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Rhyl County Court.

- ■ - o§o Welsh News in Brief.



WHAT IS THE VALUE OF THE r CANADIAN PREFERENCE'? O-NF, of the main arguments of "Tariff Reformers is that the Colonies are anxious to develop closer trade relations with the Mother Country. According to Mr. Chamber- lain, the Colonists have "made an offer" of the terms on which they are prepared to enter into a commercial union on lines similar to that of the German Zollverein. Although he has been challenged repeatedly to state when any such offer has been made, Mr. Chamber- lain has chosen to preserve a discreet silence on the subject. The facts are simply that Canada and New Zealand have chosen to frame tariffs which, while completely protect- ing their own manufacturing industries, allow British goods to enter their markets subject to the payment of duties more favourable than those to which competing foreign goods are liable. They have done this in their own interest, and not in tin- least from any pariicuhir affection for thf manufacturers of Great Britain. Sir "Wilfrid Laurier, the Canadian Premier, has frankly admitted that in granting to the Mother Country a prefer- ence of one-third the Colony took that step without any expectation of reciprocal treatment. Indeed, it is obvious that so long as the tariff wall is left sufficiently high to afford ndequate protection to the Cnuudmu manufacturers the value of such a gift must lie very snviil. luis shewn that the gain to the British manufacturer from the Canadian f preference ecu very questionable. British exports to Canada have; it is true, increased since 1807. when the sl.,tci-ii canie hito opera- tion. But in a period of rapidly-expanding trade, from abroad are to he looked for. Pi ci- no preference, therefore. Britisu trnue with Canada was bound to increase. But other countries have extended their trade with Canada without a preference to a greater extent than we bin e with the preference. Ceiioany has increased hers frcm to and France fioia Still IT ore reiuarkable is the of trade between Canada and the United States oliving the period covered by the preference. "Whereas in ("Iï American exports to the .Dominion vrero valued at -fcionly, Com- paring these instances of the growth of trade between foreign countries and. Canada with the comparatively paltry increase in Britisii exports to Canada, we have little tor gratitude to the preferential tariiv. in 1S07 we sent £ ri.(>78,0!)0 worth, oral in j qU: worth. Look at the figures as we mav. we are driven to the conclusion expressed by Mr. Chamberlain in 1002, that the results of the prefeience have been very dis- appointing. To all intents and purpose? the present tnrift' in Canada is siiiticientiy high to exclude British goods competing with Canadian manu- factures. The only exception is niTordcd by the woollen industry. After allowing for the preference, the rate of protection afforded to Canadian woollens by the existing duties on imported goods amounts to about 2o per cent. One would imagine that such a rate would bo sufficient to satisfy even the requirements of the Protectionist woollen manufacturers of Canada. As a fact, the textiles of the Dominion are so coarse and inferior that even the high duties have not prevented a gratifying increase in the exports of British woollens to that market. During hiJe years our sales of woollens in the Canadian market have risen as follows Di >ls. Dols. 1800 1 1 ) IDfrJ 0,700.000 1900 tS4i >>(«> 190-J 11,900,000 1901 8.oOO,OOU This is not much, but it has proved too much for the woollen, manufacturers of Canada. Their to the Mother Country, or which we hear so much in Protectionist utterances, does not go the length of allowing British woollens to be bought in the Canadian market. They are willing to make loud professions about the ideal of ÜnrcriaJ unity, but their sentiments du not stand the -train of seeing British goods 011 the back's of the Canadian people. THE speech of Mr. Fielding the other day, introducing alterations in the Canadian tariff, should therefore produce a great impression on that section of the public which has been disposed to believe Mr. Chamberlain's assur- ance that the Colonies are prepared to admit us to their markets if we will only consent to tax American foodstuffs in their favour. According to the new provisions of the tariff, the duties 011 woollen goods will be raised to such a point that no British fabrics can enter Canada without paying a minimum duty (I: ;;1) per cent. Now the effect of this will be to strike a heavy blow at the woollen industry of the West Biding. To them at least the action of the Laurier Government will come as a piece of sharp dis- illusionment. Jf they did not realise it before they can lie longer have any excuse for suppos- ing that the Colonists intend to treat us any more favourably than a foreign country in the matter of tar ill's. In one of his speeches rr. Chamberlain even the length of predicting that, if we would only consent to tax food in the interests of the grain producers of Manitoba and the North AN est, the people of Canada would see their wav to forego develop- ing new manufacturing industries in order to give the British manufacturers a monopoly of the Colonial market. Canada did not wait long to ridicule that suggestion. She has now told us in unmistakable tei ms that she means to retain her own market for her own industries. FROM the Free Trade standpoint tho incident is not unwelcome. It supplies once more the touchstone of hard fact and reality to the fantastic theories of the Protectionists. It will stimulate, too. a desire 011 the part of reflecting people to tind cut whether any possible extension of the bono tits of tho prefer- ence system could rpIHl,y ns for the which it would impose upon us in the form of a taxation of food. The facts are easily under- stood. In 1002 we inqiorted from Canada over £ l2,0fK);()00 worth of food, 011 which Mr. Chamberlain invites us to give a preference which would rai?«e. the cost by about £ 1.200,000. In return we ;!io!iltl. it is iio-,v evident, get 1:0 real equivalent. As Professor Smart hag just pointed out, even if the whole of the Colonies grve us a preference of one- third in their markets we should be well off if we gained all extension of trade to tho extent of £ 2, ">00,000. And for this trifling increase of trade we are H,1Œ(1 lo jumment the burdens of vast numbers of people ill these ishrds to whom every t(i t living is m Osiiion felt in f'C j foim. KukiU'ded from a polit:l standpoint, I then, the d'eision of tho Canadian authorities to shut out Brit: h woollens is u event which I no Frsu Trader can aifcot to deplore. LKifif I. CliTci t The idea o. a crystal as a fOUilt- aJ of light, writer A. Q. "M'-Ua'J" in the American, has been in all titics congenial to t'iifl poetic imagina- tion, and Tiature is less ,ersc to poetry than is Bomethrn Mipposed. Many crjstals shine in the dark, aad sointi very pretty experiments shewing this may easily be made. Many diamonds are thus luminous—a property which may enhance in our eyes the value of these precious stones. If rubbed with a woollen cloth or against a hard body they appear surrounded with light. In particular, the pretty experiment is recommended of rubbing a diamond upon gold, when it shines "like a burning coal excited by the bellows." Friction, while fre- quently aiding luminescence, is not its true cause. The essential condition of shining is previous exposure to light. The gem has been lying in the sun's rays, and these it has imprisoned, and now 'f'L;U¡ free in the dark. The effect of friction on phosphorescent diamonds has been proved to he independent of electricity, and may be a modified form of the heat effect. Some facts, however, would seem to render this doubtful, as when Dana, speaking in his "Mineralogy" of the phosphorescence of sulpliuret of zinc or blende, savs "Merely the rapid motion of a feather across some specimens will often elicit light more or less intense from this mineral." The effect of friction in dis- entangling the imprisoned light may therefore appear to t e still mysterious. The property of phosphorescence in diamonds is very capricious. [ Du Fay found that of 400 yellow diamonds all were phosphorescent, while some that were whit;" rose-

--Y Golofn Gymraeg.




Connah's Quay.