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N0ETH WALES. CHESTER AND HOLYHEAD RAILWAY.-Traffic for the week ded 23rd September, 1848, total E2,104 2s. Id. Her Majesty the Queen Dowager, with her usual munificence, has sent JE20 as a donation, towards the restoration of the an- cient and picturesque church of Llanaelhaiarn. The repairs in question had been examined and approved during the visit of the Archaeological Association. CAMBRIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL AssocrATION.We are glad to find that this excellent association is directing its attention to the re- storation of several of the ancient and venerable, churches of the principality. We rejoice in it, and should be delighted to find all our ancient edifices restored to their primitive grandeur, provided the task is accomplished by means of private munifi- cence. There is nothing more gratifying to our feelings than to witness the exertions of the friends of Cambria to bring to light the primitive condition of our native country. It appears that at the first annual meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Association held at Aberystwith, on the 7th of September, 1817, it was moved by the Lord Viscount Dungannon, seconded by the Dean of Bangor, and carried unanimously- That previous to the separation of the meeting for this year, the names of members of the association willing to contribute to a fund for the restoration of St. Beuno's chapel, at Clynnog Fawr, be received on a paper to be left in the room of meeting for that purpose and that circulars to that effect be issued throughout North Wales." In consequence of this resolution, the following subscriptions have been received :—Sir Stephen. Richard Glynne, Bart., M.A., F.S.A., Lord-Lieutenant of Flint- shire, President of the Association, E5; the Lord Viscount Dungannon, M.A., F.S.A., M.R.S.L., E5 the Vicar of Clyn- nog Fawr, E20 the Very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, E2 10s. the Very Rev. the Dean of Bangor, £ 5; Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, 95; and thirteen subscriptions of one pound each. Further subscriptions will be received by the treasurer and secretaries of the Cambrian Archaeological Association. POOR LAW UNION RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION.—Government, with a laudable anxiety to promote a religious education among the junior inmates of the union workhouses in. Wales, has ap- pointed a stipendiary visitor to supervise the management of unioft or workhouse schools, To render that paid official competent efficiently to discharge the duties which he has been instructed to perform, it was deemed expedient that lie should be placed under clerical instruction at Llangollen, to acquire a smattering of the Welsh language. Pertinent to the subject, there are some curious circum- tces. connected with religious instruction in the Batigqr and Beaumaris uniou workhouse. When that house was finished, and made ready to receive pauper inmates, it was pro- vided with a pulpit and, the requisite appendages for performing divine service. Two direct, and several indirect,, attempts,. ware made by the partizans of the Church sect to have a>flergy»- man of that sect appointed as a chaplain, with a salary payable out of the poor rates. All these attempts were, however, defeated, the board being of opinion that inmates, poor though they were, ought to be allowed to attend divine service on Sundays in their own places of worship, and be allowed, as is by law specially provided, to receive religious instruction from the ministers of the respective congregations to which they belonged. From the time that this just and Christian-like determination became known, the" ministers of the various dissentiu^badies have regularly, in weekly rotation, availed themselves of the pulpit and its appendages, that had been provided to give religious instructions to, those of the. inmates "o. willing to receive it. Not so the clergy of the Ohurch sect, for after the attempts to appoint a salaried chaplain had been defeated, so far from taking their weekly turn to, promote religious instruction among the inpiates. of the workhotise, they have, no doubt conscientiously, kept aloof! DENBIGH.—CRUEL CONDUCT OF A POLICE OFFICER, AND THE PUNISHMENT OF THE OFFENDER.—At the Small Debts Court held a few days ago in this town, a poor widow, named Ann Davies, sought to recover damages from one John Edwards, a police officer, for false imprisonment. The circumstances of the case are the following, as stated by Mr. Parry Jones, for the plaintiff:—Mr. Parry Jones, for the plaintiff, said, this action is brought by Ann Davies, a widow in humble means, residing at Cerrigydruidion, in this county, against the defendant John Edwards, a police officer, at present stationed in this town, to recover compensation for a gross assault and illegal imprison- ment of the plaintiff. Some six or seven years ago, the de- fendant, then stationed at Cerrigydruidion, contracted a debt with the plaintiff, which place the. defendant quitted, leaving a balance of 8s. 3d. still due to his client, although several appli- cations have at different times bean made to the defendant for the amount. On the 26th of July last, the plaintiff having occasion to come to Denbigh market, and being much pressed for money, called at the defendant's house, in the hope of ob- taining her demand against him, when she was informed that in consequence of two pounds expense to which he had been put in placing his son an apprentice, he then had no money. Plain- tiff having been requested to call the following Wednesday, the 2nd of August, did so seeing Edwards in the market-place, she again appliecl-fdf the 8s. 3d., when the defendant told her not to ask him as he was on duty. Plaintiff, then said that, she Wanted her money, which she must have, and that if he did not pay her, she would put him in the County Court. On this the defendant struck the plaintiff on one of her arms, and most rudely took hold of her by the other, and violently dragged her from the market-place and through the town, when and where, as may well be imagined, a great crowd had collected, Thus she was rendered an object of great reproach. Having brought the plaintiff to the station, defendant opened the door, pushed her in, and said, Go there, you drunken." He closed the door and instantly went tto a desk, took out a slip of paper, and wrote on it, and said that if she would sign the paper not to ask him for the money, he would let her go out. laintiff having remained confined for about ten minutes, the inspector of police came in, and instantly liberated her. If he (Mr. Jones) should sub itantiate these, facts, he had no doubt his client would receive from his honour such damages,, as, in the judgment of the court this unfortunate widow was entitled to, for so gross an insult, and grievous a wrong. Several wit- nesses were then called, who corroborated the statement made by the plaintiff's attorney. The defendant called one female witness, but her conduct was so disgraceful that the judge ordered her, out of court. After which, his honour observed that in several instances police officers are exposed to great annoyance; the court had therefore closely watched the evi- dence, in the hope of being able to discover some extenuating if not justifying facts, in order to afford (as far as may be consis- tent with the ends of justice) protection to a public officer. This he had been wholly unable to mark out, for in this case there is not one act of redeeming grace. Here is a defenceless female, ruthlessly dragged out of a public market, and taken through the town to a place of confinement, without a cause or the least colour of reason to warrant s-a-ch conduct; for, ad- mitting there may have been some degiee of truth in the de- iwnee attempted to be set up, even then such violence on the. part of police officers is not to be tolerated.. Although he believed in seven out of ten cases police officers efficiently dis- charged their duties, still the court viewed this case, not so much as it concerned the parties more immediately interested, but as one in which the liberty of the subject is involved. His honour then gave judgment for the whole amount of the da- mages claimed, £5, together with costs. CHURCH-RATE, WitExilAii.-The church authorities in this town have met recently, for the first time, some serious resist* ance in their attempts to compel the whole parish to support the religion of a part. At a vestry meeting, held' September l,' ),rli, a church-rate of 2d. in the pound was proposed and se- conded by two gentlemen, one of them' the brother of the vicar, who are themselves well able to pay the whole expense of episcopal worship in the parish. An amendment was proposed by George Kyrke, Esq., an Episcopalian, that the rate should bi: only one farthing in the pound. This was about to be se, ponded by W. H. Darby, Esq., of the Society of Friends, when the vicar, who was in' the chair, incourteously and illegally Prevented his speaking,.on the alleged ground that his name v'3s not in the rate-book. The amendment was, however, seconded by another ratepayer, Robert Thornley, Esq., who gavw the imperious chairman some home thrusts as to his unhandsome cqnduqi, and the efficiency of the voluntary prinr- ciple. Mr. J. Clare, Baptist minister, then entered a protest against the object of the meeting, which was to PASS a church- z, rate, contending that that object was essentially unscriptural and unjust; that no man or body of men, whether minorities or nzajo-i-ities, had any moral right to levy a religious TAX, and that religion was altogether a personal and voluntary matter. To all this the vicar's concise reply was, that it was the law of the land. But after a long harangue from a lawyer to the effect that church-rates were as old as the Norman conquest, that they are a tax not on conscience but on property, &c., the amendment was carried by an overwhelming majority. A poll, however, was demanded, and the result was that the property of the church prevailed over the number of Dissenters. An en- thusiastic public meeting has, however, been held on the subject, at which all compulsion in religion was condemned and ar- rangements are being made to form a Wrexham Anti-State Church Association, and spread Anti-State Church principles through this part of North Wales. There are some stubborn voluntaries too in Wrexham, who will not pay Church-rates, so that Mother Church's troubles are not half over.-Commu. nicated. OCEAN MONARCH" FUND.-The whole amount of the col- lection made at Bangor, including Port Penrhyn, for the suf- ferers by fire on board the Ocean Monarch, was JE54 14s. 10d., which has been transmitted to Daniel Neilson, Esq., the trea- surer, at Liverpool. RHUDDLAN CASTLE GRAND, EISTEDDFOD.-The proclamation for holding an Eisteddfod and Gorsedd, at Rhuddlan Castle, in the autumn of 1849, according to the privilege and custom of the bards of the isle of Britain, took place at the above-named Castle on Thursday week, at 12 o'clock at noon. WREXHAM CHEESE FAIR.—This fair, which took place on Tuesday, the 26th ult., was supplied with a large quantity of cheese. Owing however to the continued depressed state of trade in the kingdom, and heavy stocks in the hands of the factors, prices were necessarily low. Inferior sorts sold from 40s. to 48s. per cwt., and the superior kinds of cheese, from 53s. to 55s. In one instance, however, there was a dairy sold for 60s. Skim cheese was quite out of demand.
THE LATE REV. JAMES HUGHES, OF LONDON."— On the evenings of Thursday, September 7, and Friday, Septtember 22, 1848, two lectures in the Welsh language were delivered at the Queen Square Assembly Rooms, 8, Theobald's-road, Holborn, on the life and writings of the late Rev. James Hughes, by E. W, Richard, Esq. The chair on both eccasions was occupied cy the Rev. David Davies, Guildford-street, an old friend of the late James Hughes, and now the senior Welsh minister resident in London. The learned and gifted lecturer commenced his first lecture with some philosophical demonstrations on the principle of life, and the great tenaciousness with Which man clings to his present existence. He proved that this strong feeling was not accidental, but implanted in his nature by the Creator for high moral purposes. The lecturer then proceeded to give a succinct sketch of the life of his hero, from his earliest youth to his arrival in London, and up to the time of his marriage. The lecturer commenced his second discourse with a recapitulation of the chief points introduced in the first, and proceeded with the history, concluding with a most powerful, lifelike portrait of his subject's character, and some illustrations of his poetical compositions. He sat down amidst loud and prolonged cheers, Mr. T, Jones then rose and said I have much pleasure in moving that the thanks of this meeting be tendered to E. W. Richard, Esq., for his very able and eloquent lecture, and the meeting cannot separate with- out expressing its strong hope that Mr. Richard will be induced very speedily to favour his countrymen through the press, with a complete life of the late Rev, James Hughes. Mr, Jones ob- served that he proposed that resolution with very great satisfaction, as he had listened to these lectures with the greatest delight. He had had the pleasure of knowing Mr. Hughes for many years, and he could bear testimony to the great correctness of the picture drft-wn by Mr. Richard. It was not overdrawn but was what biographies should be, a faithful description of the character com- memorated. He hoped Mr. Richard would be encouraged, from the expression .of feeling displayed by this meeting, very, speedily to publish a full history of bis late revered friend's life, and be would look forward to the possession of the work with great anxiety (cheers). Mr. E. Williams rose. and said—I have very great pleasure in seconding this resolution. I came on purpose fourteen miles to hear th- lecture of this evening, and I had very high expectations raised in me, but my most sanguine expecta* tions have been far more than realised. I think we owe much to our excellent friend, Mr. Richard. It is not loi-tg since that he gave us in the Traethoclydd a most powerful picture of another dis- tinguinliod countryman of ours, the late Thaophilus Jones; and although. I never had the pleasure of knowing him, yet I felt, while reading Mr, Richard's sketch of his life, that such a man must have existed, for there I had before me a complete charac- ter, drawn in all its facts (applause). And this evening we have had a most powerful description of the late Rev. James Hughes. It was indeed a most able and eloquent lecture, and I am now fully convinced that Mr. Richard is one of the most powerful writers in the language. There is a completeness and harmo- niousness in his pictures that bring the subject perfectly before us. Have we not all felthave we not been pressed, as it were, with the very presence of our late friend amongst us this evening. There are no other words, nor any colours that would show ano- ther so truthful a picture of Mr. Hughes. You must have all felt with me, that it was the very living, breathing man himself (loud cheers). I hope we shall soon have a full account of Mr. Hughes' life, from the eloquent pen of Mr. Richard, and I trust to be possessed myself of several copies of the work (hear, hear). u to The resolution was put by the rev. chairman, and carried with acclamation. Mr. Richard briefly acknowledged the vote of thanks, and said that, encouraged by the very favourable and cor- dial expression of feeling on the part of that meeting, in favour of giving to the public at large a more complete account of the life of the late Rev. James Hughes, he should probably, at no distant day, present to the notice of his, countrymen such a work (loud cheers). Mr. Richard then proposed a vote of thanks to the chairman for his .kindness in .taking the phair, and his. readiness to, assist his, coqntrymen in every good work, without distinction of sect or party. He complimented the rev. gentleman in very warm terms, upon the truly Christian catholicity of his spirit, and said that nothing to his mind proved more satisfactorily the pro- gress of Christianity in influencing the world with its own blessed and hallowed principles, than liberal and fraternal conduct, such as he beheld ..ever exhibited in t,fie,liip.of his talented and excellent friend,, the chairman (loud cheers). Mr. Thos. Richards having seconded the resolution, it was put and carried amidst unanimous applause. The chairman having acknowledged the compliment, the meeting separated, all present having been evidently gratified with the proceedings.
LIVERPOOL. A dreadful tragedy has occurred in this town. A man of the name of Howarth, who had some time since been a wholesale confectioner in Toxteth park in Liverpool, but who has lately been carrying on the business of a cattle dealer, had separated on ac" Count of konle, domestic affairs_from his family, and in consequence, he allowed his wife a weekly, sum, .towards her separate mainT- tenance. On Friday,evening last, Mrs. Ilowacth went ag usual to get her allowance from her husband; but as she did not return that evening, or the following day, her friends became very 1. 9 uneasy, tintl oill. Sunday morning they determined to force an entrance into her husband's house. On entering the house they suspected that everything was not right, they then proceeded upstairs, where a most appalling spectacle was presented to their view they found the, wife lying dead on (he flooqr, partly under the bed, and surrounded with a. pool of blood, and marks of violence on her person; the husband lay on the bed apparently asleep, but he also was discovered to be quite dead. On the inquest which was held on Monday, it was shown that both hus- band and wife had died from the effects of poison but whether violence had been used in order to compel her to take it, as the marks on her person and the blood which surrounded her would intimate, there was no evidence to show. A small box of white powder supposed to be arsenic was found in the room. The inquest was adjourned for the purpose of collecting additional evidence if possible, in order to elucidate the mystery which envelops this lamentable affair. It is said that the husband had lost a vast deal of money by some recent sales of cattle, and that he had since been in a very despondent state of mind, and had threatened to commit suicide. < On the previous Saturday William Adams suffered the extreme penalty of the law at Kifkdale gaol near Liverpool, for the murder of his \'(.ife at Manchester some months ago. He had also at- tempted to destroy himself after shooting his unfortunate victim.. FINANCIAL REFORM*—On Wednesday evening, the 27th ult., a public meeting of the Financial Reform Association was held in the Portico, Ncwington, in this town. The room was crowded to excess, and the greatest enthusiasm prevailed during the evening, Mr. Robertson Gladstone, the President of the 'i.t, Association, was voted into the chair, and delivered an excel- lent opening speech the more remarkable as he has hitherto been considered, a. stanch Tory, and an opponent, to Reform. The different resolutions were moved, seconded, and supported j by Lawrence Heyworttl,.E<.q., M.P. for Derby; R. Shiel Esq.; P. Boult, Esq. E. Brodril, Esq.; Mr. Farrar Sir Joshua Walmsley, late M.P. for Leicester; CoL Williams, and 1\It. Claypole. All the resolutions were passed unanimously. The London Times, in endeavouring to ridicule the movement oft Saturday last, described the meeting as having taken place in Manchester, and dealt with the" cotton lords accordingly. On Tuesday last it again assails the Association, while review- ing a tract issued by them, and its loyalty shrinks from their proposal to reduce the expenditure of her Majesty from £380.000 to £200,000 per aniyim, which amount the associa- tion deems quite sufficient to preserve the barbarous pomp of royalty." As the subject is of vital importance, we shall in future numbers draw attention to the tracts issued by the finan- cial reformers of Liverpool. THE MONETARY LAWS.—SUCCESS OF THE ANTI-GOLD LAW LEAGUE.—In a leading article, the editor of the Liverpool Stan- dard says :—" One of the most remarkable signs of the times was exhibited last night at the Great George-street Assembly-rooms, in a meeting convened by a party of gentlemen, for the purpose of hearing a lecture from Jonathan Duncan, Esq., of London, on the effect of our present monetary laws in producing commercial distress and want of employment among the working classes. Mr. Duncan is well known as the stanch opponent of the theories of the bullionists. Upon the platform we observed some of the most prominent members of the free-trade party, singular to relate, listening to an exposure of the fallacies of their great apostle, Mr. Cobden, in his arguments on monetary science, and of the ruinous results of the carrying out of Sir Robert Peel's advice, that we should buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest.' At the close of Mr. Duncan's remarks, Mr. Charles Holland, who was in the chair, attempted to vindicate his position, as a follower of the Manchester school of politics in one direction, and parting from them on the question of monetary science. Such a course was natural. We are only glad to see that even amongst its most thick-and-thin advocates, such as were some of the gentlemen pre- sent last night, that free-trade and a restricted currency, with a basis of gold at a fixed price, are felt to be incompatible things."
;THE CHARTIST TRIALS.
THE CHARTIST TRIALS. On Monday week Mr. Justice Erie, Mr. Justice Williams, and Baron Plait took their seats on the bench at ten o'clock, and the prisoner William Dowling having been placed at the bar, Mr. Justice Erie proceeded to sum up the evidence, at the close, of which the jury retired, and in the meantime the trials of Cuffey, Lacey, and Fay were proceeded with. The trial of Mullins was postponed. The indictment against the prisoners was then read, and the prisoners were called upon to plead. They all pleaded Not Guilty in a loud voice, and Cuffey added, "I demand a fair trial by my peers, according to the principles of Magna Charta." Mr. Ballantine: You must be quiet and leave it to us. The three prisoners were then placed at the bar, and the Attorney- General proceeded to state the circumstances under which the charge was preferred against the prisoners. The evidence of W. Cross, a police-constable, and Sergeant Thompson, one of whom arrested Fay, and the other Cuffey, was then taken, after which another informer, one Charles Tilden, deposed that he became a member of the Chartist Association on the 9th of last May, and Cuffey was his class leader. He de- tailed some of the proceedings of Cuffey and his associates. Witness aspired to be a general, but strange to say he joined the Chartists aa a moral force man, and he purchased gunpowder at Cuffey's request, in order to see if he could not find out something to stop their proceedings. Like the patriotic Powell, of whom he knew nothipg, he did not expect to be paid for what he did, and he became a spy and informer for the good of the public. But though he did not expect to be paid for anything except his loss of time, he should not be ashamed to take anything the Govern- ment might give him. At the close of the examination of this witness the jury in the former case came into court, when they gave a verdict of Guilty against the prisoner upon the second count of the indictment. On Tuesday, Mr. Baron Platt and Mr. Justice Williams took their seats on the bench at ten o'clock, and the evidence for the prosecution was resumed. Thomas Powell, the approver, was the first witness called. The first part of his evidence referred to the, various Chartist meetings he, attended in common with the prisoners from the 28th of July down to the 16th of August. The examination in chief of this witness, which occupied four hours, having been concluded, the court and jury adjourned to take some refreshment.—On their return, the witness was subjected to a most severe cross- examination by Mr., Ballantine, extracts of which we subjoin. He said:—I went by the names of Johnson, and Robinson. I cannot say whether I ever went by any other name. Baron Ptadt; What" don't you know whether you ever went by any other name than your own ?—Witness: Yes •, now I recollect, I was callts^Hthe Welsh Novice (a laugh). 1 joined the Chartists soon after April, but I did not commence to take notes until after the 20th of July. I put down a portion at one time, and forget- ting another part put that down afterwards; I communicated with the Government from time to time. Mr. Ballantine I was earning 27s. a-weak 'as a carpenter when I entered into this business. It was a matter of choice, not of necessity. I don't know that I acted as a "spy," butl certainly went in among these people to get information of their proceed- ings and to betray them. I have been paid a £ 1 a-week since I have been obliged to be kept out of the way to protect my life. I know James Paris, my brother-in-law's foreman. I never said to him that I had been employed by the thimblerigging men, or that 1 had been employed by the police against thieves. I never expressed to him an entire unbelief in God, or in the Scriptures, or in our Saviour. I always have believed iu them, and do believe now. I did tell Paris once that it was likely he would hear of something remarkable, but I don't think that I said he would hear of a Chartist rising; I got some lead from Mr. Smith, my brother-in-law, in order to cast bullets, which 1 cast in my own apartmpnt and gave to Gurney. I don't remember whether my shop-mates nicknamed me Lying Tom." I know Osborn. I never told him there was to be a Chartist rising, and urged him to join it. I don't remember doing such a thing. I reatly will not swear I have not done so, I don't recollect it. Baron Platt: Will your swear you never have?-Witness: I don't recollect. Baron Platt: Will you swear you never have ?—Witness: I don't think I ever did. Baron Piatt: Then you may have done so and forgotten it ?— Witness Yes. Examination continued: I painted out to Osborn a blacksmith as a person who would make him a pike. We were talking about the Chartists at the time; I know Carr, but I never said to him if I had a chance in a crowd I would rip the police's guts out. I never said to Pennell that the Government was a weak tyrannical Government, and that I would send Lord J. Russell and, Sir G. Grey to the devil within a month. I may have asked Pennell if he was a Chartist, but I never told him to look at the Queen with her hundreds of thousands a-year spent in waste and idleness, while they had to work hard for a bit of bread, and that I would blow her and the foreigner to hell. I never told him I could show him materials enough to blow London to hell in half an hoVr. I know James Bennett, a shoemaker. I said to him that 1; had been making some hand-grenades that would go half way through an inch board. It was not true that I had been making them. I told this falsehood for talking sake. I also told them how I made the grenades—that was a lie too. rr. Ballantine: And you are not called Lying Tom 1" (a laugh). Witness Not to my face. Mr. Ballantine; How were these grenades made, did you say?- Witnes: Why I told them that gunpowder must be put into an ink-bottle with an explosive cap, and I did say that it would be a capital thing to throw among the police it it had some nails in it. I'don't think I told them that a blacking-bottle half- full of gunpowder mixed with nails would do as well as anything to throw among the police, after it was ignited by a fusee, aud that it would break their legs, I never said to Bennett that I had gotten men, and, with four or five more, I could easily take the Artillery-ground. I will not .swear I did not say to Mr. Antill that O'Connor was a coward, for he recommended peaceable measures and that the National Assembly should be postponed. I did not draw the plan of London now produced, but I drew another plan, which was afterwards torn up. I showed my plan to two or three people at Cartwright's to ascertain their views on the subject of a proposed assassination of the police in the night and a sham demonstration at Bonner's-fields. I once had a pair of pistols, and I exchanged them for another pistol. I don't think I ever said that a man named Douaine was a government spy and that he was a milk-and-water moral force and ought to be kicked out. I won't swear I did not make use of such an expression. Baron Platt: Why won't you swear you never used such words ? Witness: Why, my lord, because men maybe put into this box to swear that I did say it, and my memory may have deceived me. There. are strange characters that go to Cartwright's, who would astonish any moral man. Mr. BallantineYou are a moral man, are you not? Witness I am. I know Collins. I don't remember telling him that there was going to be a grand meeting, and that aone would be admitted but those prepared to fight for their rights. I may have said such a thing and forgotten it. I know Medlsck. I don't recollect saying to him on the 14th of August that I would serve iti-t these moral force I may have said it and forgotten k. On the 16th of August, in the early part of the evening, I was standing outside Cartwright's with a crowd, but I don't recollect that he asked me what was the matter, and that I told him I thought it was a botched job by these milk-and-water I don't remember saying', ou being pressed for an explanation, that there was intended to be a turn out that night, and that a signal-rocket was to be fired between Dine and ten, atid the peo- ple were to turn out. I don't recollect it, but I won't swear I did not. I remember on this night walking up Chiswell-street with th same man. I showed him 68 ball-cartridges. I am sure I did not tell him that I had got 200 .fire-balls to throw into the people's houses. I think I did pall out a pistol also a tin box full of percussion-caps. I had a sword in^iy coat pocket. I showed him the handle. I might have said, You see I am well prepared for them; are you?" I know Daniel Burn. I never said to him that I wished the people would assassinate the police and fire the houses. I don't believe I said so to anyone, but I won't swear that I did not say so. By the court: I might have said it, my lord, but I don't think I did. I was always rather a friend to the police, and that was well known. I won't be sure I did not make use of such an ex- pression. Mr. Ballantine having handed a small iron instrument, with a spike in it, calculated to lame a horse if thrown on the road or pavement, asked the witness if he had ever seen such an one, and he admitted he had, and that he had made it, adding, it is thrown on the ground, when it always turns the point up- wards, the article being loaded with lead. I have a similar thing in my pocket. I made them to ascertain that they were making these things at Cartwright's. Mr. Ballantine You did it for a trap ?-I did it to detect the parties. Baron Platt: Did you do it for a trap, to discover the parties who were making them ?-I did so, my lord that is the solemn position I am placed in (a laugh). I did not say, These are the things to throw among the troops of the bloody go- vernment." I do not believe I used the word" bloodv." I might have said that they were good to throw among the troops. I said at the same time that I had a large quantity at home. Mr. Ballantine Was that true or false ?—False. Mr. Ballantine You seem proud of it ?—I wish to speak the truth, and say what I have done. Mr. Ballantine And that was another falsehood ?-It was. I know Gurney. I went to him in his cell. I believe I said to him that if he would confess it would be better for his wife and children. Baron Platt: Don't you know ? Why. do you say I be- lieve ?" Why don't you say I know I believe I did use those words. I don't know whether a policeman was stand mo- outside the cell. I did not say to the policeman on going out, It is no go." I believe I said to Gurney that he and his family would be made comfortable for their lives if he confessed. I had no authority for saying so. He was placed in a cell by himself, but I don't know that this was done in order that I might have him to myself.—This witness was under examina- tion nearly eight hours. Several other witnesses having been examined, the court adjourned at seven o'clock. On Wednesday at ten o'clock Mr. Baron Platt and Mr. Jus- tice Williams took their seats on the bench. The prisoners Cuffey, Lacey, and Fay, having been placed at the bar, the examination of several policemen as witnesses for the prose- cution was proceeded with, after which Thomas Barrett, a Chartist who gave evidence against Mullins at Bow-street Court, was brought forward. His evidence on this occasion was of a similar nature. In his cross-examination by Mr. Parry, he said that he was a sincere moral force Chartist when he joined the Emmet brigade. He did not join the Chartists for the purpose of betraying them. He only agreed to betray them when he ascertained the villanous part they were acting He first began to betray them about a month ago. He had no other motive, and he had not received any money, except for his loss of time. He might have received as much as 12 since last Tuesday week. He did not know Powell, and never saw him until last Tuesday week, when Mullens was examined at Bow-street, but he had no conversation with him. He had heard that Powell had turned a spy before he went to the police himself. About four years ago he was tried for taking some bread out of a baker's cart, which was done in a drunken spree," but he was sentenced to be imprisoned for four months. Before that he had been committed, in Berkshire, for a month* for trespassing in pursuit of game. Since the charge about the bread, he had been accused of having a pint potunlawfutly in his possession, and he was committed for a month. He had never been charged with stealing the1 cape of a cloak, but he had found one in the crowd at the Princess's Theatre on one occasion, and sold it for 6d. He did not know whose it way, and never asked (a laugh). He did not remember ever having endeavoured to urge persons to procure arms and join the physical force movement of the Chartists. He did show a pistol to a man named Garrett on the 15th of August. Another informer named George Davis, a shoemaker, who had been a member of the Wat Tyler brigade of Chartists at Greenwich, and a delegate, next made his appearance ill* the witness box. His evidence inculpated the prisoners and others in the affair of the 16th of August. He had been in daily communication with the police for a long time. He joined on the 24th of May. The plan of the intended attack upon the city, according to this witness, was as follows They int nded to erect barricades from the Seven Dials down Drury-lane to St. Mary's Church in the Strand; Temple Bar was to be made a good barricade; then they were to go down to the waterside and make sure of Chaplin and Home's premises, and another party was to go into the city and t) take possession of St. Paul's Church. Payne, Mullens, and Brewster, were then specially appointed to draw up plans for attacking the police and the soldiers. la his cross-examination by Mr. Ballantine, he saidI wished to ingratiate myself with the Chartists on purpose that I might betray them. I was not employed as a spy by any one. I wished to retire from this business several times, but the su- perintendent and the inspector of police would not let me. I do not expect to be paid any more remuneration than will make up for the loss of trade I have sustained. The government have not made me any promise of remuneration. For the last few weeks the people at Greenwich have suspected me of being a spy, and I have lost my trade in consequence of it. I came here to-day as a voluntary witness. I came forward in conse- quence of what I read in the newspaper of the cross-examina- tion of Powell, and seeing that he made rather a bad figure, and knowing that such charges cauld not be brought against me, I thought I would come forward and give evidence of the truth. I thought the jury would not believe him on his oath. Mr. Ballantine Perhaps, after reading what you did of him, you would not yourself believe him on his oath ?—Witness X should in this matter, because I know he spoke the truth. I used to carry 10 "ded pistols for my own protection. I com- municated with the inspector of police this morning, and asked his advice whether I should come up or not, and by his advice I did so. Charles Baldwinson, a class-leader of the Lambeth Chartist locality, who had joined with the view of betraying his con- federates, was next examined; after which Mr. Wariington, an operative chemist, explained the nature of the recipes found at Rose's lodgings. The first was a common recipe, used to illustrate spontaneous combustion; nitrate of copper being dropped on tinfoil, which being wetted with water, spontaneous combustion ensues in five minutes. The second is a recipe for making steel-filings into a paste, which gives out a great deal of heat but does not burn. The third, of which the materials were woollen rags steepfed in naphtha, with the addition of three parts nitric acid, and three parts sulphuric acid, was a combustible mixture which ignited after a time. Mr. William Rendell then gave evidence as to the composi- tion of the fire-balls. They contained about two ounces and a half of gunpowder, with nails and a little cotton, which being ignited, the balls in half-a-minute would explode. This closed the evidence for the prosecution, and at a quarter to six the trial was again adjourned. On Thursday, the trial of Cuffey, Fay, and Lacey was re- sumed at ten o'clock. Mr. Ballantine, in addressing the jury, said he should de- mand the acquittal of Lacey and Cuffey, solely upon the evi- dence and the law, which they were all bound to obey. It had been said that they were only charged with felony, but it was perfectly clear that if they had committed any offence at all, it was high treason, and nothing else; but in his opinion no such offence was intended or committed. It was said that there was a secret organisation of the Chartists, and that they had illegal means of corresponding with each other throughout the country, but no evidence whatever of that character had been presented. He reminded the jury that there were two indict- ments of a different character, one of which only charged a misdemeanour against the prisoners, and that if they were ac- quitted on the present charge, they would still be amenable to the law, and suffer severe punishment. He asked the jury whether they could believe the evidence of a man whom a Go- vernment spy himself thought •ught not to be believod ? He was well aware tfcat great alarm prevailed in London on the 10th of April, and that although no disturbance of any conse- quence took place, yet from that period there could be no doubt that a system of espionage had been practised upon the
LLANDOVERY AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION
Jaent of draining, that had lately passed the legislature. By it owner? of land, tenants for life, owners of encumbered estates, or any other description of property, might drain their lands Tender the sanction of the Enclosure Commissioners. He was alluding to a company that had been recently formed, who ad- vanced capital for the purpose of draining, the money being repaid by a rent-charge on the land, so that where a landlord did not choose to put his hand into his pocket for this purpose, or when it was not convenient for him to do so, there was an opportunity for the land to be drained. He had made a rough guess that in this county there were 20,000 acres of land that required draining (Mr. C. Bishop—150,000,) if they were drained at an expense of f5 per acre, it would cost £100,000 if this was effected in a period of ten years, there would be ex- pended EIO,000 a-year, and this would all be done by the com- pany, who would have a rent-charge on the inheritance abso- lutely, or to be repayable by twenty-five annual instalments of £ 6 10s. per cent. per annum. He hoped public attention Would be called to this subject, as it was one of importance.. In conclusion he begged to propose the health of the secre- tary (cheers). Mr. R. Williams, secretary, returned thanks. A few other toasts were proposed, after which the meeting separated.