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CALENDAR OF OPERATION'S.—SEPTEMBER.

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CALENDAR OF OPERATION'S.—SEPTEMBER. The harvest of the southern and midland portions of our island being now generally in, the farmer's year may be said to be completed bat his work is never ended no sooner is one harvest finished than he must prepare his ground for another. Plough your fallows for the last time. The end of this month is the period when the cultivator's main crops of wheat must begin to be sown. Plough, your bean and pea, and clover leys, or stubble, for this crop; dress the heavy soils with lime; from fifty to sixty bushels per acre will be a good quantity. Look now to your seed wheat; change your seeds frequently, and, if possible, procure it from a colder, poorer soil than your own, and free from smut and seeds of weeds. Prepare a steep for your seed wheat. There is none better than that made with common salt, so strong as to swim an egg, and the seed may be after- Wards readily dried by rolling it in lime. Sow, however, as soon as you hare steeped; otherwise keep the seed spread thinly over a wooden floor, or it will heat and lose its vege- tative power. This is a very old recipe: John Wor ledge mentions it as a prevention of the smut more than one hun- dred and fifty years since. Dibble all you can: it employs your poorer neighbours and their children, and the saving of seed is nearly equal to the additional expense for labour; you are more certain also of a good plant. A much larger quantity of seed is usually employed than is necessary—an ill practice of much conse- quence, in even a national point of view; for at least one- ninth of the grain grown in England is returned to the Z!1 ground in seed. The largest crops I have known have been from less than half the usual quantity of seed; from one bushel per acre, drilled at foot interval;, I have repeatedly seen five quarters of wheat grown. Supposing that I am correct, and that instead of three bushels, only one and a half bushels is required, the national saving would amount to three weeks' consumption fur the whole kingdom. There are few soils where the dibble or the drill cannot be easily employed. Many farmers reserve all their manure for their wheat. If you follow this system, you must now carry out your compost, and spread it on your land if you need any additional supply, rape-cake powder, at the rate of six or seven hundred per acre, answers very well; bones do also; but gypsum is worthless for this and all other corn crops. Sow your first crops of winter tares early in the month; nnd some farmers mix it with either wheat or rye, or winter barley; but the advantage is questionable. Stock reject the young corn, and cause much waste. Drill a little manure with the seed; there is no crop which repays the farmer petter for any good organic manurehe,may add to it than the voteli; it not only increases the.bulk of the crop, but it pushes it forward, it brings it nearer to the time when feed is scarcest; and if the tares are to be succeeded by turnips, the land will be more ready for them. Plough your winter fallows: lay them up in ridges; that the frost may penetrate, and destroy grub and other vermin. Keep the hoe at work at the late turnip field, if possible, the horse hoe. Look to and clean your poultry houses: feed your geese remember that Michaelmas is at haiid.-O. W., JOHNSON. DALE'S HYBRID.—This turnip has invariably been a favourite in Scotland, as its feeding properties are highly valuable and much appreciated there; I have succeeded with this kind for these last three 'seasons, by sowing them upon stubble after having been scarified so late as the 10th of September; in this case, if they are mixed with tares, they make a much superior spring feed to tares alone, for sheep and lambs, both for quality and quantity, as tares, thus early, are unsafe in many seasons; and the turnip has this advantage over the cole-seed, in being hardier in its early growth, as in the frost they remain green if sown thick with tares and winter barley. In fact, there is nothing to be compared to this mixture for early feed, as the Italian rve-grass is not so convertible for succeeding spring crops, as the farmer has the option with this kind of layers whether he sows them, after the sheepfold, with white corn or root crops.—-John Rivers, Sawbridgeivorth, in the Agricul- tural Gazette. (From the Gardener s Chronicle.) REMEDIES FOR THE PoTATO fact that disease, to a rather alarming extent, has made its appearance in the po- tato crop, induces me to address a few words of advice to those who are in danger of being once more deprived of this valuable, and hitherto profitable e^> lie it It is never too late to make use of the means recommenclecl by me for the prevention of the disease but there is yet time for the adoption of some of those measures which, although ■■insufficient t,) care the disease, after it has attacked the tuber, have, "nevertheless, ia numerous in- stances, prevented its further progress. Last year I advisd, under similar circumstances, the employment of chalk a HI sul- phuric acid; but I do not urge this point now, although 1 found the plan successful, on account of the trouble and expanse. In cases, however, in which the land has been previau ly chalked, m in districts ia whijli chalk abounds, to a greater or less ex- tent in the soil, the employment of a sufficient quantity of dilute acid to neutralise the lime, and thus cause an evolution Of carbonic acid gas, might be adopted with great and certain advantage. In situations, also, where stubble exists in suffi- cient quantity, or whea the crop is small, a fire may be made to windward of the affected plants, to allow of the smoke being brought into direct contact with the leaves or haulm for some houis. This plan has been found successful in those cases in which the disease commences in the haulm, and no doubt can exist of its efficacy; but the operation will have to berepsated several times, or until the progress of the disease appears to be arrested: As, however, for the reasons before given; these plans will not and cannot be generally accepted, we must then resort to other measures, and which I have before proposed, as adjuncts, for the cure of the disease after its manifestation. The modus operandi or rationale of these measures I have en- deavoured to expiain in my work, to which I must refer those who are anxious for informatl m on this point. The adoption of the one or the other, however, must depend upon the fact of whether the disease commence in the haulm, the under-ground stem, or the root—the root proper—distinctions which it is necessary always to bear in mind. If the former be the case it will be sufficient to cut off the whole of the haulm, close to the ground, and then to sprinkle some quicklime over the cut surfaces, leaving the tubers in the ground until the usual pe- riod of digging them up. At the same time, the ground be- tween the row.3 should be turned with a fork, and the operation be repeated several times. As the latter plan, even alone, has been found beneficial, the expense ought not to prevent its adoption. If, however, the under-ground stems have become brown or gangrenous—a fact which can be ascertained by dig- ging up a few roots in different parts of the fielci-the best plan will be to pull up the stems, instead of cutting them down. This can be easily accomplished by placing the feet close to each side of the haulm, and then seizing it with both hands to pull it up, the weight of the body keeping down the potatoes, and stripping them from the stem. Again, if it should be found on examination that the tuber itself is affected, the only resource is, either to dig up the whole crop, if sufficiently ad- vanced towards maturity, or otherwise to raise each plant Separately with a fork, so as to loosen the attachment of the roots to the soil. This plan is, of course, only applicable to those cases in which the disease spreads from below upwards, instead of from above downwards, the more usual mode. It otherwise, it will be necessary to emove the haulm instead of raising the roots. We must be certain, however, that such is the fact, for, as I have endeavoured to point out in another place, the disease may not only commence in the underground stem, the haulm, or the root, but simultaneously in all three parts of the plant. In the latter case it would be necessary to Tiie prevention and treatmcut of disease in the potato and other crops. remove the haulm and to loosen the root at the same time, and as all the sources destined for the supply of nourishment would thus be cut off, no increase of the tuber could take place. No good could arise, therefore, from leaving them in the ground under these circumstances, unless it be to preserve them from the contact of the external air until required for use, a most necessary caution, for there can be no doubt that exposure to the atmosphere hastens the decay and putrefaction of the tubers, when attacked with the disease. Such are the mea- sures which, as it appears to me, are the most desirable to be adopted at the present moment, and I have not hesitated to recommend them, because proof has already been given, both in your own and other journals, of the efficacy of all and each of them, at particular times and under particular circum- stances. The cause of their failure in other instances I would ascribe to the want of attention to the circumstances now de- tailed, for their efficacy must depend, if the above arguments hold good, on the selection of the appropriate remedy, for that particular crop, or the farm, or type of the disease in that par- ticular season, country, or locality. With these remarks I now conclude, by merely expressing a hope that such of your readers as may be induced to adopt any of the above plans, will make the result of the trial public, as it is only by the publication of facts, and the accumulation of evidence, that we can arrive at the truth, or be able to ascertain whether we have it in our power to prevent the rages of this disease in future, for there can be no doubt that it will return again and again, like the epidemics in the animal creation.—J. Parkin, London, August 12. (SAVING THE POTATO CROP.-It has surprised me that it does not appear to have occurred to those who cultivate the potato to act upon the fact that the disease does not appear till the season is well advanced, and till the growth of the tubers has almost ceased. The early variety I have long been in the habit of cultivating for my table has withstood the disease perfectly, and this season the crop has been excellent. This variety ripens early, and I attribute its safety to the crop being- taken up as soon as the leaves begin to colour. At this date (Aug. 9) my crop is housed £ >r the winter. Having heard that the disease or symptoms of it had been observed at no great distance, I thought fit to take up my seedlings which, in more favourable circumstances, I could have wished to have left in the ground till I could have compared their tiro, s of ripenlng. They were selected in their second year, on account of certain qualities which I think a potato should possess, from ,a large number. I have taken up about 40 varieties, and every one has attained what I believe to be its natural size, and they are quite large enough. Had I allowed them to remain in the ground till October, or till their leaves and stems had withered, I do net believe the crop would have been in any degree heavier. Though I cannot affirm it from experience, it seems probable that after the blossoms appear, the tubers cease to advance. Now, if farmers would take up their potatoes the instant they heard the disease reported to be anywhere, or as soon as the tubers attained a sufficient size, the crop might be entirely saved. My early potato that has never been affected, though it is ripe so early, keeps long before it begins to sprout; and its quality is so good that I propose to try it as a field crop for winter and spring consumption; indeed, there seems no doubt about it answering the purpose, and surely it is of great importance to the farmer to have his field cleared in time to prepare it for wheat. I may add that there is no advantage in 'having large potatoes. They are often rotten and open Tn the heart, and there is much waste in cooking them. It is singular how powerful prejudice is found when it resists change, however plainly beneficial. I have known farmers who, when any improvement was proposed, consider trying an experiment a great favour to the proposer. No substitute has yet been ac- cepted for the potato, and no pains taken to induce the people to fix on some other vegetable.-G. S. Mackenzie, Bart.

-. MURDERING BY LAW.

TO WELSH DISSENTERS WHO ADVOCATE…

TO THE REV. D. DAVIES, SWANSEA.

ABERGAVENNY EISTEDDFOD.

THE SPECIAL COMMISSION.