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COURT OF QUEEN'S BENCH,

LOCAL MATLKETS.

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FROM THE LONDON GAZETTES.

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BIRTH OF A PRINCE OF WALES.

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IT is with no ordinary satisfaction that we notice the efforts that are making in all quarters to devise wholesome means of occupation for our half-fed artisans and labourers—and we look back with ptide and gratification to the course pursued by ourselves in having long advocated the necessity 0 of providing for our rapidly increasing population from our own resources, and in the land of their birth, as the first and most practicable means of effecting a vast national benefit. The cultivation of waste lands, or in other words Home Colonization,/ if judiciously and energetically carried out, will tend more to remedy present distress, and guard against future privation, than any scheme which the ingenuity of man can devise. As a point of policy its expediency can- not for a moment be. doubted,—in an economical point of view" it is equally desirable, from its requiring no large funds to transport labour to its destination, and from its producing no dislo- cation of society to ensure its fair and effectual adoption. The great evil, in all previous attempts of the kind, has arisen from an over anxiety to reclaim too much at once by the same individual, who (taking a hundred acres as an example) spends much capital and labour to very little pur- pose, solely because it has been distributed over too large a surface, and whose operations if they had been limited to ten or even five acres, (expending the same capital and labour) could not fail to succeed in bringing into a high state of cultivation the smaller amount of waste, how- ever stubborn or impracticable it may have been previously. We hope this point will not be lost sight of-the necessity and advantage of much smaller allotments of waste, than has been cus- tomary hitherto. Farming operations on a large scale can only be carried on successfully on well cultivated and perfectly reclaimed soil,—but the minor duties of the husbandman—the rearing poultry and eggs-the making butter and cheese —the cultivation of fruit and vegetables, &c., might all be made a source of great profit to the peasant farmer, of five or ten acres, and without his at all entering into competition with the farmer who breeds and fattens stock on a farm of as many hundred acres—while the towns of the neighbourhood would be benefitted beyond measure, by the ample supply of such smaller articles of agricultural produce :—making their markets what they used to be, cheap and well stocked-and affording thereby a strong induce- ment for persons of limited means to take up their residence there. This is the class of allot- ments into which we wish to see the present wastes converted.—We want to abstract no por- tion of the capital or labour at present devoted to farming on a large scale,-hut we do desire to see a new field for enterprize created for those of limited means—we above all things long to open a channel for the idle sinew that is waiting for employment in our too densely populated towns, —the more particularly as in the projected field for their industry the evils of over-pioduction can never affect us-as it is the growth of food for man and beast that will employ their time and attention. We annex the following extract from the Norivich Mercury as evidence that the subject is largely engaging public attention, and we can assure our readers that the subject of an extensive appropriation of the crown waste lands for such purposes, is at this moment under con- templation by the distinguished head of the Woods and Forests :— CULTIVATION OF WASTE LANDS.—About twenty- five years ago we commenced our endeavours to convince the country of the utility of turning to til- lage the waste but cultivable lands in England, Scotland, and Ireland. We have at intervals, both by public and private representations, unrelaxingly enforced the same object. When the amendment of the old Poor Laws was in contemplation, we urged the connection of a settlement of the unemployed upon the wastes with the general project, by pro- visions which in the majority of instances would have raised the pauper into a small landowner by the agency of his own industry. A crisis is now, we conceive, arrived, when its adoption must be more than ever useful, if not positively indispensable. Two things are at all times, but now most especially, to be desired—food and employment. In contemplating the means of procuring the one and promoting the other, we need only refer to that example which the greatest inventors regard and purslle -the course which nature, herself adopts. What then is the first step towards the settled and permanent production of national wealth ] The cultivation of the soil- from that begins the means of barter for every other creation of labour and art. Food is the first principle as well as the first medium of exchange. We pre- sume that we shall be met at the outset with the argument, that if corn can be more cheaply raised and purchased abroad, it is most advantageous to the country so to procure its supply. We intend neit her to admit nor to deny this assumption, but we propose to maintain that under the existing, under the most probable, or under the best possible, state of our re- lations for years to come, it will be a judicious policy to open this source of fresh agricultural production. For first, we believe (and the belief is sustained by high authorities, Von Raumerisone of them) that the agriculture of this country can compete successfully with foreign ugticulture. Secondly, it is maintained, and can hardly be questioned, that a foreign supply, adequate to the average tcauts of a country, cannot be raised or obtained from abroad, but by the applica- tion of much capital and labour to the foreign soils, and especially till roads or means of easier transit are formed. This must be the work of years, during which, it is probable, England will be compelled to pay the advanced price, a demand equalling or rather above the supply, and the knowledge of her wants will naturally superinduce. 1 hirdly, it appears but too probable that increasing numbers must be born to idleness during the transition to that complete inter- course which it is hoped may be established by the removal of commercial restrictions. These must to a certain extent be gradually abolished, while popu- lation will go on, and perhaps at an accelerated rate, from the promise thus held out. Whatever then is appropriated to the maintenance of the idle-the innocently idle, so to speak-is a deduction from the gross amount of annual earnings, and consequently this total is a premium to the like amount for the employment of those paupers upon our own soil. If, for example, four men must be maintained at a cost of seven shillings a week each, in or out of an union house (food, clothing, fire, and lodging included), it acts as a yearly.bounty of seventy-two pounds six- teen shillings upon the cultivation of every hundred acres of waste land, which would employ the labour of these individuals. We put the comfort, moral and social elevation of these poor people out of the, question for the. moment, and wish merely to show.. the financial operation of the measure in this ret- ,peot,. There are, according to actual survey, about opFTBB* MILLIONS of cultivable acres now lying waste, and its? may fairly be stated the great proportion lies waste- on account of the expences attending the passing of Acts of Inclosijre. It is no exaggeration, to compute that, could all this land be brought into cultivation, at least one hundred millions sterling would be thereby added to the productive annual income of the kingdom, to say nothing of the production it », would stimulate in other ways. ÄgmerqJ inclotm f bill, giving the greatest possible liberty to proprietors to accomplish the purpose by the least expensive means, would at once afford this power so desirable to the owner, the occupier, and the country.- The condition of the country demands it: it wants food—it wants • employment. The waste, lands offer both. They would realize eventually the immeneellum we have named at the very feast—they would gradually call into employment six hundred thousand agricultural workmen, the production of whose labour (all but their expenditure for raw food) would be exchange- able, and exchanged for commodities of other kinds, and wake into action the labour of other hundreds of thousands.

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THE RELIGIOUS PROTEUS.

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GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL.

BUTE DOCKS, CARDIFF.

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NEATH SHIPPING LIST. CLEAIIED…