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The Great Western Steam ship, of 400 horse power, built for the purpose of running BETWEEN Bristol and New York, was launched at former place on Wednesday last. The namber of persons who attended to witness the lauuch must have been upwards of 20,000. FLINT IN VEGETABLES.—It is curious, and hitherto inexplicable, that flint, which is one of the most intractibie of all substances with which the chemist has to deal, makes its way by some MEANS or another into the substance of the tenderest plants and it becomes visible aud tangible upon the surface of some phmis. Two pieces of common cane, when struck together, will produce flashes ot fire like Iwo flints. The reason is that there is abundance of flint upon the surface of cane. Many beautiful specimens are brought from abroad of fossil wood, where the whole substance of the wcod has been replaced by flint, leaving the form just what it was, so that the gianulatiou, the knots, the fibres, are all the same in appearance as they were in the tree, but the whole is no longer wood but flint, cal able ot the highest polish. No one can conceive bow this happens, we only kuow that it is so. -C ROMAN CATHOLIC FLEDGES. THE speech of the Rev. Dr, Croly,at the Anniver- sary of the City of London Conservative Association, has been published, in an enlarged and cheap lorm. distribution. It contains a complete exposure of the dishonesty of the Papists, on evidence the most irrefragable. Never in the annals of public ill-faith, "AS th-re a more palpable, repulsive, and bare- faced breach of every thing- in THE sViape of ob ig<- lion, False in letter, in spirit, and ou principle, are the men with whom we have to deal. The state- ments of this little pClmphlet are not those of their enemies but of themselves. They have sworn and re-sworn: here are their own words—For fifly YEARS they have desired to be judged by their own words, and the moment they were trusted by our national credulity they betrayed. There was absolutely no interval. Such was the eagerness of their perjury that they had scarcely trod on the floor of the House of Commons, when TH^Y broke every PLEDGE with an actual outcry of scorn at the country for having believed; and have thus gone on with additional scorn and additional perjury-more than funic faith conspiring with more than Irish vengeance. We request attention to the following extracts :— WE first come to the succes-ive, solemn, and authorised pledges of the Iomau Catholic body, j previously to the Act of Emancipation in 1820 "Tlw Roman Catholic body originally assumed a form in Ireland in the middleof the last crtil ury. In Catholics of Ireland,' framed by one of their bishops, Dr. O'Keeffe, and their principal laymen; which, amongst other principles, pronounced the following: lace of our country, ol ai' Europe, aud before God, we make this, our delioe- rale and solemn declaration. It has heeu oh. jected to LIS, Ihilt we wish 10 subvert tlw p: esrnt Church Establishment, for the purpose of substi- tuting a Catholic establishment in its stead. Now we do hereby disclaim, disavow, and solemnly abjure any such intention. And further, if we shall be admitted into any sharc af the Constitution, by OUI" being reslored to Ihe of the elective (rauchise, we are ready in the most, solemn manner to declare, that we will not excercise that privilege to disturb aud weaken the establishment of the Pro- testant religion, or Protestant government, in this country.' tion to the Irish parliament, containing these words: WTe solemnly alld conscientiously declare, that we are satisfi d with the present condition of our ecclesiastical polity. VVitli satisfaction we acquiesce in the establishment of the national church. We neither repine at its possessions, nor envy ils dignities. We are ready, on this point, to give every assurance that is binding upon man. ill conformity to the Act of Parliament, contained the alld solemnly abjure any intention to subvert the present ('hurch Establishment, for ihe purpose of substituting a Calholic establishment ill ils s'.ead. Aud 1 do solemnly swear, that I will not exercise any privilee to which! am, or may UeeOIlIt>, en- titled, to disturb or weaken Ihe Protestant religion and Protestant g-overulllcnt ill this kingdom.' By this oath they obtained the elective franchise. "In 1S05, their petition to ihe parliament of the United Kingdom contained these words: • Your pel itiouers most humbly si ate, that they have solemnly and publicly taken the oaths by law prescribed to his Majesty's Roman Catholic subjects, as tests of political and moral principles. Your petitioners leave to represent, thai, by those awful tests, they bind themselves, in the presence of the All- seeing Deity, whom all classes of Christians adore, to be faithful, and bear true allegiance to their MOST gracious sovereign, &E. 1 hat they have dis- claimed, disavowed, and solemnly abjured every illtelllÎoll to subvert Ihe present Church Esta- blishment, for Ihe purpose of substituting a Catholic establishment ill its stead and that they have, also, solemnly sworn that they will not exercise any privileg-c to which they are, or nMY become, entitled, (0 dislurb or weaken the Proteslaut rcl;g10u or Pretestant government of Ireland.' This was a petition for seats iu parliament. In 180B, the petition of the Roman Catholics to the British Parliament still more iu detail pledged them 10 the original declaration —'Your petitioners most soleuruly declare that they do not seek, or wish, in any way to injure, or ellcroach upon, the rights, privileges, posscsiul1s, lJr revenues, ap- perluiuiug 10 tile hishopsaud clergy ofllw Protestant religion, as by law established, or to the churches committed lO their charge,or uny of them.' "Their petition of 1812 again renewed the pledge We have solemnly "WOlïl IllUl we will not exercise any privilcgc 10 vhÎd, we are, or lIIay become, entitled, to disturb and weaken the Protestant religion, or Protestant government in Ireland. We can, with perfect truth, assure this honourable house, that the political and moral principle, as- serted by these solemn and special tests, are not merely in union wiih our fixed principles, but expressly inculcated by the religion which we pro- fess. We can atlirui, with perfect sincerity, that we have no latent views to realise, no secret or sinister objects to uttaill, "The petition of 1t>26. to parliament, thus expressed itself: 'Your petiiioners seek not the destiuction, but the enjoyment of the constitution; and, in the pursuit of that desire, they do uot, by any means, 'or expect,' 'or wish,' that a single individual of their Protestant fellow-subjects should be deprived of any right, privilege, liberty, or immunity, of which he is at present possessed. rhelrish Roman Catholic Association addressed the people of England in the same year in these words: 'Far from meditating the overthrow or destruction of Ihe Protestant government, and Pro- testant establishment of the empire, we are ready toswear, as we already do swear, to support.' &c. &c, (Here follows the oath.) We are accused of intending to overthrow the Church Establishment, whilst we contribute to uphold its spleudour and its power.1 "In the same year, the pastoral address of the Roman Catholic archbishops and bishops of Ireland thus reinforced the declaration, on the part of the clergy; The Catholics of Ireland disclaim, disavow, and solemnly abjure, any intention to su bvert I he present Church Establishment, for the purpose of substituting a Catholic establishment in its stead. anO, further, they swear that vhey will not exercise any privilege to which they are, or may be, entitled, to disturb and weaken the Protestant religion and Protestant government in Ireland.' The archbishops and bishops add, "emphatically, ihis full and authentic declaration, we approve, subscribe, and publish," &c. "The British Roman Catholic Bishops published a declaration, in tlie same year, containing these words: 'He who take" au oath is bound 10 ob- serve it in tte obvious meaning of the word., or in the known meaning of the person to whom it is sworn. British Catholics are charged with enter- taiuill a pretended right to the property of the Established Church in Ireland. We consider such a charge to be totally without foundation we tie- el ire that we entertain \10 pretension to such a claim. We regard all the revenues and tempora- lities of the Church Establishment as ihe property of those on whom ihey are settled by the laws of the land. We disclaim any right, (itJe, or preten- sion, with regard to the "Thus we have the whole Roman Catholic popu- lation, and every part of successively pledging themselves, before God and man, to avo d all injury, of whatever kind, to the Established Church— neither to usurp its titles, nor diminish its property, nor break down its constitution. The Homish clergy, the Romi*h Association, and the laily in general, are all equally aud solemnly bound by the strongest possible forms of expression, to pay the Proiestant Tithes; and all those forms lie; con- centred and consummated IN the Oath of security taken by their parliamentary representatives on the passing of the EMANCIPATION Bill: t do swear, that I will defend, to the utmost of my power, the settlement of property within this realm as jstablished by the and I do hereby disclaim, disavow, aud solemnly abjure any inten- tion to subvert the present Church Establishment as settled by law within this realm and I do "olellluly awear.thati never will exercise any privilege to which I am, or may become entitled, to disturb or weaken Ihe. Protestant religion, or Protestaut government, IN the United Kingdom.' "By this oath every object that could be com- prehended an honest ambition was put within reach of the Roman Catholic. All the old barriers were cast down; parliament, the peerage, the pro- fessions. HE was made tree of all the departments of ability and energy in general life. The Church alone was protected 10 whose inviolable security he had voluntarily SW ORN aud resworn with increas- ing zeal through haif a century of asseveration. "Cuuld it be believed; had we not been eye-wit- nesses of the event; that the Church became, from that instant, the principal and universal object of Romish attack? I hat even all the prizes of its new career were tnaoe contingent to the individual on the virulence alld daring of the attack? That every Kouiish beggar who wished to exchange hip bank. ruplcy for opulence; every hopeless candidate for Parliament; every struggling barrister; every man who coveted to live on government bread, from a chancellor down to a police coulabc, was expect- ed to give trial of his fitness for Romish patronage, by his audacity against the Church. A id this sys- telll is aciion at this hour. Po- pery is nowsupreme ill patronage. Ail the otlieps of diguitv or emolument in Ireland are rapidiy tailing into Roman Cal;loîc hands. Bat the Church still lingers in existence and this sight sours the whole revel. Wliat avail allthusc things' lo the Hamau, while the Mordecai, however in beggary and naked- ness, sitteth at the gate.' ''What has been the fulfilment of this universal pledge' An universal, ostentatious, and couternp- tnou-t conspiracy to violate all il" obligations? What has been the history of Ireland, ince 1 but a proclaimed war against the property of the Churchin Ireland? What measure of spoliation have ils Popish representatives in Parliament ever resisted, or what have they not sustained, if not orh.6natetl, \11 every form of vOIP, haran\{ne, and menace 10 millilers? What has beeu tl", summer employment of their orator-, but lours of Irish airitation? Wh.it has been tll ir employment in England, but perpetual lihels on the character of the establishment, and violent demands lor its over- throw? Wli.-it is the declared principle on which ihey sustain the presPllt ministry, but that of u public compact for the overthrow of the Irish Establishment? The flet i,¡ (lnt denied—it isopenlv exulted in. How glorious,'exclaims one of its most confidential and intelligent leaders, in his speech to his constituents, that we put the Toriesout of otlice, by a resolution on the Irish Church, and the great principle of the seclllllr appropriijtion of church Aud on '.his single declaratory principle, not merely have the late Ministry been driven irnni olHce, but tlie present Ministry have been kept in. '• 'The Irish party,' says ihe same speech, met at Lord Lichfield's.' The result was, a complete amnesty—a most unqualified reconciliation. And neli, and some other members, was mainly instru- mental in bringing it about. Lord J<>hn Russell was called to our head; and we stood before Sir Robert Pee1, the most firm, the most united, the most con- centrated hody that ever appeared ill Thus, it is now as openly acknowledged, as it was once bitterly denied that the actual exclusion of Sir Robert Peel's cabinet was not. for English interests, nor even for Wiiigpvincip.es—that it was neither for England, nor by English hands; but that it was by the Irish Roman Catholics in Parliament, under the direct influence of Mr O'Counel!, and ihe price, Church Tobbc.rp. That conspiracy involved the famihin of ::WOD Prcte>ölant Clcry. Who can wonder at the rejoicings of the whole troop of regenerators over so abundant a banquet ot human misery? Who can doubt the sudden ardour of the; patriotic glance, that saw before it so broad a visia of the prison and the g-ra\e? The Ministry were overwhelmed by ibe opposi- tion thus recruited and we have the equally open declaration, that by this new force alone iheir suceessors tire now sustained. 'I have,'says the speech, 'seen the conduct of the Ministry, for I have watched it narrowly; and I, for one, will co- operate vith Daniel O'Conncll, in lending my aid to support and maintain it the place it now Would no! all this be pronounced the most con- temptuous of libels on an English cabinet; it it were 1101 uttered by the hot sincerity of lips too proud of their success to care how they stung the feelings of any man? Here the whole administra- tion arc buried in the shadow ot ,VIr O'Connell. They may he suffered to go through the routine of tbe day, but it is only as substitutes aad subsi- diaries. He is the Atlas! ''And this is an English cabinet !t With one of the orators to lead it in front, and another to watch it in Ihe rear; one to drag the animal by its length of ears, and another to scourge it behind on the first symutom of deviation,—what is wanting to the burlesque of ministerial independence, this peace at peril of the whip, this haudeutied liberty, this mill-horse freedom of Yo ill ? "Again, let Englishmen remember the condition of the compact; it is, the secular appropriation, of flic whole Chvrch property of Ireland,'—in other words, the confiscation of the entire income by which exists the Proiestant establishment, — not less the great instrument of English connexion, than of religion, iu Ireland. Oil this so'e principle, they are authentically told, that their govern: lent is fabri- cated; that for this sole purpose it is kept in exist- ence by its fabricators; and that on the first hesita- tion to do the whole will of those fabricators, the hand that has plucked it up by the locks from its primitive obscurity, and holds it there in contempt of the feelings of England, will instantly let it go, and leave it to perish by its own alacrity in sinking. "The policy is rapidly becoming practica!; the condition of the Irish clergy is hurrying into pauper- ism by the hour; the peasantry, every man ot whom was pledged by the liomiiu Catholic body, fifty I Years ago, to pay his tithes, have been commanded not to pay them their parliamentary representatives, every man of whom was additionally pledged by his solemn oath to uphold the laws in this especial in- stance, boastfully vindicate the command. And now the whole of Ihe Romish prelacy place their usurped I I itles at the head of a declaration against the property of the Irish Church. VV'' find, in the Irish papers, a the Archdiocese ot I uatu, held at West port, on the 23rd of May, to consider the provisions of'tlie New Ministerial Church Hill. The Roman Catholic I Archhi-hop, Dr. presided; ninety priests of the district, including curates, bcill ill attendance. Resolutions were adopted, of which the following are extracts: Besolved, That we deeply sympathise with our faithful flocks, in the grief uu^ mortification thev have experienced at the otter prostration of the hopes which they entertained of the abolition of the tithe system; and that we shouid be undesei ving of the confidence whichthey have uniform] v reposed in us, if we did not participate in their feelings. That a* it was not by vague com- plaints, but by loud remonstrances, as well as by active exertions, the Catholics of Ireland wrung tardy justice from their enemies, they ought still to persevere in this legitimate and constitutional line of conduct, which has been already so success- ful. '"Resolved, That in no country of ancient or modern times, does history offer to our contempla- tion grievances more uiiparallolod than those which are embraced in the words,! he Protestant establish- ment of Ireland. "'Resolved, That to clear the ground of all the encumbrance that retards the growth of justice in this country, we shall petition the legislature- to appropriate the tithes and Church lands to national purposes.' Is this chance, or principle ? "Hallam, the most laborious nnd accurate of' modern historians,aud a r.eclared Whig, thus records j the principles of as to rillcpianccs and oaths:— lo the canon liw it is expressly declared, that subjects owe no aVeniaucc to an excommunicated monarch, if, after admonition, he is not reconciled to the church.' "'Domino excommunicato manente, subditi fide- litatem non debent. Et si longo tempore in ea per- stiteiint., ct monitus non parent ecelesia:, nb ejus debito absolvuntnr,' (Decretal, lib. v. tit. ,7. cap. 13-) '■'The Rubric, on the deposition of l-rederic H ill fhe couucil of Lvons, "erts, Ihat 'the l'ope may- dethrone the Emperor 'or legitimate causes.' Papa imperatorem deponere potest ex causis legitimis. (Lib. xi. tit. 13. cap. 2. "The historian proceeds. 'Two principles are laid down in the Decretals—that rm oath disudrciii- taqcous to the church is not binding and, that one extorted by force is of slight obligation, and yiay be annulled by ecclesiastical authority. As the firs; of those nnxirns gave the unlimited privilege to the popes uf brcrfhillfl all faith oJ treaties ,hfch thwarted their interest or passion-u privilege which they continually cxerciscd, so the second was equally convenient to princes weary of observing engagements towards their subjects or neighbours. Thus Edward I. sought, at the /ia>id<s of Clement V. a dispensation from his oath to observe the great statute agaisl arbitrary taxation. "«Juramentnm contra utiU(A,EM ecclesiasticam priestitun rnon tenet. (Decretal. jih, xi. tt, 24. cap. 27. Et. Sext. lib. i. tit, II. cap. I,) A juramento per metum extorto ecc!esia 50lel absolvere, et (jus Iransgre-sores ut peccautes moriahter, non punientur. (End. lib. et tit. cap. 15.) The whole of this title in the Decretals upun oaths seems to have given the firt opening to the lax casuistry °f succeeding times.' He adds, that 'it was in conformity with this sweeping principle of ecclesiastical utility Urban YI. made the follow- ing solemn and general declaration against keeping faith with hereticsf 'It beillg- understood/ says the pope, that confederations 'h's order, leagues, and bonds, or conventions, lIIade with heretics or schismatics of this kind, after they have become such, are rash, illicit, alld, ill their nature, lIull, evcn though they should have been made before the lapse of the party into heresy or schism, however they may he confirmed by oath, or by faith pledged, or corroborated by apostolic confirmation, or any other confirmation whatever, alter they have become schismatics, as aforesaid.' (Rymer, tit. 7, p, 3:)¿,)"

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