able way in which he had kept the accounts, and for the luc;d stae- ment read that evening. The vote of thanks was carried with acclamation. -Ilessrs ID Rees, T H Roberts, and Richard Hindley spoke on -the work done at he P.S.A. Mr M LI Roberts read a very encouraging re- port on the progress in the Sunday School. A vote of thanks was given to the ladies, special' mention being made to Mrs G W Parry, Mrs A Rhydwen Jones, and Mrs T M Davies. Mr G Nuttall was reappointed choirmaster, and Miss Winnie Davies as organist. A vote of thanks was passed to Miss .Davies for her services, and also to Miss Edith -Roberts, who has supplied the flowers for the Communion table for three years. The delegates for various institutions Connected with. the cause were elected in the usual way. olo-
oitrrors snouni be cut in slices instead of cubes, because the outside darker part is richer and better, and if cut iu slices it is more equally distributes!. Always hang uncooked meat from hooks in the larder. Do not lav it on dishes. Wrap bacon and ham in a grease-proof paper and keep in the same way. Salt for table use should be mixed with a small quantity of cornflour before putting it in either a salt-cellar or sail sifter. This pre- vents the tendency it has to form in solid lumps. Mothers will be glad to learn that muslins and laces may be rendered much less inflam- mable by the simple ialean3 of mixing with tho ataroix hali as much whiting when in the process of laundering. 0 Grease stains on leather may be removed by carefully applying benzine or perfectly pure turpentine. Wash the spots over after- wards with well-beaten white of an egg, or a good leather reviver. Cheese StrawD.—Take one cupful of flour, two tablespoonfuls of butler, four tablespoon. fuls of grated cheese, a pinch of salt, and a tiny pinch of cayenne pepper. Work all to a paste, roll out thin, cut in strips, and bake. When removing old wall-paper stir a quart of flour paste into a pail of hot water, and then apply this mixture to the walls. Being thick it will not dry quickly, but will satu- rate the paper, which may then be easily scnuod or peeled oil. Instead of throwing away jar*, tins, and boxes, these .Lonld be returned to the grocers, who charge at the rite of one half- penny to threepence, and in the case of large tins and jars sixpence and o.,i,- shilling apiece for them, and are usualiv willing to refund the outlay. Tripe in Batter.—Simmer one pound of tripe in water for two hours. Make a batter by stirring an egg. lightly beaten, into four ounecs of flour, and adding half a pint of milk by degrees, beating it with a wooden spoon till it is light. Dip each piece of tripe into the batter and then fry ill hot fat. Bacon Roly-Poly.—Make a light suet paste either with suet or dripping, roll out, and spread with thin slices of bacon. Make a seasoning of some powdered sage, a little chopped onion, pepper and salt, and scatter over the bacon. Roll np. wet the edges, tie iu a. cloth, and boil for two hours and a half. To clean a greasy oven dust the oven thoroughly, plates and all, with powdered lime, and sprinkle the lime thickly over the bottom. Then heat the oven well. Let it eool, and then brush it out. The lime will take up all the grease. A good soap for cleaning silver can be made as follov;Cot-oaii tit soap, one and a half ounce; add sufficient water to make a thick paste with heat. Then mix in 75 grains of rouge, and 22 grains of carbonate of am- monia, dissolved in water add it to the other ingredients, and rstore in a tin box. In making the sauce in which cold meats are to be warmed and served, it is better to let it cool after it is cooked, and lieat it again before using. The cooling process per. mits the thorough combination of all the flavours oli onion, parsley, celery, soup stock O beef extract into a delicious whole whose parts cannot be distinguished. This is one ot the niceties of a French cook's method. u Hot Spiced —Cook young beets until 60 tender that the skins will rub off easily. Drop into cold water for a few minutes, and then the skins will slip off with slight pres- sure. Cut in very thin slices and pour hot, spiced vinegar over, made by heating one- half of a cupful of vinegar, one quarter of a cupful of sugar and one quarter of a level teaspoonful of cloves together until the boil- ing-point is reached.
Football. THE COMBINATION. Table up to and including January 25th. 1908 Goals. P. W. L. D. F. A. P Tranmere 14 ..12 1 1 ..48 ..14 ..25 Chester 15 ..11 3 1 ..52 ..19 ..23 Connah's QuayI7 ..10 4 3 ..37 ..35 ..23 Oswestry 14 9 2 3 ..41 ..17 ..21 Whitchurch. 14 10 3 1 ..53 ..23 ..21 Crewe Alex. I'; 8 7 2 ..40 ..36 18 Chirk 14 8 6 o ..28 ..22 ..16 Druids .15 6 7 2 ..37 ..39 ..14 Nantwich .14 4 6 4 ..34 ..37 ..12 Bangor 15 5 9 1 ..24 ..43 ..11 Wrexham .17 4 1 2 ..31 ..47 ..10 Rhyl 14 4 9 1 ..25 ..40 9 Birkenhead 18 3 ..13 2 ..20 ..46 8 Welshpool ,13 o ..12 I ..15 ..53 I 00000 SATURDAY'S COMBINATION RESULTS. *Birkenheod 4 Rhyl 2 *Connah's Quay 3 Chirk. I Chester 3 .Crewe Alex. I -Druids. 2 Nantwich 2 .Oswestry 3 Welshpool. o -Druids. 2 Nantwich 2 *Home team. 00000 RHYL AT BIRKENHEAD. Following their unexpected victory at Wrexham last week, their first away from home, Birkenhead secured a fair attendance at Rockville. last Saturday afternoon for their first encounter with Rhyl in the Combination. Birkenhead commenced play down hill, with the breeze in their favour, and they soon forged ahead. They attacked on the left, and Chilton was illegally pushed near goal by Jack Jones, and Mr Nunnerley, Wrexham, promptly awarded a penalty. Banton easily scored, after five minutes' play. They continued to press, and the Rhyl goal had several narrow escapes, a miskick by Jones on one occassion just curling outside the post. Rhyl occasionally made incursions into the home territory, but the backs repulsed their efforts, Chapman only once having to run out to save. After about half-an-hours's play Cooper ran down on the right, and put in a beautiful centre, which Thomas turned to account. Seven minutes later Banton scored for Birkenhead from a penalty for hands, but as Rhyl dashed in he was ordered to re- take it. Jones then saved finely. Three minutes' later Cooper scored No. 3 with a grand, shot. The last stages of the game Rhyl, kicking down the in- cline, improved considerably, and before the call of time had scored two goals. 00000 DRUIDS DRAW. On Saturday, the Druids were at home to Nant- wich, but were only able to make a draw of two goals each. The supporters of the Druids are hop- ing they will make a better show against Whit- church in their third meeting in the Welsh Cup.- Connah's Quay had Chirk at home, and led at the interval by two goals, scored by O'Neil and Roberts. In the second half Roberts added a third goal for the Quay, and from a penalty Williams defeated Lloyd. The home side fully deserved their victory of three goals to one.—Crewe Alexandra met Chester at Crewe, before a small crowd. Smart play on both sides was witnessed in the opening stages, each goalkeeper being called upon. Scrambl- ing play followed until Lipsham broke away and ended up by shooting a fine goal. From a break- away Kniverton put across to H orton, who scored just before the interval, when the score was one each. On resuming Love Jones tested Kelly with a fine shot. Crewe were handicapped through hIv- ing only ten men, but nevertheless Chester deserved their victory 3-1. 00000 NORTH WALES COAST FOOTBALL LEAGUE. f' DIVISION 1. Tables up to and including January 25th. Goals. P. W. L. D. F. A. P Carnarvon .14 8 5 1 ..37 ..31 ..17 Bangor, It.. 7 2 2 ,.40 ,.2<f .,16 Holyhead 12 8 4 o ..44 ..15 ..16 Beaumaris .12 7 4 1 ..30 ..23 ..15 IthylIteserves..12 5 5 2 ..34 ..25 ..12 Llandudno .10 4 4 2 ..11 ..15 ..10 Colwyn Bay.11 5 6 o ..24 ..28 ..10 Llanrwst 11 3 6 2 ..14 ..31 8 Bl. Festiniog 9 4 5 0 ..21 ..36 8 Denbigh 9 3 5 1 ..16 ..23 7 Conway 13 3 9 1 ..26 ..46 7, 00000 LAST SATURDAY'S RESULTS. "RhylReserves 2 Beaumaris. o *Llandudno I Conway I OFestiniog. 6 Carnarvon. t -Bangor 3 Holyhead. I 00000 RHYL RESERVES BEAT BEAUMARIS. The Reserves by beating Beaumaris last Saturday. accomplished one of their best performances of the season. Beaumaris are a good team, and have done well up-to-date. Time and space does not how- ever, permit to detail the match. The result was 2-0 for Rhyl. ooooe DIVISION 2. Goals. P. W. L. D. F. A. P Denbigh Guild 4 2 1 1 9 9 5 Rhuddlan C'ser 3 2 1 o 8 4 4 Ruthin 3..2..1..0..7..7..4 Denbigh Res.. 3 1 1 1 io 6 3 Corwen Ites.. 2 0 2 0 2 5 0 000000 •Denbigh Guild. 2 Denbigh Res. 2 00000 WELSH CUP PROGRESS. The Welsh Association may in the future have a more representative national body than at the present. The Association have allocated an inter- national match to Abwdare, which, though a Rugby centre, has long possessed a strong Association side. At the last meeting of the Welsh Football Associa. tion Mr George Williams, of Cardiff, was appointed a vice-president, in place of Mr George Mercer. also of Cardiff. The draw for the fourth round of the Cup competition was also made, the ties to be played on February 8th being Oswestry v. Wrexbam Aberystwyth v. Ton Pentre. Treharris v. Connah's Quay. Druids v. Chesrer. 000000 WELSH TRIAL MATCH. The following teams were selected to play in the Welsh trial match at Wrexham, on February 17 :— WHITES: Roose (Sunderland), goal Jones (Llandrindod) and Blew (Wrexham), backs Davies (Birkenhead) Peake (Aberystwyth), and Davies (Wrexham), half- backs Burton (Llandrindod), and George Griffiths (Wrexham), right wing Jones (Aberdare), and Brycott (Chirk), left wing Peake (Aberystwyth), centre. STRIPES: Davies (Bolton Wanderers), goal; Grundy (Ches. ter), and Morris (Derby County), backs Hughes (Notts Forrest), Latham (Liverpool), and Matthews (Chester), half backs Meredith (Manchester United) and Lot Jones (Manchester City), right wing Tudor (Treharris), and Evans (Aston Villa), left wing Williams (Accrington Stanley), centre. 00000 WELSH AMATEUR CUP-ROUND 4. The draw for the fourth round of the above cup is Holyhead v. Brymbo Victoria Buckley Engineers v. Burntwood United Welshpool v. Shrewsbury Rovers Acrefair U. or Esclusham White Star Y. Aber- ystwyth. Ties to be played on or before February 29th. 60000 FLINTSHIRE AND DENBIGHSHIRE CHAR- ITY CUP-SEMI-FINAL. The draw for the semi-final of the above Charity Cup is Connah's Quay v. Coedpoeth. To be played at Mold, on February 15 th. Referee, Mr W E Yates, Chester. I Eschisham White Star v. Buckley Engineers. At Wrexham, on February 22nd. Referee, Mr W Nunnerley, Wrexham.
FACTS AND FANCIES. THE TALKING FISH. A nttural curiosity captured on the coast of Africa by Signor Cavana and exhibited in all the great cities of Europe during the years 1859, Lo&O, 1861. and 1862, where it was advertised as 'ihe "talking fish," was in reality a species of the African seal, well knofan to naturalists on ac- lount of its wonderful poi-r,-rs of mimicry. This particular animal was about 12ft. in iength, and weighed something over SCOlb. It had a. fine. dog-like head and la/go, beautiful black eyes, which seemed to sparkle with intelligence .]¡en- ever the creature was spoken to by anyone. It ivns very decile. and when told to dance would roll over and over in its bathtub, with first tail and then head above the water, all the time chattering as though enjoying the sport as much as the spectators did. It soon learnt many odd tricks, and, it is claimed, learnt to articulate at least three. words very olainly. viz.. "mamma." "papa," and John," the last being the keeper's name. When told to pray it would clasp its flippers in tho attitude of supplication and put on a sanctimonious look. ♦— YVOXDERFUL VITALITY. There is a creeping moss found in Jamaica, in Barbados, and other islands of the West Indies, which is called the life tree," or more properly the "life plant." Its powers of vitality are said to be beyond those of any other plant. It is absolutely indestructible by any means except immersion in boiling water or application of a red-hot iron. It may be cut up and divided in any manner, and the smallest shreds will throw out roots, grow and form buds. The leaves of this extraordinary plant have been placed in a closed air-tight, dark box. without moisture of any sort, and still they grew. A BATIUCIIIAX WEATHER PROPHET. Few animals have survived tho attacks mado by ccience upon their reputation as weather prophets. The green tree frog is a conspicuous exception. He is, to be sure, a croaking prophet, but plenty of people still pin their faith to him. In many "houses abroad the frog is kept m a bottle half-filled with water and provided with t ladder, and the little fellow is carefully watched in uncertain conditions of the atmosphere. A number of weather maxims are based UllUn hw posture and activity. If he remains on one ot the lowest steps of the ladder it is considered a sure sign that bad weather is coming. If ha emerges from the water and rests upon the steps above it, fine weather may be expected, and tho higher he sits on the steps the finer the weather is suro to be. He is also supposed. Symon's Meteorological Magazine tells u". to give warning of bad weather by croaking loudly before a etonrs- — SPANISH PROVEHBS ON* WOMEN*. Choose neither wife nor linen by candle light. Won-ien and weather are no. to be trusted. No season is as brief as a woman's love. A woman may be loyal in love, but never to lovers. Woma.n is a curious creature with long hair and short ideas. A girl's hair draws more than a ship s cable. Woman is a guitar, the sweetness of whct.6 tone depends upon the player. A NEW TEXTILE. A vegetable fibre obtained from the dwarf palm tree now forms one of the staple products of the Algerian region. The dwarf palm was hereto- fore considered as having no value for commer- cial use, and even as a harmful plant, but owing to the method of extracting the fibre from the plant which is now so successful the use of the product is on the increase, and it can be employed to advantage to replace the animal fibre or hair which is so extensively used for mattresses. woven products, harness and carriage work. While horse-hair appears to be easily attacked by moths, the fibres of the dwarf palm resist the attacks of insects. It is also of use in the manu- facture of various materials, and even of hats. MODERN TRIXIDAD. Trinidad is the largest, richest, and most pro- sperous of the Lesser Antilles, and its inhabit- ants have recently taken to calling themselves "The Yankees of the West Indies." They have abandoned sugar-raising, and taken to growing cacao. Trinidad is now fourth in the world's producers of that valuable bean. A cacao planta- tion only requires one man to the ten employed, area for area, on a sugar plantation. Hence there is a lack of steady employment in the island. CHINESE SCHOOLBOYS. The Chinese schoolchildren have instilled into them at an early age habits of hard, steady study. At tho ago of five a boy begins his schooling. At daylight he arises, and, after'dress- ing as quickly as possible, he starts brcakfastlesa to school. He is given a task, and after it is completed he is allowed an hour for luncheon, but he is at his study nearly twelve hours a day, seven days in the week. All his time, when he is not reciting his lessons, he is studying aloud at the top of his voice. He is under the eye of his master both in school and on hi way to and from school. The lad is taught rudimentary physics and natural history, but greater stress is put upon writing and his literary studies. A Thousand Letters," a poem, is the study that forms tho backbone of his literary educa- tion. In it are taught the duties of children to parents and all such matters. Whatever the study may be—history, classics, or science—every lesson is learnt and repeated word for word. A NUT FOB BILL SYKES. The most remarkable burglar-proof safe in the world exists in a bank at Newburg Island. At night the safe is lowered by cables into an im- pregnable metallic-lined sub-vault of masonry and concrete. After reaching the bottom, it is fastened down by maseive steel lugs, operated by a triple time lock. Until these lugs are released automatically at a desired time, no human agency can raise the safe, and to break in through a mass of stone and concrete which measures 10ft. by 10ft. by 16ft. with dynamite would wreck the building without making the eafe available. THE USES OF SEAWEED. It would hardly enter the head of a person looking at the tangled masses of seaweed which are washed up on the beach at the seashore that it could have any commercial value. On the British coast alone, however. 400.000 tons of this weed arc collected each year. It is burnt into kelp, from which chemists manufacture iodine and bromine, besides valuable chlorides and silicates. A great deal pf it is carted inland and used for manure, hundreds of acres of cauliflower in Cornwall being grown yearly with no other fertiliser. Thousands of Japanese and Chinese live on seaweed. France collects S.000.0001b. of the alva yearly, and uses it for stiffening mat- tresses. On the Irish coast the carrageen moss affords a rich harvest to tha poor peasants yearly, and is made by them into a valuable jelly. Bandoline and other preparations for the hair arc also made from the same material, and a size essential to hat manufacturers in the making of straw hats is made from carrageen. Two million pounds weight is the yearly crop. Another valuable product of the seashore is shell. Wherever chalk id not naturally abundant the shells are collected and burnt into lime for making mortar and cement, and are also used as a valuable fertiliser for heavy clay soils. Certain shells are aliso burnt into enamel and used for enamelling clock face". BUTTERFLIES OR ALL NATIOXS. Though butterflies -ud moths are found widely distributed all over the globe, they are by far most abundant in the tropics. For instance, Brazil can shew to the collector not less than 700 different species within an hour's walk of Para. There are not half as many in all Europe. In Britain there are sixty-seven species, and in all Europe there art- 390 different kinds. They are found as far north as Spitzbergon, on the Alps to a height of 9.000ft.. and on ihe Andes up to If,000ft. As there are some 200.0CO species, it is easy to see why butterfly hunters are great travellers. —•-— SOME ToraH TUIXGS IS WOOIJ. The strongest wood which grows within tho limits of the United States is that known as nutmeg hickory, which flourishes on tho lower Arkansas Biver. The most elastic is tamarack, the black or shellbark standing not far below. The wood with the least elasticity and lowest specific gravity is the I iscus arurca. The wood of the highest specific gravity is the blue wood of Texas and Mexico. The heaviest of tho foreign woods are the pomegranate and tho lignum vitse. and the lightest is cork. Four hun- dred and thirteen different species of trees grow in the various sections of the country, and of this number sixteen, when perfectly seasoned, will sink in water. These woods of high specific frravity grow mostly in tho arid regions of New Mexico and Arizona. i
Tradition says that locks were made in En. land in the reign of Alfred, but it was not till tho fourteenth century that tho craft was reoosp nised as a distinct one. Lord Uhesnam was tnrown irom nis horse and killed while hunting with the Pytchley Hounds on Saturday. The country all round Montpcllier is stiB under water, and a great number of farms have been abandoned. The Czar and Czarina and their children left Peterhof on Saturday, and took up their resi- dence at Csarskoe-Selo for tba niftier*
FACTS AND FANCIES. THE TEM £ T.2 AREA. JERUSALEM. Of the many sights in tho Ilolv City, none is of more interest, says the Su>i<?a>/ at Home, than the enclosure that for centuries witnessed the worship and ceremonial connected with Cod's ancient people. Whatever else is omitted, going over the mosque nnut not be. and a poor opinion is formed of anyone who doclO not care to do so, or having done so, says, I did not think much of it." Some do it in twenty minutes, others in an hour, but to do the Temple area properly requires about three hours. The Temple area, tailed by the Moslems El Haram E.-siiercef, i.e., "the honourable sacred place," occupies the &outh-ea;tern corner of the city, and covers an area of about thirty-six acres, just about- one-sixth of the entire space bonnded by the walls of the city. Jews will not enter the place for fear of tread- ing under foot tho law, which they believe is buried somewhere beneath the surface: Clir tians arc only allowed inside when escorted by a Raw ass from the Consulate of the nation they represent, aId a Turkish soldier, bolt of which may be had for a small fee. Nine gates afford entrance into the courts, but nearly all victors enter by the covered way known as the Cotton Gate. This miniature street is roofed in, and has every appearance of antiquity. On either side are small square recesses which once served as shops, but are now filled with debris and rub- bish. As this is the only covered way into the Temple courts, it has been suggested that it was probably here that Christ turned out those that bought and sold, and it may nH) be the street cf the house of God" in which Ezra gathered the people "because of the great rain" (Ezra x. S). The large and much-worn blocks of stone, also many of the bevels on them, prove conclusively that the place was erected centll"ie5 ago. 4 THE LrXrRY OF SALT. Salt is the greatest luxury known in Central Africa. In some sections among the poor in- habitants salt is never used. Even among tho better classes, a man who eats salt with his food is considered a rich individual. In some tribes where "ait is not so scarce children are so fond of it that they may be seen earing it just as our children would eat pieces of lump sugar. JAPANESE MILITARY TRICK. An Austrian military organ draws attention to one of the minor details of Japanese musketry practice during the late war, which seems to have escaped hitherto in Europe. In European armies the question of a ritie test for a long range firing has led to many ingenious contriv- ances for devising tripod arrangements. The Japanese War Department solved the difficulty in a much simpler but -equally effective way. They first provided the soldier with a bag of stout cotton eight inches wide and twenty inches long, which he could carry in his cartridge case on the march, and on reaching the fichting lino could in a minute stuff with earth cr stones. The device gave amuzing assistance ir. accuracy cf rifle fire. « A CROWDED SPOT F Jv\r.TH. Barbados is b fourteen miles one way by twenty-one the other, and within this narrow limit swarms a population of nearly 200,000. Every nook that is not producing food is packed with people. They do not have the term build- ilig-lot in Barbados; instead they i5ay "house- spot." Snot" expresses it exactly. An average "spot" is "sixteen by sixteen," which leaves space for a "twelve by twelve" frame house and room around the sides for the women to catch the water from the caver; and do their washing. Even the wood that is burnt—mostly -iiarcoal—comes 500 miles by boat from Demcrara. C WHAT HAPPENED TO THE CEOFS. Th^ usually-accepted story of the finding of the Cross is given as follows in a Catholic Die- tionary: The heathen had tilled up our Lord's Jomb with rubbish, and Hadrian had erected a temple of Venus 011 the spot. The Emperor Con- stantine wrote to Macarius, then Bishop of Jeru- salem, telling him that he wished to erect a' costly church over the sepulchre, and in 326 Helena. Constantino's mother, instituted a search for the tomb. Not only did she find it. but also the three crosses, with nails, and the inscription belonging to the Saviour's cross lying apart. Idacnrius is said to have been unable to discover which was the cross of Christ. He, therefore, brought a lady in the last extremity of illness. and when the last of the three crosses touched her she is said to have been suddenly cured. The j number of the nails which the Empress Helena found is variously estimated at from three to fourteen, but all the earliest authorities give the I number as three. One was thrown overboard in order to calm a storm by the Empress Helena herself on her return journey from Palestine, a second is in Rome, and a third now forms the iron part of the iron crown of Lombardy, which was made by Theod^linda, widow of Autharis, King of tho Lombards, as a present for her new husband, Agilulph, Duke of Turin. » MEDICINAL USES OF SUNFLOWERS. MEDICIXAL USES OF SUNFLOWERS. A native of Peru and Mexico, the common sunflower is gaining favour in parts of Europe as a febrifuge. In Russia, where the plant is extensively cultivated for its edible seeds and its oil, fever patients sleep upon beds of p-unnower leaves, and a Russian physician, experimenting upon one hundred children between 0110 month and twelve yearc. of age, has found that alcoholic extracts of the leaves and flowers cure fever na epeedilv as quinine. MUMMIFIED HAWKS. Archaeologists have been delving for many rears in the sands of Egypt, and their labours have unearthed many strange finds. But. it re- mained for recent excavators to discover some- thing which has not hitherto been met with in these subterranean explorations. These singular finds were made at Abydos, in Upper Egypt, by the Institution of British Archreology, repre- sented by Professor Garstang and his colleagues. Insido huge jars of earthenware were found the bodies of hawks which had been preserved from Ptolemaic times, by being mummified much in the same manner as the human bodies "ecovered from the tombs of the land of tho Pharaohs. These little hawks are said to present a very strange appearance, with their beaks peeping out from the cross-strappings which envelop them. Another find was the cemetery of the times of the Ptolemies' rule in Egypt (323 B.C. to the death of Cleopatra. 30 B.C.) in which the mummified birds were discovered. » A "STONY" RIVER. There is a river in Spain called the Tinto, which has very extraordinary qualities. Its waters, which are a.s yellow as a topaz, harden thj sand and petrify it in a most surprising manner. If a stone falls into the river and rests upon another they both become perfectly united in a year. It withera all the plants on its banks as well as the roots of trees, which it dyes tho same hue as its waters. No fish live in its stream. 0 A SINGULAR ANNUAL FESTIVAL. In an article in th-e Indian Standard, on ReH.1 gious Life and Customs in Rajputana. thero is an account of a popular village god, Tcjuji, who furnishes a good example of hero-worship pure and simple. The legend runs that Tejaji was a farmer, a Jat by caste, who on hearing the wail of a neighbour a widow, that her cattle were be- ing carried off by thieves, rushed out to help her. In the darkness he trod upon a snake which was about to bite him, when he asked to be allowed first to help his neighbour, promising solemnly to return and put himself in the power of the snake. The snake agreed, and Tejaji, catching up his weapons, pursued and killed the robbers. and brought back the widow's cattle. In doing 70 he was himself severely wounded, so much so that his entire body was covered with blood. l\"('H'rjhclc5 he returned to the snake and offered his life, according to the bond. The snake complained that he couid find no place free from blood on which to fasten; whereupon Tojaji put out his tongue, and the snake bit it. So he died gloriously, true to his promise. The annual festival held in Tejajl's honour is a most popular one. No villager willingly kills a snake. If one appears inside a hut. it is fed with milk and left undisturbed. It may live in a hole in the wall for days harmlessly, until some child alarms it and it uses its fangs with fatal effect. It is only then, under the passion of grief, that tho jnako is killed. A GOOD PRACTICAL JOKE. Country houses are great places for practical jokes, says "Mullet d'Or" in the World and Hits Wife. A certain sportsman, one of an Irish house-party, won so many of the sweeps for kill- ing the first woodcock of the day that his frierid,, began to suspect him of some trick. It was even whispered at last that he must bring the bird with him. Accordingly, one of them examined his coat while he was at breakfast, and sure enough there was a woodcock! Soon after the shoot had begun there was a shout of Mark, cock! and several slint5 were fired. "I've got him I" shouted tho tricky sportsman, running forward. Everyone collected to see the bird. "Here it is!" he cried, and produced from his pocket a woodcock neatly plucked, trussed, and ready for the pot! .ord Vman was granted a oecree msi, witn custody of the two children, on the ground of his wife's misconduct with Mr. Alfred Curphey, a man of wealth, living in the Isle of Man. The Registrar-General's return shews that in London during the week ended December 14th there were 2.123 births and 1.446 deaths regi- stered, the births being 288 and the deaths 236 below the average numbers in the corresponding weoka of the ore^ous five years.
BITS FROM BOOKS. ————— DEAN HOLE'S ELABORATE HUMOUR- Dean Hole is known as a rose grower to people who know nothing else about him than that he was a Dean. "The Letters of Samuel Reynolds Hole, Dean of Rochester (Allen), shew the Dean in such a light as helps to explain his popularity and influence. To John Leech he writes some whimsical epistles. Here is the heroic opening of one of them: If you will imagine our friend Batty, the zoo- logist, who "challenged the woild" at Donny- brook, unexpectedly presented with a White Ele- phant. a Lioness (as Lionesses ought to be who love their Lions), a Sea Serpent' in suitable tank, a Gasometer full of gin. twelve new Caravans, and £ 500: or a young Lady in the firt delight of receiving a. new I.,ur-e. a new Ball-step, three offers by the sauc post, a piping bullfinch, opera box. and miniature of Arthur set in diamonds; or yourself suddenly possessed of all the pictures that were in the "Art Treasures" at Manches- ter. a hat which iculd never grow old. perfect forgetfulness of what headache. catarrh, or fatigue were like, the finest salmon fishing in the world, Heidelberg Tun full of claret, and the best stud of hunters going: why then you will form some idea of my joy on receiving the grand gift v.hich you have to generously sent to me. WESTERN IDEAS IN EASTERN BRAINS. Mr. A. E. W. Mason, author of The Four F"athers," has essayed an Indian novel, The Broken Road" (Smith. Elder, and Co.), in which he touches on an important problem. A son has recently been born. an heir to the Khan, who proposes to send him to Eton and Oxford. On this point Sir Charles Luffe becomes prophetic. He tries to impress on his second-in-command, lajor Dewes, the necessity of preventing the Khan's proposed course of action. Here is really the pith of the book You take these boys, you give them Oxford, a season in London-dii you ever have a season in London when you were twenty-one, Dewes? You shew them Paris. You give them oppor- tunities of»enjoymer>t, such as no other age, no other place affords—has ever afforded. You give them. for a short while. a life of colour, of swift crowding hours of pleasure, and then you send them*back—to settle doivn in their native States, and obey the orders of the Resident. Do you "c think they will be CC:1ter:t Do you think they will have their heart in their work, in their hum- drum life, in their elaborate ceremonies? Oh, there are instances enough to convince if only people would lis!en. There's a youth now in the South, the heir of an Indian Throne—he has six weeks' holiday. How does he use it. do you think? He travels hard to England, spends a week there, and travels back again. In England he in treated as an equal; here, in spite of his ceremonies, he is an inferior, and will and must be so. The best you can hope is that he will be merely unhappy. You pray that he won.t take to drink and make his friends among the jockeys and the trainers. He has lost the taste for the native life, and nevertheless he has got to live it. Besides—besides—I haven't told you the worst of it." Dewes leant forward. The sincerity of Luffe had g-ained upon him. "Let me hear all," he said. "There is the white woman." continued Luffe. "The English woman, the English girl, with her daintiness, her pretty frock*, her good looks, her delicate charm. Very likely she only thinks of him as a picturesque figure: she dances with him, but she does not take him seriously. Yes. but he may take her seriously, and often does. What then? When he is told to go back to his State and settle down, what then? Will he be content with a wife of his own people? He is already a stranger among his own folk. He will eat out- his heart with bitterness and jealousy. And. mind you, I am speaking of the best—the best of the Princes and the best of the English women. What of the others—the English women who take his pearls, and the Princes who come back and boast of their success? Do you think that is good for British rule in India?" AN M.P.'S SORROWS. Another Point of View" (Arthur L. Humphreys) is by Roderick Lyndon." a nom- de-plume which is said to conceal the identity of a man well known in society and politics. He was slightly annoyed when people asked him what he found to do now he was out of Parlia- ment. As a matter of fact, he was quietly de- voting himself to literature: One good lady the other day said, You must miss the busy life of the House of Commons?" I replied, "I never was more busy there than a doorkeeper at the National Gallery." and I tried to explain that, by the nature of the case, about seventy men must have the speaking parts, and the other 600 or so must rest content, to be t supers. I pointed out that to hang about for an average of eight hours a day idle, and debarred | from attempting occupation, was little better than the life of a sandwichman in the street, She would not have it. and wanted to know, of course, what was my present occupation. I was civil, and tried to justify my theory of existence; but it was no good. In fact, you muddle away your time," was her conclusion of the whole matter. Anyhow, it is better to muddle it away pleasantly than to waste it wholesale in gloom and bitterness of spirit. STEPHEN PHILLIPS'S MOON PICTURES. From "New Poems" (Lane), by Stephen Phillips: But when the orb was dropping in the cold. And faintness came upon the fields, and birds Ceased in the thickets one by one, he penned His sheep secure; until the summer M0011 On the horizon burnt a forest green, Lighting, as in a temple. fiery aisles. And one tremendous nave with banners hung; Ushering mystery upon the air. The following is spoken by Selene (the Moon): I am a sitter by the cottage fire; By perfect-sleeping children; by the bed Of the cold maid who slumbers in her bloom; Of lovers clasped together after years. Long years: I pace the deck superb of ships, I charge amid the hurtle of faces grim, I sing at eve to aged silent men. Like most poetic ideas, this one has been used before: And moon and stars shall fade into that day. I think to-night shall come a hush in heaven, And all the air be awed before our bliss, And children shall awaken in the stillness Asking why such a silence holds the earth. The following, which introduces the sunset, may be given for contrast: Something is touched within me from on high, Nobler than care for Three, or love of Thee. Or holier wish for children, or desire For the earth splendour; something that ere now Hath urged to deeds whereof we reason not, To deeds which bow the head. and blind the eyes; Mighty rejections of uplifted souls. And seashore pyres and ever-ringing deaths. And dooms that dazzle still from setting suns. TENNYSON S CLEVER RUBBISH. Many quaint entries of the poet occur in William Allingham: A Diary (Macmillan), edited by H. Allingham and D. Radford. The following, for instance, relates to the author of "In Iemoriam": After dinner, talk of Classic Metres" in the drawing-room, Tennyson. standing on the hearthrug, repeating with emphasis (perhaps apropos of metres) the following lines, in the fol- lowing way: Higgledy-piggledy, silver and gold. There's (it's nothing very dreadful!) There's a louse on my back Seven years old. He inches, he pinches, In every part. And if I could catch him I'd tearr out his liearrt.' The last line he gave with tragic fury. ORIGIN OF DOLLS AND PUPPETS. Miss Annette M. B. Meakin, in her book, Women in Transition" (Methuen), tells the story of the origin of the doll: As we know, Charles VI. of France was weak in the head. His ennui was driven away by the continual invention of fresh toys to attract his wandering., attention. There came one day to France a man from Padua with a number of biules la,ten with boxes. His name was Pufello, md in those boxes he carried ninety-six little tvooden dolls, which he himself had carved and dressed to represent well-known French and Ro- man characters. These dolls were greatly ad- mired; Pufello found ready customers for them, and was soon summoned to the French Court. Among the dolls was one representing the Roman Empress Poppea, and this the King de- cided to buv, giving Pufello 300fr. for it. Then dolls became the fashion. and not onlv cour- tiers. but also the bourgeoise, were soon eager to purchase them. There was soon a doll in the -iouse of everybody who could afford the price of one, and as the King's doll was called Poppea, all the others received the 6ame name. Erom Poppea was derived Poppee and poupee, and III Germany the word became Puppe. Although only twentv-elght years of age. Wil- liam Brown. an electrician, who died at Fulham weighed l^st. Medical evidence at the inquest; shewed that the heart weighed 21oz. (twice the normal weight of a man of his age), and the liver 71b. A terrible disaster took place at a Barnsley show on Saturday, sixteen children being killed and many injured through a crush on a narrow, winding staircase. <
SCIENCE NOTES AND NEWS. NOTABLE METEORITES. To the student of meteoric iron great ad- vantages are offo.*ed by Vienna, for its museum contains the oldest of the large L'ÜI- iections of meteorites in the world. This gathering of 100 years has representatives of b15 meteoric falls in different localities. It contains 2,075 specimens, weighing in all three and a-half tons. Some of the specimens are of historic interest. SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHY. According to Mr. Charles Bright there are some 257.000 miles of cable in all at the bot- tom of the sea. representing over £ 52.000.000 sterling, each line costing about £ 200 per mile to make and lay. rilie average useful life of a cable nowadays may be anything between thirty and forty years, according to circum- stances. About 6.000.000 messages are con- veyed by the world's cable throughout tho year, or 15,000 a day. the working speed for any one cable being up to 100 words per minute under present conditions. About 90 per cent. of these messages are sent in word or cipher cede. for business and ofneial pur- poses. PRINTING RAINBOW EFFECTS. A patent has been granted in Germany for a machine which will print oifTerent colours on a fabric in such a way that they shade one into another. If, theii, the proper sequence of colour is observed, says the Dyer and Calico Printer, a rainbow-like effect is pro- duced. The different dyes are brought to the machine by means of endless bands, which ar-e directed to various parts cf the printing cylinder, according to the effect ctesii-ed. An z!1 alternative method is to make the printing cylinder take up different colours along its length by dividing the supply trough into com- partments, each containing a different colour. THE VOICE AND THE HAND. In a etudv. which purports to be entirely gcient Ific, of the alleged connection between the physical and mental character of an indi- vidual and his handwriting, Mons. Soiange Pellat. an expert attached to the Tribunal cf the Seine, Paris, maintains that distinct rela- tions exist between the handwriting and the voice. An expert, lie declares, can cetermine from the handwriting whether the writer's voice is hi(ll or low in pitch, soporous or veiled, harsh, cr soft and agreeable. But. he remarks that in all cases where it is sought to determine character from handwriting, great pains should be taken to choose for examina- tion only writing that has been done under normal conditions. PORCELAIN AND ELECTRICITY. Among the industries that hare been pro- foundly modified by the advent of electricity into daily use is that of making porcelain. Formerly artistic considerations alone governed the various operations cf the work- men in porcelain, but now. since this sub- stance is employed for insulators in all elec- tric installations, sc-i online processes have been introduced in its manufacture which de- mand a great deal of special attention. The exact amount of ccntraction that the clay UB- dcrgoes. the exact temperature to which it is submitted in the process of baking, the con- stant employment of instruments for measur- ing the temperature and for determining the size of certain pieces—such are among the essentials in the modern art of porcelain- making for electric purposes. GLASS MAKING BY LIGHTNING. Tubes of glass made by lightning are often found in sand. The electricity passes into the ground and melts the silicious material, form- ing little pipes the inside diameter of which represents the bore of the "thunderbolt," Such tubes measuring as much as 27ft. in length have been discovered. No doubt exists as to the method of their manufacture, inas- much as people have sought for them and dug them up still hot from places freshly struck by lightning. Attempts have been made to re- produce them artificially by pass.'ng a power- ful current of electricity through finely-pow- dered glass. In this way pipes nearly an inch long and about the size of a darning needle have been obtained. From the omparative size one gets a notion of the enormous energy of lightning. I") ORIGIN OF FINS. A controversy has been long in existence with regard to the origin of the paired fins of fishes, and thus the limbs of all vertebrates. for it is admitted that the limbs of all animals are derived originally from the primitive fin. According to one theory, these fins are de- rived from gill-structurea; the arches, or supports, of the gills having become modified into the shoukler-girdle (scapula and eoracoid) and pelvis, while from tne gill-flaps, with their supporting gill-rays, the fins themselves have been evolved. According to the alterna- tive view, the fins are modified portions of a longitudinal fold of skin running along each side of the body. Mr. Goodrich, of Ox- ford University, has drawn attention to the fact that the. paired fins and the centre (or median) fins are structurally similar; and that while this is in perfect accord with the lateral-fold theory, it cannot possibly be ex- plained by the gill-theory. SYMPATHETIC INSANITY IN TWINS. A strange sympathetic bond existing be- tween twin sisters is related by Dr. G. S. Walker. From childhood there had been an unusual mutual attachment, and physically this bond was also strangely shewn by the fact that if one of them became ill the other was almost sure to manifest the same symp- toms. The culmination of this strange rela- tionship came early in 1900. While away from home one of the sisters became violently in- sane, there being no apparent cause, no here- ditary predisposition, and no premonitory symptoms. After about a week the other sis- ter was sent for, and upon seeing her sister was attacked in the same way with acute mania. Both were removed to an asylum, and, as a precautionary measure, were kept in different wards, and no intercourse be. tween them permitted. The progress of the two cases was almost exactly identical. When one would have an acute attack, the other would be similarly affected. When one com- menced to improve, the other one also was better, and relapses occurred in both at prac- tically the same time. PLANT AND ANIMAL SYMBIOSIS. The presence or absence of chlorophyll, the green colouring matter of plants, was at one time suggested as a distinguishing, mark be- tween the vegetable and animal kingdoms. The common green hydra of our ponds, which was known to owe its colour to chlorophyll, was quoted as an exception. It was after- wards found, however, that the green colour was really due to a species of one-celled alga, living in symbiosis with the hydra. A green amoeba, which also owes its colour to a species of alga, is likewise known. Still more interesting, perhaps, says the Globe, is the case of the green worm investigated by Messrs. Keeble and Gamble, and described by them in the Quarterly Journal of the Microscopical Society. Like the hydra and amoeba, this worm, a species of convoluta, owes its colour to a green unicellular alga. When first hatched the worm is colourless. and contains neither green cells nor germs of the same. If. however, the worm, or egg. be placed in sea-water, the infecting organism settles on it, and the worm becomes green. The green worm can also be. so to speak, BX ILT "lOp FROM THE COLOl-RLESB WORK and the green alga. j[f the egg be kept free from infection a colourless worm can bo hatched and reared from it. The green alga. can also be isolated and cultivated. The authors have added the green alga to the colourless worm, and thus produced the green convoluta. What is the nature of the associa- tion between the animal and the plant in this case? In the first stage it is a case of symbi- csis, an association for mutual advantage. As the animal develops the symbiosis passes into a parasitism of the worm on the algal cells. These are found to act as an excretory system to the animal, while the latter is observed to cease from the ingestion of food. And it has been shewn that the green cells taken from the adult worm are incapable of sepa- rate existence. This is due to degeneration 01 the nucleus. Hermany nas an unenviable rèCOrd" "S regard to its child criminals. In 1905 the number of ll? £ ln /*rious offences was 48,003; in 1906 51.232 and last year it was 55,211. the worst feature being, says the Observer, that the increase is prmcipallv in the graver offences.. such as forgery and arson. • MP ,Safurday destroved the fine residence i'1 ni, Mr. French at Marske Mill, near oaitourn, doing £ 6,000 worth of damage. .i 1 •1 1