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MONDAY, MBJT. 30.—[Before…

TUESDAY, MAY 2.-[Before H.…


















Family Notices



FARM MANAGEMENT.— APPRIOTICF, FARMERS. (From the Scottish Agricultural Journal.) While farming as au art involves a greater amount of scieatific principles, and a greater variety of operations, than any profession practised by man, yet, strange as it may appear, we do Hat find, that, as in other professions leas noble, and requiring less study, application, and training, there are regularly indentured apprentices; and this extra- ordinary and unaccountable fact may perhaps be assigned as o.-le reason why the science of agriculture has not ad- vanced with that success, and with those enlightened views, which liberal education, and a regular system of training, would undoubtedly have long ere now developed. How monstrous is it," says the writer of the article Agricultural Education, in the Rural Encyclopedia, that while one man is apprenticed seven years, in order to make a shoe, another is not apprenticed at all in order to manage a farm; that while one is required for many years to be both an appren- tice and a student, in order to make the contents of the British statute-book bear upon a ease of litigation, another is-not required to be either apprentice or student, in order to make the experience of all countries and ages of the civi- lised world, and the principles and discoveries of some of the most profound and complex of human sciences, bear Úpau the diversified and multitudinous practices of agricul- ture." One year to a shoemaker's apprentice, and three yearg to a young lawyer, ought to be every particle as effec- tive as seven years to a candidate for farming; and with not mote than one or two exceptions, not an artificer, an artist, or a professional man exists, who requires more special training, or a larger amount of technical knowledge, than a farmer, or who possesses equal facilities to turn a liberal and munificent education to excellent practical account. Were the next generation of farmers all over the civilised world to be educated comparatively with other men, in something like the proportions of their callings, human sodety would, at one move, experience almost as great a transition as when it emerged from the darkness of the feudal ages. Tue sys- tem which has hitherto been adopted, if it deserves the name of a system of training, has been perfectly inadequate for the acquisition of such knowledge in the science, art, principles, and practice of farming, as to be productive of that benefit to t ka apprentice and to society, which a more liberal education and a thorough system of training and teaching would insure. Those fanners whose sons are being trained by themselves, we need only remind that a complete knowledge in the de- partments of Engish education, writing, arithmetic, book- keeping, and elementary mathematics, is indispensably no- cessary before-entering upon their profession; and while squiring a proficiency in the practice of farming, these elements of education must be cultivated and improved by employing the pupil in keeping the books of the farm—cal- n culating the cost of the work—measuring land:and writing to dictation the correspondence in reference to matters con- nected with the business of the farm. The pupil having been thoroughly taught the practice of farming, and become so proficient in all the details, as to be able to instruct others, and to judge, when the several operations on the farm are well and expertly executed, may then be said to have com- pleted the half of his apprenticeship, the other half requiring to be devoted to the s'udy of chemistry, veterinary surgery, natural history, and natural philosophy—a knowledge of these sciences being as requisite for completing his education u the practical portion of his course of training. To those farmers and others, whose sons may be placed under the care of intelligent and experienced farmers for the purpose of being taught the profession, we would recommend that in all instances a regular indenture should be passed betwixt the contracting parties, in which should be clearly defined the duties of the apprentice, and the obligations which the re- spective parties come under. We care not whether the ap- prentice be sixteen years of age or twenty-five years of age. It is as necessary in tho one case as in the other, and un- doubtedly more so in the latter case. Unless an apprentice is bound to serve and obey," and the manner in which his service and obedicnce is to be enforced is clearly laid down, the harmony with which the master and apprentice should work together, is too often and too likely to be disturbed. We do not think.it necessary, for acquiring proficiency in the practice of farming, that the apprentice should work as nA ordiuary ploughman or labourer, but still he must take such part in tha operations of the farm as will enable him fully to understand them, and judge when they are well and properly executed. He must, however, be constantly em- ployed on the farm, and conform to all the hours of work laid down for the workmen on the farm, and never absent himself, either from observing the manner in which the work is performed, or attending to the orders or directions which he may receive from his master in reference to the workmen and the work they are engaged in. His leisure hours should be devoted to studying the principles of agriculture, and applying 11 0 In them to the practice which -he is acquiring because mere practice will no more make an intelligent and successful farmer than mere theory. We have, unfortunately, now-a- days, too many theoretical farmers, and it being difficult to initiate them into practice, we are the more solicitous that the system of indenture should be established, and, for their own sakes, as well as the sake of the farmers who are entrusted with their training, we propose that in all agreements as to apprenticeship an indenture should be passed between the parties, having clauses to the following or similar effect During which space (the period of indenture), the said C. D. (apprentice) obliges himself to serve and obey the said A. B. (rnaater) in all matters relating to his apprenticeship; and, in particular, the said C. D. binds and obliges himself-1st, That he 8.1all attend at the farm stables each morning at half-past live a.m. during the summer months, and at seven a.m. during the winter months, or at such other hours as he may be directed to be pre sent, and commence the work of the day, according to the direc- tions which he may from time to time receive from the said A. B. 2d, That he shall continue to take a part in, or superintend, the wdrk of the farm during the whole day, excepting at meal times. 11, That he shall in every respect conform to the orders and hours of work laid down for the servants and workmen on the farm, and observe the instructions communicated to him by the said A. B., Ü regard to the workmen and the work they are engaged in. 4th, That he shall at all times take such practical part in the opera- tions of the farm as the said A. B. may deem necessary for his acquiring proficiency in the practical knowledge of the profession, or in forwarding the work of the farm. And 5th, That he shall not absent himself at any time from his duty on the farm, without the said A. B.'s special leave and consent, first asked and obtained, under a penalty of sterling for each time he shall so ab- sent himself." These clauses, while giving the farmer sufficient power to enforce obedience, would, in the fulfilment of them, be most conducive to the practical knowledge of the apprentice, and to the benefit of the master. He would thus be taught to obey, that he might know in what to exact obedience when he became a master to understand the whole operations of the farm, and the division of labour, from having taken a part in all the details of management; and to see the impos- sibility of the operations of the farm being conducted with regularity, efficiency, economy, and success without personal and constant supervision. Farming, in the true and literal sense af the word, is a profession requiring study, learning, and practice; and as a knowledge of the science can no more be acquired by mere reading or learning, without practice, than the making of a shoe, the initiative steps for forming the ground-work upon which the successful study of the art depends must be entirely adhered to, as in the case of the shoemaker's apprentice, who begins with making and bris tling a thread, and ends his apprenticeship with forming- not only a complete and perfect pair of shoes, but able to teach others, and competent to judge,of the quality and condition of different kinds of leather, and the workmanship of his trade. Are we not entitled, then, to hold that, if it requires an apprenticeship to make a shoe, it more urgently demands an apprenticeship to acquire a proficiency in the more noble, intellectual, and intricate art of farming.

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