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Y TRAETHODYDD, for January,…


Y TRAETHODYDD, for January, 1849. THIS is a very excellent number of the Welsh Quarterly Review. The editors evince excellent taste in the selection of subjects, and obviously lay under contribution the ablest pens in the Principality. The topics treated in this number are, The Present Age," Reminiscences of Caradoc," "The Covenant of Sinai," Poetic Gleanings," The Art of Paint- ing," The Septuagint," "Calumny," Welsh Periodicals," John Evans, of Bala," The Old Chapel of Y stradyffin and Pantycelyn," Englynion to Oliver Cromwell," The necessity of teaching English to the Welsh People "A review of the Rev. H. Griffiths's Letter on Education," The Government Plan, &c. &c., &e. Some of these sub- jects are handled in a very masterly way. John Evans, o'r Bala, comes eminently under this description. It is replete with interest ot the highest and purest kind. We should much like it to be published separately, that it-niay be sold for a few pence, and distributed among the thousands of our country people. It could not but be productive of extensive and enduring good. The Old Chapel of Ystrad- yffin" is a capitally written paper. We have in reading it felt the keenest sympathy with the pilgrims, and only wish we had been in their company. At the same time we de- mur to the author's notice of Ttcm Short Catti. Twin was certainly no better than he ought to be,-was a freebooter in his earlier days, though consideration like an angel came," and he became an honest maii-an antiquarian—and a ma- gistrate of the county of Brecknock. Of the paper on The necessity of teaching English to the Welsh People," we scarcely know what to say. What mor- tal man has ever doubted the advantage of understanding more than one language ? Why does not the writer of this elaborate paper write another on the necessity of teaching the English people French t There are many books in French which the English people have not, as there are many in English which the Welsh have not. Or has the author so much transcendentalism as to propose that our countrymen should no longer be monoglots, but ditoglots that all Welshman are to understand at least two languages, thus making it the most learned nation on the face of the earth? We most earnestly wish it may come about; but oh, when? Gentle shepherd, tell me when ?" For the Welsh people themselves, such a homily is unne- cessary, iuasmuch as every Welshman that can manage it learns English himself—and gets his children taught. ;Taffy is not such a fool, simple though he be, as pot to secure to himself when he may the advantages resulting from his ac- quaintance with the language of the fair and market and of the gentry. We consider this paper thoroughly aimless and purposeless, notwithstanding the unquestionable patriotism of its zealous writer. On the whole we consider this to be a capital number of this very valuable periodical. A SPEECH delivered at Swansea at the Annual Meeting 01 the Royal British Association for the Advancement o1 Science, held in that town, on the 11th of August, 1848 by THOMAS WILLIAM BOOKER, ESQ., High Sheriff of the County of Glamorgan. Bird, Cardiff. WHEN the British Association met at Swansea, in August last, it was natural to presume, that as a scientific associ- ation having for its express purpose the likeliest means of investigating scientific facts, and throwing every possible light upon the various questions which might come under its notice, that our county, from its containing such a mass of mineralogical treasure, would reap deserving notice. Of course, at such a meeting would be found men of the highest scientific eminence, combined with practical knowledge, and also many who from their local position could tlirow-,pon- siderable knowledge upon many of the questions which would be discussed. Amongst them, we find, was the author of the book which heads our present article. Well known in our county as a man of great knowledge, both theoretical and practical; conversant with most of the branches relating to the making of iron, having under his control a large work embracing iron and tin few men, we opine, were better qua- lified, even in that place, to stand up and give to those as- sembled the benefit of his experience. The speech was delivered before the geological section, and though it may sound strange to us who are so well ac- quainted with the fact, yet Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, in seconding the vote of thanks to him, said, that although .P he had lived many years within sight of the mountains that surrounded the mineral basin which had just been described to them, he had no conception of its immense national im- portance, until he had heard the luminous speech of the honourable high sheriff." Apart from the condensed exposition which he has given of the great value of our mineral basin, in a national point of view, and the great number of statistical facts which he has brought to bear upon it, it contains matter, very worthy of reflection, in an extract from a manuscript written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the year 159o, by a Welsh- man, George Owen, of Henllys, Lord of Cemaes. He re- lates at what places in this and the adjoining counties, the veins of coals are to be seen; calls the two kinds of coal, stone coal, and ring or running coal; and then proceeds, in his very graphic Elizabethan English, to describe the pro- cess of mining in his time: In ancient tymes," anterior to his, they used not engynes for lifting up the coale out of the pitt, but the people carried the coale up a slope, and along stayers uppon their backes whereas, now they sinke their pitts down right four square, and with a wynlass turned by foure men they draw upp the coales, a barrell full at once, by a rope." He also describes the method of working, for which, he says, all the tymes of the year is indifferent, but the hott weather worst, by reason of the sodaine dampes that happen, which oftentimes cause the workmen to be swooned, and will not suffer the candles to burn, but the flame waxing blew of coller will of themselves go out." He then speaks of the dangers of digging these coales from the falling in of the earth and quelling the poore people, or els the sodaine irruption of standing water, in old works." He speaks also of the superstition of the workmen of this black labour, who observe all abolished holy dayes, and could not be wayned from that follye." And then, after describing-, a generall and new imposition or custom raysed upon the coales throwout the realm, which was neare as much as the pryce of the coale itself," he says, the countrey people well liked of it, as that which might be the means to stay the transporting which it was feared would in tyme were out the coale, and soe leave the countrey destitute of fuell." Most assuredly as the worthy high sheriff said, if the old Lord of Cemaes were now to know that at Dowlais itself some 420,000 tons of this coal are consumed annually, he might with some greater show of truth express his fears about leaving the countrey destitute of fuell." In a very brief space be has pointed out our present annual consumption of coal:— TOS. Ironworks. 1,500,000 Co; >per works 20 i,000 Tin ditto 1-50,000 Shipments from ports 1,75 !,000 Agriculture and Domestic use 750,000 4,3">O,0<J0 At which rate, assuming our area for our basin of only 100 square miles, the supply would meet the demand for 1,40.0 years the product of each square mile, in the common 'way. of working, being estimated at 64,000,000 tons of coal. | W u There are here very satisfactory grounds for our belief that we may rest easy about the common notion which even yet is not thoroughly eradicated, that our supply of coal will in time fall short of the requirement of the various manufac- tories established in the Principality. The judicious reflections which the author has given upon this point are deserving of notice. In the brief time which he could devote to the speech, the worthy gentlemen could not but leave many interesting facts and details unnoticed. He has consequently enriched it by the addition of very much valuable matter in the shape of statistical information, and quoted at considerable length from the article in the Westminster Review, which we quoted in our columns some time back. The following tables we would consider parti- cularly valuable:— Table showing the economic values of the coals. Ditto showing the mean composition of average samples of the coals. Ditto showing the calorific values of the coals. Ditto showing the amount of various substances produced by the destructive distillation of certain coals. Ditto showing the actual duty, and that which is theoreti- cally possible, of the coals examined. There are also tables showing the progress of the iron trade, from the years 1796 to 1846, and the quantity of iron manufactured at each works. Also, the increase in the po- pulation of Merthyr Tydfil, from 1801 to '41. We also have the importation of copper ore, from 1843 to 1848. Another table, showing the shipments of coal, culm, cinders from South Wales, in the years 1844, '45, '46, '47; by which it appears, that the average shipments in four years amounted to the great sum of 1,757,050 tons per annum. From the ab remarks, it will be seen that Mr. Booker's small rarui.io cannot less than prove very useful and interesting; for we have here at a trifling expense, and in a small compass, all the information which may be re- quired for a survey of the coal field of Glamorganshire. In the present demand for coal, and the great amount of specu- lation engendered thereby, statistical facts of the kind quoted are very valuable, and ought to be widely known. We con- elude by mentioning a fact much to the credit of the author, that we see it intimated upon the fly-leaf, that the profits arising from its sale will be given to the national schools, the school attached to Lady Huntingdon's chapel, and the school in York-place, Swansea, which were thrown open for the accommodation of the Royal British Association, at its meeting in that town thus showing science fulfilling the noblest portion of its mission of being the handmaid of Charity. THE FAMILY FRIEND. London: Houlston and Stoneman. WE have just received the third number of this little maga- zine. We hail its appearance with much pleasure, inas- much as it is another effort in the right direction to supply the reading public with useful and entertaining matter, free from vicious principles and immoral tendencies. It contains articles interesting to every member of the family, from the parent to the child: and, judging from the numbers already published, it is likely to succeed well. We cordially recom- mend it to our readers. We may as well state that it is not a religious magazine, lest some of õùV. friends might be dis- posed to substitute it for the valuable penny and other reli- gious publications they now receive.



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