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STATE OF AGRICULTURE IN GLAMORGAN.

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STATE OF AGRICULTURE IN GLAMORGAN. We have been favoured with a copy of the following letter read by Mr. W. Marychurch, at a la,. e lecture on the state of agriculture in Pembrokeshire, at the Heading Room, Haver- fordwest:— SIR, The system of cropping land pursued in the vale of this county varies considerably: it is governed, to a slight extent, by the geological formation of the soil. On the lias the soil is nearly all arable; almost the whole requiring to be drained. This operation on the estates of the Right Honourable J. Nicholl has been carried on to a considerable extent under my superintendence. On the estates of the Marquis of Bute, C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., Edward Romilly, Esq., Row- land Fothergill, Esq., Sir John Guest, and other gentle men, draining is also going on. I formerly drained the lias at eighteen feet between drains, and two feet six inches deep, but latterly at ninety feet, and four feet six inches, with much better success both as to efficiency and economy of execu- tion; The more rock we have to contend with the better our drainage operates. In places where there is not much rock we have to put an intermediate drain. The conglomerate limestone soils (new red sandstone series) together with the mountain limestone, the alluvial and diluvial deposits, are somewhat drier, but some portions of them also are ex- tremely wet, and nearly the whole would be benefitted by draining. The almost universal system of cropping formerlv, and which to some extent still continues, was to leave leys re- main perhaps on an average five or six years; they were then broken up during the winter months, and made into a naked fallow, limed with from 200 to 400 bushels per acre, and sown with wheat about the middle of October, and afterwards barley, followed by oats for one, two, or more years. It was not unfrequently the case that a stubble was -i again fallowed and limed, and resawn with wheat and other cereal crops for two or three years, before the land was allowed to "rest." The alternate system of cropping, namely, wheat, turnips, barley, or wheat and clover, has however for some years past been gaining ground. On some farms it is well conducted, and much artificial manure used for turnips, and the sheep consuming the turnips are liberally supplied with cake or corn, but this system is quite the exception to the methods generally adopted. On most farms at present some green crop is grown, the extent varies from those which 0 grow none to others which have annually a fourth part of the arable land in green crops. The land in the vale is much injured by the large and annu- ally, increasing quantities of hay and straw sent to the mine- ral 4istricts of the county the loss of which is in almost every instance very inadequately supplied by manure not made on the farms in most instances none at all is purchased. It is full time landlords should enforce a stringent agreement on this subject. Draining, enlarging fields, straightening o' Z3 fences, grubbing, hedgerow timber, a greatly increased use of artificial manure, together with more commodious and letter arranged farm buildings, are much needed. I have lately put up a thrashing-mill at this place, worked by a six-horse power steam-engine, a description of which may interest you. It thrashes and dresses the corn perfectly, subdividing the grain into four samples. The best is re- ceived into a sack, placed upon a scale, which, when of any desired weight, a slide, acted upon by the scale as it turns, and to which a bell is attached, drops. The supply is thus cut off in the most perfect manner. The hopper through p t, which the corn passes to the sack holds about five bushels, so that plenty of time is afforded for substituting an empty sir-V FIW tho full one. Tho machine thrashes and dresses up- wards of a bushel of grain per minute. The whole is per- formed in one operation, without manual assistance. After the grain on the straw is put into the machine, a barley hummeleris attached, through which the coin can be passed av not at pleasure. I have a separate apartment for the chaff, and another for the straw, above the boiler. I have a. corn-kiln, heated by steam, passing through pipes under- neath the floor, connected to the engine. There is a chaff- cutter, a pair of mill-stones, and a small flour-dressing ma- chine. The implements used in the vale are generally good ploughs of iron, drawn principally by a pair of horses, hay- making machines, horse drag-rakes, Crosskill's clod-crushers portable horse-powjr thrashing machines, corn and turnip' drills arc much used. The Glamorganshire breed of cattle is gradually giving Z!1 way to the Herefards and other bi-eeds, and the native breed of pigs to the Berkshire. The sheep on the best cultivated farms are very good, being a cross between the Cotswolds and Leieesters. U On account of the great papulation engaged in the mining districts of this county, great importations of corn and flour take place. Agricultural labourers receive from 10s. to 12s. pgi- week. They are, as a body, very defi- cient in education. The foregoing is very hastily written.' Any explanation you may desire I shall be happy to give. W I am, Sir, your obedient servant, EYAN W. DAVID. Mr. W¡J.1. Marychurch, Haverfordwest.

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