CARDIGANSHIRE ASSIZES. The commission for these assizes was opened on the 14th inst., at Cardigan. The High Sheriff, Henry Hoghton, Esq., Hafod, accompanied by a gay and numerous equipage, met the learned judge on the Haverfordwest road, from whence they proceeded to the Town Hall, when the commission was formally opened, and the court was adjourned until the following morning. In the evening a numerous party of magistrates of the county dined with the High Sheriff at the Black Liou Hotel. On Wednesday morning his lordship attended divine service at St. Mary's church, where an appropriate discourse was delivered by the Rev.'Edward Evans, B.A., the High Sheriff's chaplain. The proclamation against vice, profaneness, and immorality having been read, the learned judge charged the grand jury. He said that the cases that would be brought before them were only four in number, and simple in their nature, all being devoid of those marks of atrocity which characterise many calendars, and he hoped it truly showed that that grievous criminality which pervaded other portions of the kingdom had not penetrated into that part of the island. In reference to the last case on the calendar his lordship made the following very sensible remarks, which if attended to will be a saving of considerable expense to the rate-payer The last case is one of simple larceny, and in itself is void of difficulty, but as the magistrates' clerk has treated it as three se- parate offences, it calls for a remark which may be useful in future. Although the property taken belonged to three parties, it was taken at the same time, and the case is one, and one only. The depositions have been returned for three cases, but the evi- dence shows that the articles, which were the property of three servants, were in the same house, and were conveyed away at the same time. I make the remark, as in the adjoining county which I have just left the same circumstance of one case having been multiplied into several charges occurred. It is a matter of some importance, as it apparently increases the amount of crime with which the priooner is charged, and it is also of importance as re- gards the expense, which is CONSIDERABLY INCREASED BY HAVING SEVERAL INDICTMENTS PREFERRED.
TRIALS OF PRISONERS. MANSLAUGHTER. Benjamin Richards, aged 18, was charged with the manslaughter of Anne Hichards, of the parish of Llangunllo, by having thrown a stone at her; from the effects of the blow she then received she died. The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty. He was also arraigned on the coroner's inquisition. Mr. Grove stated the case to the jury, from whose address it appears that the melancholy transaction occurred on the 26th of August last, and the deceased, Anne Richards, was the wife of one Abraham Richards, a farmer, residing at a place called Cwm- nantyffynnon, in the parish of Llangunllo, in this county. It appeared that the deceased went into a garden to gather plums, taking her son with her. On arriving at a hedge which divided the prosecutor's farm from that of the prisoner's family, she got up into a tree in the boundary hedge, and had commenced gather- ing the plums, when the prisoner came out and used some very strong language, but whether the deceased said anything or not. it was not known. The prisoner then threw several stones at the deceased one of them struck her slightly, and the other very violently, inflicting a serious bruise on the groin. She fell down dropped a rake which she had in her hand, and said she had been killed. The son was present, and saw what occurred he went to the house, and stated what had occurred, and the daughter came to her mother's assistance. The husband was in the house, and heard what had happened, but thinking that the boy had ex- aggerated the matter, did not feel much concerned, until the de- ceased was brought into th house by the daughter in a very weak and feeble state. She was put to bed and received medical assist- ance, but died on the 15th of September. The origin of the jea- lousy that appeared to subsist between the parties was caused by the plum tree, which was situated in the boundary hedge. Several witnesses were then examined by Mr. A. Jenkin, who confirmed the statement made by the learned counsel. Mr. Hall cross-ex- amined the several witnesses, and addressed the jury on behalf of the prisoner; after which he called a number of respectable per- sons who gave the prisoner an excellent character. The learned Judge summed up, and the jury, after an absence from court of about an hour, returned a verdict of Not Guilty. Counsel for prosecu ion, Messrs. Gi-ove and Jenkin; attorney, Mr. Thomas Bavies, Cardigan counsel for prisoner, Mr. E. C. Lloyd Hall attorney, Air. James Parry, Newcastle Einlyn.
LARCENY. Henry Randell, James Elliott, and Edmond Lyons, were in- dicted for having, on the 28th day of January last, stalen a quantity of wearing apparel, the property of David Bavies, I nomas Lewis, and John Evans, farm servants, in the employ of Mr. David Williams, Treferedd-uchaf, in the parish of Tremain. The first two prisoners were further charged with having received the articles, well knowing them to have been stolen, Randell said the clothes were picked up by him as he went along the road. Elliott said he was with Randell at the time they were given to him. Lyons declined saying anything in his defence. The learned Judge then summed up the evidence, and the jury returned a verdict of Guilty against the three, of stealing the articles. Sentence—Six calendar mouths' imprisonment, with hard •labour. Counsel for prosecution, Messrs. Hall and Lascelles; attorney, Mr. IL D. J enkms, Cardigan.
LARCENY. Mary Griffiths, aged 16, was next placed at the bar, charged with having, on the 15th of January last, stolen two blankets, one quilt, one bolster, and one bolster-case, the property of Captain Jenkins, Penrallt. YentlH- Guilty. Sentenèe-Two calendar months' imprison- ment, with hard labour. The Court rose a little after five o'clock.
THURSDAY. His lordship entered Court at nine o'clock. BURGLARY. Ellas Thomas, labourer, was placed at the bar, charged with having burglariously broken open and entered the dwelling-house •of Samuel Davies, watchmaker, Brynowen, in the parish ofLlsn- SiLlog"ygo" on the night of the 2-5th, or the morning of the 26th of August last, with intent to steal therefrom certain articles. It appears that on the night in question the prisoner went to- wards the prosecutor's house with a view of seeing his daughter, for whom he felt a peculiar iuterest. He opened a window for the purpose of entering the house but unfortunately for him, it was the wrong one—it was that of the room in which the father slept. The old gentleman, hearing a noise, proceeded towards the window, and finding a person in the act of entering, took a razor and in- dieted a wound on the wooer's hand. The disciple of Cupid then in ide the best of hh way home, and found that, instead of seeing :the object of his love, he was minus a portion of his thumb. Yvhen the circuinstance became known, the father of the damsel 'indicted the young man for burglary. Mr. Grove made an eloquent address in his defence, and the jury, after some deliberation, returned a verdict of Not Guilty, and the unfortunate suitor was set at liberty. Counsel for prosecution, Mr. E. C. Lloyd Hall; attorney, Mr. J. P. Howell, Aberayron. Counsel for defence, Mr. Grove; at- torney, Mr, Thomas Davies. Cardigan. This closed the business of the assizes. There was not a single nisi prius case Bad luck for the gen- tlemen of the Jong robe.
CAIiHIGAX THE SHERIFF'S snow. The of Fi-iday-gives a minute description of the pomp and vanity displayed by the high sheriff on the )' •occasion of Ja&gc Erie's visit to Cardigan last week. Un- like any former high sheviff," says our right loyal contempo- rary, rr, Iloglitori deemed it ueecssary- to invest himself with all that pomp and circumstance of office which the o 'c:L"ion legitimately demanded." We have yet to learn whaf Iw/itimate demand there is for such "torn-foolery" (as our friend Punch calls it) oil the occasion of the entrance of a judge into an assize town. The cavalcade was of the most-imposing description," (to grown up boys and foolish old women.) being preceded by two trumpeters on horse- back iu white liveries' trimmed, with blue, and having s ioei'b trumpets with magnificent banners a tached, the family arms being embhzonediu the centre of each." Our contemporary has omitted to mention the sort of caps they wore: 1 We, presume they-jpre .foolscaps made of green paper, which, we think., would have been very appropriate to tire imposing". occasion. "Next came the outriders and javelin-men, arrayed in livery of exquisite taste, their we.vbns being the very perfection of neatness." The .perfection of neatness! 'Who made them?' "The high sheriff's carriage, which was drawn by four horses, displayed neatness,, spleifdohr, and convenience." This reminds us of a frie-adofoi-ir4, who had occasion to visit Liverpool,.where In employed his leisure time in seeing the" liolls" of the place. On his return home he was asked, amongst other thi.igs, what he thought of Dr. ltaffles's chapel ?- Gh! said he, with an air of importance, it's beautiful, magnifi- cent, pretty well." The numerous trappings of the harness were all magnificently mounted in silver. On the blinkers and pads the armorial bearings were elaborately chased, and a massive boss on the front of the martingale of each horse dis- played the same token of ownership. The high sheriff him- self, to crown the whole, had decorated his really handsome person with full Court costume, ruffles, silver-hilted sword, &c., included." Really our contemporary ought to have favoured its readers with an illustration of the imposing cavalcade," and the really handsome person of the sheriff and his decorations." The dinner in the evening was worthy of the gods." We wonder what gods our sagacious contemporary means. Bacchus ? What a disappointment it would have been if Mr. Justice Erie had served the high sheriff of Cardiganshire as Lord Denman and Justice Williams did the sheriff of Wilts, the other day. We copy the following from Punch, for the edification of the editor of the IF elsh- man, and his friend the sheriff, as well as the amusement of our readers. It will be seen that Punch and the Welshman differ with regard to the legitimate demands" of such occasions:- 0 WANTED A JUDGE.—The ancient tom-foolery of meeting thejudges with a procession of javelin-men when they enter an Assize town, is now very sensibly discouraged by most of their lordships, who frequently exercise their ingenuity in dodging the high sheriff and his mountebank myrmidons. Lord Den- man and Mr. Justice Williams managed to give the actors in the usual mummery the slip the other day at Salisbury; for, arriving by a railway train in private clothes, they walked arm-iii-arm to their lodgings as quietly as a couple of private gentlemen. The high sheriff and his followers were frantically looking into every carriage for a judge, when our learned friend Briefless, who had arrived by the same train and had popped on his wig instead of a travelling-cap, was mistaken for a judge, and pounced upon by the shrieval cortege, which heralded his exit from the vehicle with a flourish of trumpets, and preceded him to the door of the station with all the honours due to the judicial ermine. Mr. Briefless called upon the parties concerned, to show cause why he was thus made absolute on the platform; and an explanation having been given, the learned gentleman blandly observed, that perhaps some few years hence he might have the pleasure of accepting the courtesy that had been shown to him. Having turned away from Briefless, the javelin-men made a simultaneous rush towards a "spangled" beadle, who happened to be upon the platform but the high sheriff immediately seeing the error, called off his pack, and made for the lodgings of the judges, where the party arrived just in time to see the door closed after Lord Denman and his colleague had entered. The high sheriff, with a discomfited air, gave the word of command to his followers to "fall out," which they proceeded to do, by quarrelling as to whose stupidity it was that had occasioned the contretemps."
CARMARTHENSHIRE ADJOURNED QUARTER SESSIONS. The adjourned Sessions for the trial of prisoners was held in the Town-hall, Carmarthen, on Wednesday, the 14th instant, before D. Pugh, Esq., Chairman, Captain Phillips, R.N., H. Lawrence, M.D., Grismond Phillips, Daniel Prytherch, J. Banks Davies, W. B. G wynne, and John Beynon, Esqrs. The usual preliminaries having been observed, the following gentle- men were sworn on the GRAND JURY Jos. IIowells, Llwyndryssy, Laufihangel-Abercowin, foreman. John Morgans, Glanrhynys. I John Davies, Pentowin. David Ilees, Baesgellganol. Thomas Woods, Laugharne. Lewis Evans, Abergwilly Richard Lewis, Abergwilly. John Francis, Tyllwyd, ditto. T. Thomas, Talog-Abernunt. John Jeremy, Trevynnis, Abergwilly. James Richards, Pencader. Isaac Evans, Golden Grove. John Griffiths, Llwyndu. Richard Bowen, Bailyglass. Henry Jones, Llanarthney. John Lewis, Plas-ucha. William Jones, Cestanog. Charles Abbott, Hencoed. David Gravell, Cwmvelin. R. Ilowells, Glanmorlais, Esqs. The learned Chairman m addressing the Grand Jury observed :—There are very few cases in the calendar, and those of the simplest description. I take this opportunity of direct- ing attention to the subject of transportation. For some time past an idea has prevailed of the expediency of discontinuing the system on account of the evils which it entailed on the colonies. But it has been found that the discontinuance has not worked well Tor this country. The Government therefore have announced through the Secretary of State for the Home Department, on a motion made by Lord Mahon in the House of Commons on Thursday last, their determination to resume the system. It is important for the warning of offenders that it should be made known as widely as possible. Jane Williams, hawker, pleaded Guilty to the charge of stealing a pair of shoes, a cotton gown, a flannel apron, and a cap, the property of George Gray, at Llangadock. A former conviction for felony was proved, by which it appeared that the prisoner was sentenced to three months' im- prisonment at the Quarter Sessions for this county, on the 19th of Oct. 1848, and in eight days after the expiration of tl.a: sentence was again committed for the present offence. The learned Chairman in passing sentence observed, that in consideration of her youth (seventeen years), the court was desirous to afford her another opportunity to reclaim her con- duct, but cautioned her that if she again appeared at that bar, her next punishment would. undoubtedly, be transportation. Sentenced to six months' hard labour in the House of Correc- tion. Mr. J. Morgan appeared for the prosecution. John Coupland, sixteen, a tramp, pleaded Guilty to stealing a cheese, value nine shillings, the property of Elizabeth Griffiths, at Llanelly. The court expressed their determination to punish severely characters of this class, who evidently went about the country with no other object of obtaining a livelihood than by plunder. Sentenced to six months' hard labour. H 'iliiatn Brown,, alias Robert Burns, and John Ward, alias John Starling, two ill-looking fellows, were indicted for stealing from the shop of Charles Roberts, Llanelly, four ladies' slippers valued at seven shillings. Mr. Richard Ilees appeared for the prosecution. The prisoners were found Gunty. A previous conviction having been proved by Mr. Cox, the Governor of the House of Correction in Swansea, whereby it appeared the prisoners had been sentenced to three months' imprisonment at the "Glamorganshire Quarter Sessions on the 17th of October, 1848, the learned Chairman remarked that it was hopeless to expect any reformation in their characters, as it appeared they were tramping the country to live by pilfer, and sentenced each of them to ten years' transportation. On the sentence being pronounced, Brown exclaimed, "Thank you, that is all we want." William Smith, labourer, was indicted for stealing at Myrtle Hill two pairs of stockings and one silk handkerchief, the pro- perty of John Bankes Davies, Esq. Mr. Jeffries appeared for the prosecution. Prisoner made no defence, but on the usual question being asked if he had anything to say, merely shook his head. The' jury found him Guilty. The prisoner had also been convicted at Worcester on the 22nd of June, 1842, which having been proved, he was sen- tenced to ten years' tra,,i.-I)oi-tatioii. I-Lipoii hearing the sentence, he struck the dock with his hand, and stood down, This ended the business of the court. -Cai-mai,ilie?i Journal,
IIAVEEFORDWEST. On Monday evening last, a lecture on "The History of Agriculture" was delivered by Mr. William Murychureh, in the library of the Literary Institution in this town, to a large body of the members. The lecture was a most interesting" and instructive one and as it treats of a subject so intimately affecting the interests of our readers generally, we shall lay before them a rather lengthened outline of it "Man having subjccted himself to the double malediction, that he should earn his livelihood by the sweat of his brow, and that the ground should present obstacles to his efforts, rather than assist him, he had to devise those means whereby he Could best raise crops that would serve to sustain him. This was the starting point of the science of agriculture. From this period to that of the deluge, there is no information respecting agri- culture. After that date the Egyptians took the lead in the science, but of'their progress we can glean no intelligence ex- cept from the Book of Moses. "The instrument with which they ploughed was a large heavy piece of wood, similar in shape to the sickle of the pre- sent day. The harrow was a square plank,. long stumps or branches being inserted in it to answer the purpose of teeth. "The Greeks and Jews also applied themselves assiduously to the tillage of the land, and cultivated, in great abundance, corn and fruit. The next era of importance was that when the Roman nation was formed. Romulus divided the land of Italy between his followers at the rate of one acre and a quarter to each indivi- dual; consequently every Roman was an agriculturist—a cir- cumstance which: proved of inestimable advanvage both to themselves and every nation- they conquered. The richer pro- prietors, after a time becoming weary of cultivating their lands, let them out to the poorer classes—not at a fixed rent, as in the present day, but at a certain per centage on the profits. The operations on a Roman farm were very similar to those of the present day. After sowing, the corn was weeded by the hand there is, however, some mention of horse-hoeing, which was accidentally discovered by the Salassi attempting to destroy the young crops by ploughing them up. Thrashing was per- formed by the oxen treading on the corn after it had been spread over the floor from 18 to 24 inches in thickness. Win- nowing was effected by throwing the corn in the wind from one barn to another. tif After the Romans quitted Britain it was invaded by the Saxons, who proved very little more refined than the original inhabitants. In the eleventh century large estates were sub- divided the rent was fixed by the legislature, and always paid out of the produce of the farm. The invasion of the Normans caused a great reformation in the science of agriculture, the nobility and clergy taking a very active part in its improvement. In the 13th century se- veral works were written on agriculture, which was then in a very thriving state. The civil wars which took place in the 15 th century produced an ill effect on every branch of science and commerce. Corn advanced to ruinous prices, wheat being sold for iC 13 per quarter. The ascension of Henry VII. to the throne restored tranquillity, and agriculture assumed a brighter aspect and soon reached a very prosperous state. "In the seventeenth century, clover and turnips were intro- duced by Sir Richard Weston, who brought an account of their culture from Flanders. "In the commencement of the eighteenth century, Jethro Tull introduced his method of sowing the seed in drills, and horse- hoeing. His plans, however, seems to have been neglected for upwards of thirty years after they were first propounded. "The wars, which in the beginning of the nineteenth century so raised the prices of agricultural produce, caused an unnatu- ral excitement, which proved the more injurious on account of the sudden decline occasioned by the subsequent peace. From 1814 to 1817, there was a fearful depreciation in the value of the produce of the country. This was, however, attended with some benefit, as every possible effort was exerted by the agri- cultural public to save themselves from ruin." The lecturer then referred to the various societies which have been instituted for the advancement of agriculture, and the ma- nures which have lately come into general use. He then treated on the method of agriculture in Scotland, and, commencing with Yorkshire, travelled down through the English counties, explaining their respective quality of soils, and the mode of tillage adopted on them. In describing the agriculture of North Wales, he quoted largely from the prize essay of Mr. Rowlandson on the subject; and when speaking of the husbandry of South Wales, he read two very interesting letters from Evan W. David, Esq., of Radyr Court, Glamorganshire, and T. Evans, Esq., Alltycadno, Carmarthenshire (which we hope to be able to give in our next), describing the agriculture of those counties. Treating of Pembrokeshire he said, that the soil is very variable. I n tne nigiier parts, there are some whicn have never been culti- vated, and which have been computed at 22,220 acres. At this stage the lecturer directed attention to several beautiful models of agricultural implements, which he had provided for the occasion, and described their respective uses, and the recent improvements which have been effected in them, and, in conclusion, said, "Taking a review of the subject, which has thus imperfectly been laid before you, we cannot fail to notice the great depend- ence of the national prosperity on the agricultural state of the country. Nor can we be blind to the fact that this science is greatly indebted for many of its most valuable acquisitions to the improved state of literature. As mind advanced-as the march of intellect progressed—so meu were more ready to stifle old pre- judices and adopt new plans. How powerful an argument is this in favour of rural education The advancement of mental cultiva- tion which will raise the man and enrich the community-will make the labourer feel that he acts a part in life's drama as im- portant as those in a more honourable sphere—will blend plea- sure with his toil by teaching him that nothing is actuated by chance, and lead him to inquire for the cause of every effect. In anticipation of such a time, we may look forward to im- provements as far in advance of the present day, as ours are superior to the plans of our ancestors—may hope that the day will arrive when agriculture, with her sister, civilisation, will go hand in hand through our native land, leaving the imprint of their footsteps upon our lovely valleys and barren mountain sides; when Prosperity will be the password of British agricul- ture when this kingdom may take for her crest the flag of peace, embroidered with the horn of plenty when the labourer shall no longer be called from the field to the rank when the ground shall never again be manured by the blood of man and when, in the beautiful language of prophetic inspiration,' the swords shall be beaten into ploughshares, and the spears into pruning hoolts.' At the close of the lecture a hearty and unanimous vote of thanks to Mr. Marychurch was passed, on the motion of John Harvey, Esq.
NORTH WALES. CHESTER AND HOLYHEAD RAILWAY. THE BRITANNIA BKIDGE.—At the meeting of the Chester and Holyhead Railway shareholders, on Friday, the report of Mr. Stephenson, the engineer, stated that the line from Chester to Bangor is in a satisfactory state from the Bangor station to the Britannia bridge, the unfinished part of the contract No. 9 is progressing satisfactorily, and the tunnel is nearly cleared out. The excavation forming the eastern approach to the Britannia bridge is going on vigorously. At the Britannia bridge the whole of the masonry is finished, and nearly ready for the re- ception of the hydraulic presses for lifting the tubes. The Car- narvon platform for the short tubes is finished, and one of them commenced. The corresponding short tube OIl the Anglesey side is nearly completed. The four large tubes wait only for the cast-iron work to be ready for floating. The arrangements for floating, including the hydraulic presses and pontoons, are nearly complete, and will be entirely so in May. The remain- der of the line, from here to Holyhead, is in use for traffic. The report detailed the items which caused the excess in the expenditure over the original estimates. The excess in works beyond the Parliamentary estimate was £ 254,000 in stations, £ 72,000; in rails and sleepers, C95,000 land, t 12,1,000 Con- way bridge, £ 50,000 Britannia bridge, £ 350,000—making a total excess of £ 945,000 on a total amount of £ 3,084,050. The rails were calculated to cost £7 per ton; but they hA cost on an average £10 10s. per ton. The surplus lamlobligel to be purchased was about 400 acres more than the estimate of 950 acres. The amount yet to be expended on those works is stated to be £ 18.5,000. The accounts to the 31st of December showed gthat £ 3,418,596 had been received, and £ 3,358,271 expended leaving a balance of £ 00,379 in cash and at interest.
THE NORMAL COLLEGE. E. The various deputations continue unwearied in their la- bours on behalf of the College. All the accounts that have reached us show that they are kindly and warmly received wherever they go. They meet with no difficulty or opposi- tion, but the most cordial approval is manifested by the peo- ple, both as regards attendance and contributions. The Hey. J. D. Williams and the Rev. J. P. Jones, of Bridgend, com- menced their tour this week, and will, we doubt not, meet the same reception as the other deputations have experienced. We have received several reports of meetings held by the Rev. Thomas Price, Ab'erdare, and tlie HOT..John Tixomas, B wlchnewydd. Our space will not admit of lengihy reports; we shall merely give brief notices of them. TIIOED-V-HHIW.—The Rev. R. Johns, Baptist minister, presided. The addresses of the deputation were listened to with the greatest attention. The deputation succeeded in en- listing the sympathies of the neighbourhood. It is pleasing to observe that Mr. Morgans and Mr. Johns, the ministers, take so lively an interest in the affairs and success of the institution'. DIN AS COLMKRY, MAucu 2.—The meeting, which was large and imiueutial, was held in the -independent chapel, Cymar. The Rev. J. Evans presided. The meeting was addressed by n the deputation with great effect, and although, the meeting lasted nearly three hours, yet the m ;st lively attention was. kept up to the last. The three congregations in the neighbour, hood, m conjunction with their respected ministers, have signi fied. their intention to make public collections for the College. CAE-IPil-f,LY, MAncli 6.—The meeting was. held in the ilap- t;,it aii,t over by the ..Rev- D' Jones, the mi- nister, and addresses were delivered by the deputation. and I other ministers who were present. 'The* meeting Was ;all.that could be wished for. The next day many friends showed their readiness to co-operate with the committee by contributing to the funds of the College. TUEFOREST, IAIWH 7. -The ini.t-tit-ig was held in Libanus chapel. The chair was taken by Mr. Lewis Thomas, a highly respectable member of the Methodist connexion, who in his opening speech made some excellent remarks on education, and the duty of all to support the Normal College. The meet- ing was then addressed by Mr. Thomas and Mr. Price. A vote of thanks was given to the deputation, and also to the chairman, after which the meeting separated. PoNTYi'iunn, MARCH 5.—The meeting was held in the Methodist Chapel. Rev. James Richards, Baptist minister, occupied the chair. Mr. Richards gave a concise history of the present movement, and in a luminous and interesting address commended the principle on which the institution was carried on. lie said that no one could say an) thing against the voluntary principle; the only charge attempted to be brought forward was its inefficiency; but this charge Mr. Rich- ards contended was a disgrace to human nature, for it at once implied that man preferred slavery to freedom. The chairman concluded a most excellent address by declaring that the insti- tution had his warmest sympathy. The meeting was after- wards_addressed by the deputation. The next day the deputa- tion visited the friends of education in the towrn, and met with every kindness, and obtained a considerable amount of aid towards the building fund.. We may venture to express a hope that the thriving town of Pontypridd will not long be without an efficient British school established therein.
STATISTICS OF CRIME IN LIVERPOOL. From a lieport just published, we find that the number of offenders brought before the borough magistrates in this town, during the twelve months ending December 31st. 1848, amount to 22,036. The following tables exhibit to what countries they respectively belovured :— Males. Females. Total. England. 7,138 3,650 10,788 — Ireland. 5,280 8,514 8,794 Scotland. 644 243 887 Wales 519 265 784 Isle of Man 128 25 153 Foreign 607 23 630 14,316 7,720 22,036 The numbers committed into the borough gaol are as follows& follows Felonies. Misdemeanours. Males. Females. Males. Females. Total. England.. 318 157 2,930 1,693 5,104 Ireland 136 illi 2,476 1,935 4,661 Scotland.. 15 7 17.5 108 30;5 ;• lsj 11 106 114 250 Isle of Man 3 2 21 16 42 Foreign 15 1 301 27 344 506 292 6,015 3,893 10,706 v\ e are glad that these tables have been published; we are quite proud of them not merely with reference to the town of Liverpool alone, but to Wales at large, "and to the reputation-of Welshmen in general. When we hear persons declaiming that we are fast sinking into barbarism," we have a habit of producing figures forward to contradict their bold assertions; and we think that the above figures will amply justify all that has been advanced in defence of the "Welsh as a nation, notwithstanding all that has been said by the believers in the vivifying properties of Dr. Kaye Shuttleworth's bolus for poor Wales," who,, if we could credit these physicians, is declining daily in moral and intel- lectual strength, from pure want of this offered boon, which is so summarily rejected by the patient, or rather the invalid, as "Yi ales has not yet become Dr. Shuttle worth's patient." We will now proceed to examine the above tables, and after premising that it must be borne in mind that State Education has to some degree been tried in England and Ireland, and to a much greater extent in Scotland, we beg to draw the attention of our readers to the following facts :— 0 The number of English of both sexes brought before the magistrates during the past year was 10,788, and of Irish only 1,994, less, viz. 8,794; of Scotch 887, and of Welsh 784. We will confine our remarks to the representatives of the shamrock, thistle, and leek they being all alike exiles from their native homes; whatever advantages or disadvantages such a situation may present, they enjoy the advantages, and are exposed to the disadvantages, in an equal degree. We have no means of computing the relative proportions of natives of the three countries; but by a comparison of the numbers of places of worship possessed by each nation, we think that we shall make a very near approach to the truth. The Catholics in Liverpool are chiefly Irish, and there are eight Catholic chapels in Liverpool, including St. Francis Xavier's, a Jesuit chapel, recently opened and we may add one Protestant place of worship for the Irish Protestants, one in nine being about the computed proportion of Pro- testants to Catholics in Ireland, although there is not a single congregation of Protestants or Catholics exclusively Irish in Liverpool so that we have thus nine places of wor- ship attended by Irishmen but it must be borne in mind' that the Catholic chapels are very spacious chapels, and that they have at least two separate congregations attending each, at different times all the Sabbath day. But on the other hand, there are a great number of English Catholics in Liverpool, as well as in Lancashire generally but in order not to underrate their numbers, we will as- sume that there are sixteen Catholic and two Protestant congregations, exclusively Irish, making in all eighteen. Both the Scotch and the Welsh have peculiar forms of wor- ship, which are cherished even in foreign lands, and to which the mass of the people in both countries are devotedly attached, and cling to them with a surprising tenacity every- where, so much so, that we think that the congregations of both countries arc a fair criterion by which we may judge of the relative numbers of Scotchmen to AVelshmen, with a very near approximation to the exact numbers of each. There are eight Scotch churches in I,i\ trpool, belonging to different sections of Scotch denominations; and there are seventeen Welsh Dissenting congregations, and two churches in connexion with the Established Church of England, where- Welsh services are read and sermons preached each Sabbath, making in all nineteen Welsh places of worship. From these data we do not think that we shall fall into a great error by assuming that there are in Liverpool three Irishmen to two Welshmen, and two Welshmen to one Scotchman. If there be an en or in this calculation, it certainly is not an error in favour of Welshmen. By referring to the second table, that relating to felonies and misdemeanours, our readers will perceive that the total number of Irishmen committed to the borough gaol were 4,661 to 250 Welshmen, 18g to 1 while their proportion, according to their numbers as shown above, should, in order to be equal, have been 375 to 250, or as 3 to 2 and even should their numbers be double those of the Wrelsh popula- tion (which we are sure they are not), the number of com- mitments would only be 500, and not as now 4,661. Of Seotchinen^therc were committed in the past year .305,'being nearly 2 £ Scotchmen to one Welshman, for as we have before snoun there are at least 2 Welshmen to 1 Scotchman in Liverpool; therefore their fair proportion should have been 12Ö, and not 30.5, if we take the number of Welshmen com- mitted as a standard by which Ave may test the morals of Scotchmen and Irishmen, when placed in similar circum- stances to each other. Again, by referring to the columns relating to felonies, we nnd also there, that a disproportion in the relative numbers 11 -r ;sh 2.-0 welsh 30—Scotch 22 instead of 4o, ,,J, and lo. 1 he proportion being ruteably 5j Irishman, and H Scotchmen, to 1 Welshmen. Such being the case, we again say, we are proud of the above tables, as they exhibit in the most unmistakeable manner the-superior honesty and morality of Welshmen, when contrasted with either Irishmen or Scotchmen. Facts are proverbial for being stubborn things; let State Educa- tionists ponder upon these facts, and let us not hear of the- superiority of Scotland to Wales in education; for if they are superior'(which oil the. whüle we are not disposed to allow) in education, Witlos is much superior in morality to either Scotland or Ireland; although we have not a compul- sory education although we have not Government teachers; no, not teachers, supported out of the rates, teaching, our yfmth. in our schools. Long, long may Wales t: maintain-yher .exalted position amongst the nations of the earth; and may Cambria continue to be a trophy of the power ot free religion., and free education, is the* praeyr of her freedom-loving, sons.'
COMM.VNI^.IN IYPTX.—.We are told that on the Ministers con- eluding their deliberations -on the subject of the disastrous news from India, his Grace the (.vo'remandcr-iii-('hk'f was re- quested, through Lord Fitzroy Somerset, to furnish the Board of Control with the names of three officers whom he might cleem to be equal to the crisis, and the three names furnished by his Grace were Sir Charles Napier—Sir Charles Napier—Sir Charles Napier.John Bull. ON Saturday a Court of Directors was'held at the East India-T house, when General Sir Charles James Napier, G.C.B., was sworn in Commandcr-in-Chief of the Company's forces, and an Extraordinary Member of the Council of India.