PROPOSED PEACE CONVENTION. It is known to many of our readers that Elihu Burritt has for some time been in Paris making preparations for holding, in that city, a great convention, the main object of which will be to discuas and develop some rational, practical, and efficient substU tute for war in settling the disputes which may arise between nations." To this convention it is contemplated that delegates will be sent from most of the principal towns and cities in Eng- land and Scotland, from nearly all the European nations, and some from America. On Wednesday evening week, a meeting was held at Lodge- street chapel, Bristol, R. Charleton, Esq., in the chair, for the purpose of appointing two delegates from this city to such con- vention. The attendance was small. The meeting was addressed by Messrs. Smith, of Sheffield T. P. Collins, E. II. Matthews, II. C. Itowells, and J. Russum. The delegates appointed were Mr. E. II. Matthews, the secretary of the League of Brotherhood and Mr. John Faulder, the secretary of the Anti-War Association of this city. In the course of the meeting it was stated that the circumstances had arisen which rendered it important that the place of holding the convention should be changed from Paris, and that it would, in all probability, be holden at Brussels, some time about the 20th of September. The circumstances are thus explained in an extract from Elihu Burritt's letter There is one peculiar difficulty which I could not have foreseen, it is :—The popular mind is very much excited upon the Italian question. The provisional government promised assistance to Italy in a case of emergency. That case, they insist, has occurred. The French consuls or representatives in Italy are still inspiring the Italians with faith in French aid. The French Government, with Cavaignac, has, it is thought by the mass, re- pudiated these promises of assistance, or, what with them is the same, they have entered into an alliance with England, which must render them unable to fulfil these promises. Thus the French Government is at direct issue with the masses on this point. Now, here is a very serious difficulty-if a large deputa- tion of Englishmen should come over to Paris for the purpose we contemplate, the French people, it is feared, would insist that it was entirely an English demonstration in favour of the French Government, and consequently political in the most obnoxious sense. The Government can scarcely stem the tide of public opi- nion that is setting in for interference in Italy. That tide is also opposed to an alliance with England which shall prevent this in- terference. Therefore, it is suggested that such a demonstration as we propose would be regarded by the populace as directed against them, and in favour of the Government policy. This, I must confess, is a very serious difficulty, for nothing could be so unfortunate for our cause, as to expose it to the danger of incurring any political character; but, above all, to such an one as the French people would be likely to give it, if we should produce the demonstration under these circumstances. Then there is great reason to fear that very few Frenchmen could be found who would be willing to incur the suspicions that would be fixed upon them, should they take part in what would be called, in spite of us, I fear, an English political demonstration in Paris to strengthen the French Government against the French people. You will see at once the nature of this new and unforeseen difficulty. It is one more serious and insuperable than any which have grown out of the recent. terrible outbreak, or any which the present precarious state of, France could present. The danger of another insurrection is a slight obstacle when compared with the danger of incurring the political odium which I have described. I have just returned from a long conference with Horace Say (the Richard Cobden of France) and other influential and judicious gentlemen, and such is the conviction to which I have been compelled to yield." It is now finally arranged that this conference shall be held at Brussels. On Tuesday last, the 5th instant, a letter was for- warded to M. Rogier, Minister of the Interior, explanatory of the objects of the convention after which, and in accordance with the instructions received, the deputation waited upon M. Rogier, at the time appointed. He received them most courteously, in- formed them that they were at perfect liberty to hold the congress, and immediately gave- directions to his principal secretary to en- deavour to secure a suitable room for the meeting, promising also that every facility should be given in relation to passports, so that the delegation might suffer as little delay, on the journey, as pos- sible. On callingat his office this morning, the deputation found that. one of the finest rooms in Brussels is placed at their disposal, that it is easy of access, andadmirably suited for the purposes designed. In relation to passports, instructions will be given that a feuille de route, or general passport, having the names of the delegation in. serted on it, will be deemed sufficient. This will save time, ex- pense, and unnecessary trouble. They have now only to add, that they are doing all they can to secure proper accommodation for the delegation, and to express an earnest hope that many in- fluential friends of peace will be induced to join the congress.— Extract of a letter dated Brussels. Sept. Oth, 1848.
CHOLERA, ITS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT. The Sanitary Commissioners in their second report, as pre- sented to both Houses of Parliament, having been pleased to speak favourably of my evidence relative to the successful treatment of cholera, I am induced to offer to the public, in the spirit of that evidence, a few remarks as instructions for the prevention and treatment of that disease; and for the sake of brevity I will make the following classification: 1. PREVENTION.—I recommend comfortable and nutritious animal food of the solid kind, warm clothing, an attention to regular hours, free ventilation, and cleanliness also lime- washing the dwellings of the poor. I advise abstinence from spirituous and fermented liquors, from all fruit and raw vege- tables, from all salt fish and oysters-the latter especially— from all excesses which debilitate the constitution; and, above all things, I deprecate the use of strong purgative medicines. 2. THE EARLY, OR PREMONITORY SrAGE, AND ITS TREAT- MENT. -So far as my observation extended in 1S32,1 found that spasmodic cholera, with few exceptions, was preceded by cer- tain premonitory symptoms, of which diarrhoea or purging was the most prominent; but which symptom was too often over- looked by the persons labouring under the attack. It therefore becomes of vital importance, now that we apprehend that cholera is taking the same route towards this country that it did in 1832, that every case of purging which may occur should, without loss of time, be arrested in its progress; for so fully convinced am I of the benefits resulting from a prompt atten- tion to bowel complaints, that I believe that the actual choleric symptoms may, in the majority of cases, be thereby prevented. The purging is for the most part accompanied by nausea, and a disposition to vomit, followed by a sense of heat and weight in the stomach, slight cramps in the bowels and legs, great weak- ness, diminished, action of the heart, and coldness of the sur- face of the body. It is essentially necessary to point out to the public, and more especially to the poor, such remedies for this, the early stage, as are at their command, and at what period of the disease they should be employed. When sickness with derangement of the bowels is felt, the patient (if an adult) should mix a table spoonful of mustard, or double that quantity of common suit in half a pint of warm water, a third part of either to be taken every ten minuses until free vomiting be produced; after the stomach has been well cleared out with more warm water, thirty drops of tincture of opium should be given in. a glass of brandy and water, to be followed up with a pill composed of live grains of calomel, and two grains of opium; for an adult, small doses of these to be taken at inter- vals of every two hours until bile is observed to pass in the vacuation; but in the event of children being suddenly at- tacked with bowel complaints of this kind, I recommend one drop of the tincture of opium for each year of their age, to be given in sugar and water; they are not to take the pills alluded to; hut if under twelve years of age, then one grain of calomel is to be given every two hours, until the same effect (the pass- ing of bile) be visible in the evacuations. Families should also have in readiness a mixture of the following form pre- pared chalk 5 oz., white sugar two lumps, cinnamon powder or aromatic confection two drachms, tincture of catechu 1 oz., opiate confection 1 drachm, sal volatile 2 drachms, cinnamon or peppermint water half-a-pint, of which mixture an adult may take three tablespoonfuls after each disordered motion and children under twelve years of age, one tablespoonful. I also strongly advise the .use of an embrocation of heated tur- pentine to be rubbed over the bowels and. extremities, to which the addition of one-third part of laudanum would be an important improvement; should the ingredients of this embroca- tion not beat hand, mustard poultices should be placed on the stomach and bowels. Common wine bottles, or stone jars, filled with hot water, and rolled in flannel, are also to be applied to the stomach and feet. If the. apartment be at all eligible the patient should not be removed, but be kept in a perfectly hori- zontal position, as any attempt to sit upright might prove fatal. The patient will experience a. great relief from the cramps by having a bandage tightly tied around the seat of pain. Cramp being one of the most distressing symptoms in the disease, if not moved by the preceding means, I can, from recent experience, speak highly of the internal administration of from two to/five drops of .chloroform, in a little ginger tea or ,a,liy warm fluid, as one of the most efficient agents iii removing choleric spasm. 3. THE COLLAPSE, O» BIVB, STAPH,, AND. ITS.. TREATMENT. -In this stage all the powers of life are apparently.suspended, in consequence, of the intensity of the liquid evacuations the crarhps increase in severity, and all the symptoms become ¡ aggravated. The treatment in this stage is as nearly allied as possible to that of the early stage, as the remedies there pre- scribed are now to be given more frequently, and in larger doses. Here I must call upon the attendants to be unremitting in rubbing in the turpentine embrocation over the body and extremities, and to be prompt in giving to the patients stimu- lants, such as brandy, or whiskey mixed in hot water, to which may be added a teaspoonful of the tincture of ginger or of capsicum; and if these be not in readiness, they should give one teaspoonful of sal volatile instead, until re-action be pro- duced, 4. THE RECOVERY.—It frequently happens that this stage is ushered in by an attack of fever, when it will become neces- sary to avoid the use of stimulants, and to have recourse to the common saline draught, cooling drinks, mild diet of the farinaceous kind, such as arrow-root, sago, tapioca mixed with milk. Should the head be affected and the face flushed, cold lotions should be applied, and leeches to the temples. In these instructions I have endeavoured to adopt the simplest mode of expression, to suit the understandings of the poorer classes; and, in conclusion, I again wish to impress upon all persons the necessity of paying prompt attention to the slightest ap- proach of diarrhoea, as it may be the means of saving the lives of thousands. 60, Parliament-street. N. M'CANN.
THE 2CLIPS E. THE sun daily gladdens and dazzles our eyes From his glorious palace of light in the skies; But mortals so often have basked in his rays, That faint is their wonder, and feeble their praise. Yet multitudes now seem around to collect, And all to the east their attention direct! Are they watching the light of the sun's rosy down ? No, no; they exult to behold it withdrawn! Their glasses are eagerly pointed on high, Each gathering blemish and shade to descry The sun's brightest rays never drew from their lips Such words of applause as attend his eclipse. Not long will, this novel excitement remain, The monarch of day will shine forth again But methinks that the scene may instruction convey, If I weave a short moral to add to my lay. Ye men richly gifted with genius and worth, Who cast the warm sunshine of mind upon earth, The world lightly values the powers you disclose, And measured and cold is the praise it bestows. But let your bright surface exhibit one spot, Let your character only be dimmed by a blot, The notice of all will be fully secured The moment they learn that your light is obscured! The crowd's eager glances will quickly detect Your slightest decline, your minutest defect; And glad declarations will burst from their lips, 'fhat they always predicted your speedy eclipse! Arouse ye come forth in your lustre not long Need ye brook the weak taunts of a wondering throng Appear put their comments and rumours to flight By the first flashing beam of your glorious light; And prove, that though darkness the sun may enshroud, And merit awhile may be veiled by a cloud, It must soon be acknowledged by numberless lips, That neither can suffer a lengthened eclipse.
^jrrcultute. We are desirous of bringing under the notice of our readers the advantages which all interested in land will obtain in the improvement of estates by means of an Act of the pre- sent Parliament (11 and 12 Vic.), just passed, which incor- porates the Landowners' West of England and South Wales Land Drainage and Inclosure Company," the office of which is at Exeter. By the abave Act great and hitherto unknown facilities are granted, by which owners of limited interests in land can charge the inheritance with the expense of all sorts of permanent improvements effected by the above Company, when duly sanctioned by the Inclosure Commissioners; im- provements, such as drainage, irrigation, warping, embank- ment, reclamation, inclosure, buildings, roads, bridges, fences, machinery, brick and tile yards, mills, &c. This Act greatly facilitates the borrowing of money for these purposes, by making the charge on the property take precedence ot all other mortgages and incumbrances whatsoever, excepting the tithe rent charge. The machinery, employed to secure the segreat advantages is cheap and simple, being only a contract with the West of England and South Wales Improvement. Company for the execution of the necessary works, which contract, when sanctioned by the Inclosure Commissioners, is a sufficient legal security to the party advancing the money, and enables the person making such contract to charge the inheritance with the repayment of such loan, without the examination of title deeds, or the intervention of the Court of Chancery. Money may also be obtained from the Commissioners of the Treasury. To secure the effectual execution of works of landed im- provement, this Company is invested with the power of purchasing or renting land; and also of carrying an outfall Z, z5 "3 for drainage water from any estate on which they arc em- ployed through any adjacent land, on paying proper com- pensation. Wilen the execution of the works contracted for by the Company on any lands has been duly certified, the Company has thenceforth a lien on the lands s S improved by their means, which has a priority over every other charge or incumbrance (excepting tithe rent charge), and they may enter and receive the rents till their claim, together with interest, is satisfied. Such is a sketch of the means now, for the first time, placed within the reach of landed propri- etors of improving the present value of their properties, without (in the ease of merely life owners) running the risk of having to pay for benefits which may be reaped only by their successors. The public loan for drainage was, it will be remembered, limited in amount, and applicable to that one improvement only, whereas the Company's opera- tions may extend to all sorts of permanent improvements. Of course the details of the Company's Act, and the provi- sions contained in it for protecting the interests of rever- sioners and remainder men, cannot be given here, but must be sought in the Act itself, or by application to the Secretary of the Cotnpaiiy at Exeter. We will only add that the Company are not likely to allow their Act to remain a dead letter, having been already for some years in active operation with a paid up capital (though hitherto only as a private Association and limited to draining), and being provided with a staff of surveyors and skilful workmen, with some tileries erected, &c., all im- mediately available to carry out efficiently any works, how- ever extensive, which may be intrusted to them. Thus those landlords who regret their want of promptitude in allowing the Government loan for drainage to be caught up by proprietors beyond the Tweed, to the exclusion of them- selves, will now have the opportunity of repairing the back- wardness then shown in availing themselves of that boon. We hope that companies connected with other districts of the country may arise to claim from another Parliament powers equally extensive with those to which we have alluded, so that the whole island may have the advantages which that portion of it moreimmediately in connexion with -the West of England" Company how has placed within its .reach.-Agricultai-al Gazette. KITCHEN GARDEN AND ORCHAUD.—The clearance of weeds, which we presume are abundant everywhere this reason, should be regularly pursued. The forward spinach beds will presently want thinning, and to the various suc- cessions of turnips and horn carrots similar attention should be given. The rapid spread and extreme virulence of the potato disease will cause an additional value to be placed on all edible garden stuff. The winter greens should be looked over, and where it is found necessary they may be earthed up, by way of protection against the weather. Spare cab- bage plants should not be cast away, but distributed to the cottagers, whose losses by the failure of the potato crop will be considerable. Let asparagus beds be kept free from weeds, and a sufficient supply of seeds saved for the annual sowing. COTTAGERS' GARDENS.—In many instances the haulm has been left on the potatoes with the hope of their recovery in some cases the appearance of the stem and leaves en- couraged the belief that it would, as last year, overcome the attack; unhappily but few instances of the kind arc pre- sented this season, so the sooner the rotten stems are Removed the better. On stiff land a slight examination will show the necessity of the early adoption of this plan; the wet and boisterous weather lately has, by swaying the po- tato stalk about, formed holes around them, which of course will readily conduct the water to the tubers, whose only chance of preservation exists in escape from excessive moisture. The plan we rec mimen 1 has, in many instances, been found beneficial; if the ridges are slightly raised and the soil closely pressed over the potatoes, an additional ad- vantage would be offered. As soon as the last crop of peas and beans is cleared off, give a slight dressing of manure to Z, the land and plant cole worts. If a so wi ng of winter onions has been previously omitted, lose no time in forming a bed, otherwise at a later period endeavour to obtain plants when the neighbouring gardeners are thinning their beds Hoe and thin turnip quarters; no cottager should be without a supply of this useful vegetable. Collect and dry herbs, such as marjoram, sage, mint, and thyme, for ultimate use in the kitchen. At this moment, when so many succulent weeds are ut hand, the manure heap should receive frequent addi- tions. On no account destroy French beans or runners because too old to be employed in the customary manner; the 'ed bean itself is most palatable boiled and served with a little butter and salt.- Gardener's Chronicle.
THE CariN TRADE. LivERPooL, SATURDAY.—The duty on wheat has declined to 6i. per quarter, and on flour to 3s. 7gd. per barrel. There is no alter- .&tiOIl in the impost on other articles. We have had another week of highly propitious weather for the harvest, and the greater pro- portion of the grain is now secured in the north of England, and in good condition. The character of the northern harvest is likely to be superior to the southern, both as regards quality and quantity. At our Corn Exchange yesterday, we had a fair show of samples of grain and flour. There was a moderate sale for old wheat to consumers at an advance of Id. to 2d. per bushel, and on bonded improvement W'<lS 3d. to 4d. per bushel on the low rates at the beginning of the weeK. Flour, on the contrary, was a dull sale, ud English sack was easier to buy. Indian corn was in good demand, and it was mostly cleared off at Is. to 23. per quarter ad- vance, 36s. per 480lbs beitig paid for American, both yellow and white'. Indian meal was 6d. per barrel dearer. In other articles of the trade there was no change from Tuesday, with small busi- ness doing. Prices are maintained to-day. MANCHESTER, SATURDAY.—The weather since our last report, although wet for several hours on Tuesday, and subsequently rather cloudy, has on the whole continued of a favourable charac- ter. The trade, influenced thereby, as well as the decline in the value of wheat at most of the leading markets held during the Week, has remained in a state of extreme inactivity, the trans- actions in nearly every article being confined to the retail purchases made by necessitous buyers for the supply of their present wants, to effect which it was necessary to submit to lower prices gene- rally. At Liverpool and Runcorn the arrivals of wheat and flour coastwise are to a fair extent; but of other articles thence or from Ireland the supplies are again scanty. From abroad the imports -Of wheat, barley, and Indian corn are on a more liberal scale, and only moderate of other produce. At our market this morning a fii'trier feeling was apparent In the trade; and at the i-eductiori. accep:ed during the week, namely Is. to 2s. per sack, a fair ,a'nouat of business occurred in flour, Wheat must be noted 2d. to 3d. per 701bs., and oats ld. per451bs. cheaper whibtoatmeat, "f which there was but little, either old or new, of suitable quality "fferingv told slowly at barely the previous currency.
1Jarí£tics. -—+ USE ok1 THE DAGUERREOTYPE. — Before Trinity College church, Edinburgh, was taken down for railway purposes, every stohe was numbered, and the building was daguerreo- typed, that it may be rebuilt in some other part of the city. TALKING POWEKS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.—It appears that the speeches delivered in the House of Commons from the 23rd of November to the 9th of June last, fill no less than 6,420 columns of lIansard, measuring 1,432 yards, or nearly one mile! CAUSE AND EFFECT.—Mr. Disraeli last week delivered him- self of a speech on the hindrance of public business in Parlia- ment. A verbatim report of it occupied eight columns of a newspaper. Mr. Disraeli unquestionably has succeeded to ad- miration in showing what is the cause of the evil.-Pititch. LORD JOHN RUSSELL AND THE DISSENTERS.—We are enabled to state, that preparations are already making by the Dissenters of the metropolis for organising an effective opposition to the anticipated measure of Government for the endowment of the Irish Roman Catholic clergy. A preliminary meeting is con- vened forr ihis day, and the results of the deliberation will pro- bably ,tppiar.-t-Patriot of Afonday. FoRGFlt!Y.-M.ANCHESTElt, SATUltDkY NI»HT.—F. M'Naugh- ton, who forged the cheque on the Bank of England, purport- ing to be signed by A. and S. Henry and Co., for £ 3,500, and who escaped to Newfoundland, was brought up at the Borough Court thisi morning. A gentleman named Newman, from the office of Mr. Freshfield, solicitor to the Bank of England, at- tended to prosecute, and, at his request, the prisoner was re- manded until Wednesday next, when such evidence will be produced as will warrant a committal of the prisoner. I ITIL. REYNOLDS, M.P. for Dublin, was entertained at a publio dinner (at which Lord Dudley Stuart, M. P., presided) on Sa- turday, at Lovegrove's Hotel, lifackivall. In the course of a few remarks made by Mr. Reynolds, on the Dublin election scrutiny, he announced that it had lasted thirteen weeks at the end of the twelfth week, ninety voters were struck off, the expense on his part being £7,000, while upon the part of his opponents it was probably £ 10,000. Had not the defence been managed" economically, and with great talent, the cost would have been £ 20,000," Well may it be remarked that it is a singular fact in the statistics of elections, that to remove ninety voters it should be necessary,to expend £17,000, when the amount of taxes due by the said voters was not quite £50. 11 THE ASHTON MURDER.—It is believed that the murderers of Bright, the Ashton police constable, have, in company with Mr. Treanor an others, against whom warrants are out, escaped to America, irksome one of the many vessels which sailed from Li- verpoolabot a fortnight ago. This is the more likely, since on the examination of one of these vessels which put back to Liver- pool, ia consequence of stress of weather, Mr. Robert Newton, chief constable of Ashton, found on board and apprehended a na- tional guard" implicated in the Ashton outrage. WELSH EDUCATION.—The committee of council have notified to the Welsh Education Committee their intention to appoint a native of the principality, acquainted with the Welsh tongue, as inspector; to select a number of young men to whom exhi- bitions may be given, enabling them'to enter the training insti- tution at Carmarthen; and further to modify their minutes of December, 1846, so far as to reduce to 1:10 the minimum amount of augmentation of the salary of schoolmasters oifered under those minutes; and, in consideration of the greater cheapness of living, to require that a proportionate salary of E20 only and a house should be provided by the school managers to meet this grant. THE HERO OF THE OCEAN MONARCH.—Punch contains the following bit of naval intelligence" Portsmouth, Sept. 6th.—A notice was this morning received, appointing Frederick Jerome as first class midshipman on board her Majesty's ship the Queen., We hail this fact as a delightful evidence that plebeian merit is not henceforth-as Napier observed—con- demned to wither in the cold shade of aristocracy,' but is to be rated at its own intrinsic greatness. Mr. Jerome will, of course, rise in the scale of promotion as rapidly as the rules of the service will permit. The Queen has already sent him gold for his purse; a few years, and, as post captain, he may wear the precious metal in epaulettes. It is by such fostering care as this, that Britannia makes herself beloved by all her salt- water children." APPREHENSION OF THIRTY CHARTISTS. ASHTON-UNDER- LYNE, SEPTEMBER 5.-0n Wednesday considerable excitement prevailed in this town in consequence of its becoming known that thirty persons connected with the Chartist body had been apprehended in Ashton and its neighbourhood during the pre- vious night. The evidence adduced against sixteen of the number was given by two of the prisoners, William Broad- bent and Thomas Williamson. Broadbent was lieutenant of No. 3 division in the 4th section of the National Guards" for Dukinfield. The prisoners met at his house, and on the night of the murder at Ashton several of his men came according to appointment; those who did not come he went to fetch out of bed. Several of the misguided men so brought into the scrape were prisoners against whom the witness was swearing. In answer to the questions put, witness stated, that it was agreed that they should all rise throughout the country to get the Charter. After they had met, they proceeded towards Dukin- field-hall, armed with pikes and other weapons. Witness then left them and went home. Witness's wife and Williamson spoke to the fact of the prisoners' meeting on the night of the 14th of August, identifying the whole of them excepting two, who were discharged. The whole of the others were committed to Chester for trial on the charge of riot and unlawfully assem- bling, &c. Seven were charged with being accessories to the murder of police-constable Bright, and to be remanded for a week. Richard Sill, charged with conspiracy, was remanded til. Saturday. Thomas Hu:n and William Winter bottom wece committed for conspiracy,
SCCLESTASHCAL ^CTAPS. We have intimated our intention, 6Doe time ago, to make extracts occasionally from thé." Tracts for tfie Million." Yv e begin with GRANTS OF PUBLIC MONEY FOR RELIG»JU«I PURPOSES.— Grunts of public money, iiy behalf of any system of religious opinions, are essentially unjust and mischievous. The truth of this proposition may be easily demoaatrated..for ths sake of clearness let us suppose an example. Take any country with an organised government, where the masses of the people are' divided in opinion on religious subjects. The question arises, —Should this government provide from, the public funds for the religious instruction of the people ? But, by our supposi- tion, the people disagree as to the kind. of instruction tfley ought to receive. Now, in this case, one of two courses must be pursued. Either the government must endow all sects, or it must endow one or more at the expense of the whole number. Ought the first of these courses to be pursued ? Some yery enlightened members of our very enlightened senate seem to be endeavouring to mature such a scheme. But on what principle z, are they to proceed? Will they give an equal amount to the sect of a thousand and to the sect of ten ? This will be manifestly unfair. The larger sect would complain that insignificant* factions were receiving encouragement in teaching error and preaching evil; without which encouragement they would speedily die out for ever. And the smaller communities would be unwilling to assist in enhancing the power and influence of those which they naturally deem already too. strong. What then? Shall the sects be endowed in a ratio propoitioiied to their numerical strength ? Putting aside the difficulty of dis- covering accurately the numerical strength of different religious parties, and of regulating the ever-shifting proportions as the number of each sect may rise or fall, the plain injustice of the plan must be obvious to every intelligent mind. Ought the mere accident of numbers to serve any criterion at all in the matter ? If so, then exalted above every other,—the chief in privilege, honour, and wealth,—Paganism shoul(lfill the throne of the religious world. In short, this plan of paying all sects is one inadmissible. It is a most clumsy expedient,—and that is the highest eulogy that truth will grant it. For its provi- sions are, that all should contribute to a common fund, and then all have their respective contributions (minus sundrv go- vernmental fees) returned to them in the shape of payments0to their religious teachers. Rejecting this truly illtidel, princi- ple of universal endowment, shall the government endow one or more sects at the expense of the whole number? This is the plan most frequently and earnestly advocated. It, therefore, de- mauds a somewhat more minute and penetrating examination. The question now is, Which system of opinions shall be en- dowed?" The ready answer is, That which is true and ri"lit." "And pray, which is thac ?" As many voices as there areOsecti" at once respond, Ours is the true and right." Ours is the true and right." Amidst this Babel of contending claims, how shall a decision be come to ? Shall the head of the Go- vernment (such an one existing) be permitted to make the choice ? But sovereigns and presidents have been known to change their religion as well as other men that is to say, of course, when they have any religion to change. So that their claim to infallibility on this point must be given to the winds. Shall the oftice of selection be confined to the people-or to their representatives ? In that case, a majority of votes must decide; for the people are at variance, and their representatives must only act on their behalf. And then, as the whole com- munity must pay, one of two consequences will necessarily fol- low. Either, the majority must compel the minority to be of the same opinion as themselves, or they must extort an out- ward submission unwillingly rendered. The first is impossible, and the second flagrantly uiij ust.-Ti-ac.g for the Million. 1. I AM A VOLUNTARY—Because it is the very essence of re- ligion to be free and unrestrained in its acts. 2. -Because the only principle in connexion with the support of religion sanc- tioned in the New Testament, is that of free-will offerings; and the Old Testament, even if it sanctioned any other did so in such different circumstances as to deprive any appeal to it of force and. propriety. 3.— Because the spirit of the gospel is a spirit of love, meekness, tender regard for appearances of evil patient ^bearing of wrong, generous surrender of even just claims for the sake of men's souls, and is, therefore, essentially opposed to the spirit of State-churchism, which allows and re- quires Christian sh jpherds, in the name of religion to\vound the feelings and violate the consciences of their flocks 4 — Because the proper ends of civil government do not include and cannot consist with, the civil support of religious opinions and practices. 5.—Because, if the State support religious opinions at all, it must support all religious opinion3, or only some of them. If it support all, it virtually denies the exist- ence and grossly dishonours the claims of truth and if it sup- port only some, it acts unjustly towards the professors of other religious opinions. 6.—Because, on the one hand, the Church of Christ has no power or right to barter away its spiritual free- dom and independence, and yet, on the other hand, if it receive the endowment of the State, it ought to be subject to its control. 7.-Because, as statesmen are, and are likely for some time to be, the civil support of religious opinions is little else than a wise scheme, on their part, to subordinate to their purposes a great power and a great party; and the success of this scheme has been but too clear and complete in the general conduct of the endowed ministers of all churches, when the objects of the governing class and the interests of the governed class are different. 8.-Because a knowledge of our nature and of his- tory teaches that the best way to secure religious progress and improvement is to leave religious principles to the unfettered understandings, wills, and consciences of men whereas, Stata- enjoined creeds and customs present strong obstacles to the correction of what is evil, and the perfection of w-hat is good 9.—Because one of the most effectual ways of keepm* im- proper men out of the Christian ministry is to commit°their support to the free contributions of the people amonr whoin they live and labour.—Tracts for the Million. °
THE ASPECT OF THE TIMES. Two heads are better than one," is a common phrase, but it contains the very essence of the subject which we have been considering in a few hasty and imperfect sketches. If twice the number are twofold wiser than the others, how much more so must a far greater majority be ? When we find men acting as though the converse were true, we can- not expect justice done." Time was when the great mass of the people were only one remove from the brute; the office of dictator was then absolutely necessary; that period has happily passed away, such a mode of dealing with the mul- titude should have ceased when no longer needed. The neglect of reform just at the time when it became apparent has kept our country so long in the background, and given rise to so many abuses. How many old laws are still unrepealed; some of them doubtless were needful at the period they were made, their continuation supposes the people a set of simpletons, and the few who advocate their continuance set themselves up as being wiser than the many. Light has pervaded the common mind. The eyes of the nation are open, to see that things are not as they should be; they have lifted their voice against the corruptions of the age, and surely they speak feelingly. Under all the monstrous grievances which they have to endure to be told that it is not needful to remove them is exceedingly tanta- lising, and calculated to rouse them up to the highest pitch of popular indignation. It is with nations as with individuals—peasants and me- chanics have arrived at a maturity of intelligence—they seem to say, We are now men—let us put away childisn things." Knowledge is progressing—ancient institutions are tottering to their foundation—as well attempt to arrest the sun in his course as to prevent the mighty march of mind, which is like a strong man running a race-vii-es ac- quirit eundo. To frame tyrannical laws for the purpose of stopping the onward movement is not only unnatural but positively wicked. The caste of India has been abolished; some dis- tinguished natives endeavoured to preserve its spirit bv try- ing reform it. The celebrated liaman Itoi, who died ia England some years ago, as well as the great Dwarkanath Tagore, belonged to this class. Any modification of the Vedas for the purpose of combining with Christianity is in- compatible with the gospel, and equally fatal to its vitality and success with Mahommedanisni or Popery. Corrupt systems may be allowed as it were to remain br sufferance for awhile, and connived at by prejudice, which often in spite of reason venerates them on the score of anti- quity; but there is a limit beyond which this state of things cannot be allowed, and judging from the signs of the times which glimmer on the verge of the horison, the period is not very distant when it will be as useless to revive antiquated abuses as to bring the action of galvanism to bear upon the contents of tlie" charnel-house, or to introduce a juabulum mo j the osÜfied veins of. an. Egyptian mummy. Desperate ef