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FREE AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. TO THE EDITOR OF THE PRINCIPALITY. Sip.Free and religious education is philosophical—philo- sophical because agreeable to nature. The author of nature wisely and profoundly interwoven the physical and the moral, the secular and the religious and has accordingly conditioned the development of the one upon the cultivation of the other. To cultivate the intellectual, and neglect the moral, is only to distort humanity, and, for a purpose to create monsters. Man, if educated at all, must be educated as a whole; and, in the last analysis, This is the whole of man, to fear God and keep his commandments." (Solomon.) The better a man is educated professionally, the less is he a man." (Donaldson,) Educate man as man; draw out the soul; enthrone the con- science. Eternity must be your work here is the man—edu- cate him." (Hamilton.) Philosophical, 2nd. because suitable to the state of society- suitable because free, and free, because the conditions of liberty are maintained. "When the teacher is the salaried servant of the Government, the governors have in their power to train up the public to habits of servility and prejudices, and thus crush within them every free and manly thought." (Adam Smith.) I call that mind free, which protects itself against the usurpa- tions of society, which does not lower the human opinion, which feels itself accountable to a higher tribunal than man's, which respects a higher law than fashion, which respects itself too much to be the slave or tool of the many or the few." (Channing.) Whoever can get possession of popular educa- tion may change the face of the world." (Leibnitz.) "All, my good university; she was an excellent arsenal of ideas." (Napoleon). Suitable because religious, and religious because the highest interest both of the individual and society at large are attended to. Every other species of popular education will promote the great end of social improvement, but that which has its basis in Scripture, and its principle in benevolence. The unfolding of the moral principle of our nature is a necessary part in the highest education, and nothing inferior to this purpose can we desire for our poorer country- men." (Hamilton.) But the most important object is to cultivate, before the first seven years of life are past, the moral, the aesthetic, and religious elements of our nature; and this in accord with Christianity. The author hardly imagined that any reader can take exception to the idea of a religious element in human nature. We find awe and reverence of superhuman power common to all ages, and nations. The phrenologist would refer this to the faculty of veneration," according to his organological system, it is, at all events, a natural principle, which, like every other, may take a right or a wrong direction." (Professor Hoppus.) We have seen," says Parsons, "from an examination of the powers of the human mind, and the educational schemes of other countries, that everything in human society is suspended on the tuition of the people. There is hardly any limit to the mental and moral greatness of man ifproperly taught; and, on the contrary, his barbarity, servility, and depravity are almost without bound, when sensualists and despots are allowed to be his preceptors." Philosophical, 3rd, because progressive as the age. Progres- sive, because the quantity and quality of the whole machinery are left free and unrestrained to be augmented, modified, and improved, according to the general advancement of humanity. There is not proscription. All of heaven-born genius may rise." That free and religious education is equit.tlde. Equi- table because consonant with the eternal fitnesses" of things (as potentially subsisting in the Infinite mind, or actually ex- isting in the created universe). Conformity to relations giving rightness to actions, and free and religious education conform- ing with the fitnesses" of things, is pronounced equitable by the very essence of rectitude. Equitable, 2nd, because consis- tent with the highest expression of rightness. There is a spi- rit which comprehends the relations of infinitude, and knows the eternal fitnesses" of things a spirit which pronounces not from an arbitrary will, but according to the essence of vir- tue and the rightness of things. That spirit has declared that a child should be trained up in the way he should go. The same spirit has mapped the way and presented the diagram. Equi- table, 3rd, because just towards all and offensive to none. Just towards all, because all have only to pay for what they receive or to others freely give. Offensive to none, because all are at liberty to take what they wish and give what they please. Israel are not taxed for Judea, and Judea are not charged for Israel. Moriah and Gerinim enjoy their freedom. That free and religious education is effectual. Effectual, because suitable to the state of society. All parties can choose and act for themselves, without wronging or being wronged. Without offending or being offended. Effectual, 2nd, because confident of living machinery. Without life the machinery can have no existence. Effectual, 3rd, because certain of pa- rental interest. The existence of the machinery supposes the sympathy of parents. Effectual, 4th, because sure of pupil affection. Without the awakenment and enrolment of pupil sympathy the existence of the machinery can have no continu- ance. 11 You have to gain the confidence of the poor, as well as to instruct them. The chains of Xerxes might as easily bind the rush of the Hellespont as you can shackle the popular opinion and feeling. Go and win the nation's heart." Effec- tual, 5th, because capable of proper discipline. The highest inducements and the strongest preventives can be brought to play upon the tender conscience. Effectual, 6th, because sus- ceptible of identity with the national life. There can be no antipathy, and there must be sympathy. Lastly, that by the law of contrast and canon of contradiction free and religious education proved to be right, and the secular and compulsory scheme shown to be wrong. PHILOPAIDEIA. [Our correspondent will perceive that we have left out the former part of his able letter. It has been omitted because of the frequency with which the subject of it (State Education) has been discussed in our columns. The subject of the above article is important and momentous, and should be treated with due solemnity. We shall'be glad to hear again from Phiio- paideia and others on the. subject.—ED.]