CALENDAR OF OPERATION'S.—SEPTEMBER. The harvest of the southern and midland portions of our island being now generally in, the farmer's year may be said to be completed bat his work is never ended no sooner is one harvest finished than he must prepare his ground for another. Plough your fallows for the last time. The end of this month is the period when the cultivator's main crops of wheat must begin to be sown. Plough, your bean and pea, and clover leys, or stubble, for this crop; dress the heavy soils with lime; from fifty to sixty bushels per acre will be a good quantity. Look now to your seed wheat; change your seeds frequently, and, if possible, procure it from a colder, poorer soil than your own, and free from smut and seeds of weeds. Prepare a steep for your seed wheat. There is none better than that made with common salt, so strong as to swim an egg, and the seed may be after- Wards readily dried by rolling it in lime. Sow, however, as soon as you hare steeped; otherwise keep the seed spread thinly over a wooden floor, or it will heat and lose its vege- tative power. This is a very old recipe: John Wor ledge mentions it as a prevention of the smut more than one hun- dred and fifty years since. Dibble all you can: it employs your poorer neighbours and their children, and the saving of seed is nearly equal to the additional expense for labour; you are more certain also of a good plant. A much larger quantity of seed is usually employed than is necessary—an ill practice of much conse- quence, in even a national point of view; for at least one- ninth of the grain grown in England is returned to the Z!1 ground in seed. The largest crops I have known have been from less than half the usual quantity of seed; from one bushel per acre, drilled at foot interval;, I have repeatedly seen five quarters of wheat grown. Supposing that I am correct, and that instead of three bushels, only one and a half bushels is required, the national saving would amount to three weeks' consumption fur the whole kingdom. There are few soils where the dibble or the drill cannot be easily employed. Many farmers reserve all their manure for their wheat. If you follow this system, you must now carry out your compost, and spread it on your land if you need any additional supply, rape-cake powder, at the rate of six or seven hundred per acre, answers very well; bones do also; but gypsum is worthless for this and all other corn crops. Sow your first crops of winter tares early in the month; nnd some farmers mix it with either wheat or rye, or winter barley; but the advantage is questionable. Stock reject the young corn, and cause much waste. Drill a little manure with the seed; there is no crop which repays the farmer petter for any good organic manurehe,may add to it than the voteli; it not only increases the.bulk of the crop, but it pushes it forward, it brings it nearer to the time when feed is scarcest; and if the tares are to be succeeded by turnips, the land will be more ready for them. Plough your winter fallows: lay them up in ridges; that the frost may penetrate, and destroy grub and other vermin. Keep the hoe at work at the late turnip field, if possible, the horse hoe. Look to and clean your poultry houses: feed your geese remember that Michaelmas is at haiid.-O. W., JOHNSON. DALE'S HYBRID.—This turnip has invariably been a favourite in Scotland, as its feeding properties are highly valuable and much appreciated there; I have succeeded with this kind for these last three 'seasons, by sowing them upon stubble after having been scarified so late as the 10th of September; in this case, if they are mixed with tares, they make a much superior spring feed to tares alone, for sheep and lambs, both for quality and quantity, as tares, thus early, are unsafe in many seasons; and the turnip has this advantage over the cole-seed, in being hardier in its early growth, as in the frost they remain green if sown thick with tares and winter barley. In fact, there is nothing to be compared to this mixture for early feed, as the Italian rve-grass is not so convertible for succeeding spring crops, as the farmer has the option with this kind of layers whether he sows them, after the sheepfold, with white corn or root crops.—-John Rivers, Sawbridgeivorth, in the Agricul- tural Gazette. (From the Gardener s Chronicle.) REMEDIES FOR THE PoTATO fact that disease, to a rather alarming extent, has made its appearance in the po- tato crop, induces me to address a few words of advice to those who are in danger of being once more deprived of this valuable, and hitherto profitable e^> lie it It is never too late to make use of the means recommenclecl by me for the prevention of the disease but there is yet time for the adoption of some of those measures which, although ■■insufficient t,) care the disease, after it has attacked the tuber, have, "nevertheless, ia numerous in- stances, prevented its further progress. Last year I advisd, under similar circumstances, the employment of chalk a HI sul- phuric acid; but I do not urge this point now, although 1 found the plan successful, on account of the trouble and expanse. In cases, however, in which the land has been previau ly chalked, m in districts ia whijli chalk abounds, to a greater or less ex- tent in the soil, the employment of a sufficient quantity of dilute acid to neutralise the lime, and thus cause an evolution Of carbonic acid gas, might be adopted with great and certain advantage. In situations, also, where stubble exists in suffi- cient quantity, or whea the crop is small, a fire may be made to windward of the affected plants, to allow of the smoke being brought into direct contact with the leaves or haulm for some houis. This plan has been found successful in those cases in which the disease commences in the haulm, and no doubt can exist of its efficacy; but the operation will have to berepsated several times, or until the progress of the disease appears to be arrested: As, however, for the reasons before given; these plans will not and cannot be generally accepted, we must then resort to other measures, and which I have before proposed, as adjuncts, for the cure of the disease after its manifestation. The modus operandi or rationale of these measures I have en- deavoured to expiain in my work, to which I must refer those who are anxious for informatl m on this point. The adoption of the one or the other, however, must depend upon the fact of whether the disease commence in the haulm, the under-ground stem, or the root—the root proper—distinctions which it is necessary always to bear in mind. If the former be the case it will be sufficient to cut off the whole of the haulm, close to the ground, and then to sprinkle some quicklime over the cut surfaces, leaving the tubers in the ground until the usual pe- riod of digging them up. At the same time, the ground be- tween the row.3 should be turned with a fork, and the operation be repeated several times. As the latter plan, even alone, has been found beneficial, the expense ought not to prevent its adoption. If, however, the under-ground stems have become brown or gangrenous—a fact which can be ascertained by dig- ging up a few roots in different parts of the fielci-the best plan will be to pull up the stems, instead of cutting them down. This can be easily accomplished by placing the feet close to each side of the haulm, and then seizing it with both hands to pull it up, the weight of the body keeping down the potatoes, and stripping them from the stem. Again, if it should be found on examination that the tuber itself is affected, the only resource is, either to dig up the whole crop, if sufficiently ad- vanced towards maturity, or otherwise to raise each plant Separately with a fork, so as to loosen the attachment of the roots to the soil. This plan is, of course, only applicable to those cases in which the disease spreads from below upwards, instead of from above downwards, the more usual mode. It otherwise, it will be necessary to emove the haulm instead of raising the roots. We must be certain, however, that such is the fact, for, as I have endeavoured to point out in another place, the disease may not only commence in the underground stem, the haulm, or the root, but simultaneously in all three parts of the plant. In the latter case it would be necessary to Tiie prevention and treatmcut of disease in the potato and other crops. remove the haulm and to loosen the root at the same time, and as all the sources destined for the supply of nourishment would thus be cut off, no increase of the tuber could take place. No good could arise, therefore, from leaving them in the ground under these circumstances, unless it be to preserve them from the contact of the external air until required for use, a most necessary caution, for there can be no doubt that exposure to the atmosphere hastens the decay and putrefaction of the tubers, when attacked with the disease. Such are the mea- sures which, as it appears to me, are the most desirable to be adopted at the present moment, and I have not hesitated to recommend them, because proof has already been given, both in your own and other journals, of the efficacy of all and each of them, at particular times and under particular circum- stances. The cause of their failure in other instances I would ascribe to the want of attention to the circumstances now de- tailed, for their efficacy must depend, if the above arguments hold good, on the selection of the appropriate remedy, for that particular crop, or the farm, or type of the disease in that par- ticular season, country, or locality. With these remarks I now conclude, by merely expressing a hope that such of your readers as may be induced to adopt any of the above plans, will make the result of the trial public, as it is only by the publication of facts, and the accumulation of evidence, that we can arrive at the truth, or be able to ascertain whether we have it in our power to prevent the rages of this disease in future, for there can be no doubt that it will return again and again, like the epidemics in the animal creation.—J. Parkin, London, August 12. (SAVING THE POTATO CROP.-It has surprised me that it does not appear to have occurred to those who cultivate the potato to act upon the fact that the disease does not appear till the season is well advanced, and till the growth of the tubers has almost ceased. The early variety I have long been in the habit of cultivating for my table has withstood the disease perfectly, and this season the crop has been excellent. This variety ripens early, and I attribute its safety to the crop being- taken up as soon as the leaves begin to colour. At this date (Aug. 9) my crop is housed £ >r the winter. Having heard that the disease or symptoms of it had been observed at no great distance, I thought fit to take up my seedlings which, in more favourable circumstances, I could have wished to have left in the ground till I could have compared their tiro, s of ripenlng. They were selected in their second year, on account of certain qualities which I think a potato should possess, from ,a large number. I have taken up about 40 varieties, and every one has attained what I believe to be its natural size, and they are quite large enough. Had I allowed them to remain in the ground till October, or till their leaves and stems had withered, I do net believe the crop would have been in any degree heavier. Though I cannot affirm it from experience, it seems probable that after the blossoms appear, the tubers cease to advance. Now, if farmers would take up their potatoes the instant they heard the disease reported to be anywhere, or as soon as the tubers attained a sufficient size, the crop might be entirely saved. My early potato that has never been affected, though it is ripe so early, keeps long before it begins to sprout; and its quality is so good that I propose to try it as a field crop for winter and spring consumption; indeed, there seems no doubt about it answering the purpose, and surely it is of great importance to the farmer to have his field cleared in time to prepare it for wheat. I may add that there is no advantage in 'having large potatoes. They are often rotten and open Tn the heart, and there is much waste in cooking them. It is singular how powerful prejudice is found when it resists change, however plainly beneficial. I have known farmers who, when any improvement was proposed, consider trying an experiment a great favour to the proposer. No substitute has yet been ac- cepted for the potato, and no pains taken to induce the people to fix on some other vegetable.-G. S. Mackenzie, Bart.
MURDERING BY LAW. FOURTH LETTER TO THE YOUTHFUL READERS OF THE PRINCIPALITY. The rod of justice, if suffered to be bent a little, ought not to be warped by the weight of corruption-but by the bowels of mercy.CEKVANTES. M y YOUNG FRIENDS,- With this letter I will close this very brief outline of the criminal jurisprudence of these realms; and I hope, at some future day, ith the permission of Messrs. the conductors of the PRINCIPALITY, to address you on some other topics intimately connected with the advance- ment of national improvement. There was a time when uni- versal ignorance prevailed amongst the people; and when the rich and powerful thought that stringent and cruel laws were the only safeguard to protect persons and property. It was deemed expedient to frame sanguinary laws to keep the serfs in subjection, and to convince them that any disobedi- ence would be visited by the most unrelenting conduct, and the severest punishment. Laws were also made to punish imaginary crimes. James the First, a superstitious zealot, visited with capital punishment a number of those poor wretches who were charged with the sin of witchcraft; and no less than 3,000 suffered death during the Long Parlia- ment, for that species of imaginary evil. It is said of that amazing compound of superstition, religious zeal, and severity, Sir Matthew Hale, who is styled, "A great luminary of the bar," that having condemned some persons to death for the supposed crime of witchcraft, he very zealously and vehe- mently condemned the conduct of those rash innovators called reformers, who advocated the repeal of such a statute and then failing on his knees, "thanked Almighty God for being permitted, as an unworthy instrument in his hands, to uphold one of the best laws enacted by the collective wisdom of our ancestors." Sir Matthew Hale was very probably a good man, but his mind was warped by ,tlie ignorance of the times. In the days of the first Charles, a number of talented men had their ears cut off, under the charge of writing what did not suit the taste of the memorable Star Chamber. And the Second Charles, whose immorality is proverbial, instigated by fawning ecclesiastics, gave all encouragement to tortures, to rack punishments, and death. The great day, that will di- vuige all the secrets of the world, will alone bring to li,llt the benorm ties of that reign. 9 b In the days of Queen Anne, a law was passed, declaring it a capital crime to steal to the amount of forty shillings from a dwelling-house; and the third George sanctioned some very stringent laws, especially one awarding capital punish- ment to all persons destroying machinery, and administering or receiving unlawful oaths. It is reported of George the Third, that he said on one occasion respecting an individual who was convicted of forgery, that either the misguided man or the law should be hanged! Poor George! He thought himself very valiant for truth and uncompromising justice. Why not hang such a law ? What great consequences would have followed the hanging of such a document? My most sincere desire is that all such laws may very soon be hanged up in the British Museum, as objects of astonishment to the curious, and for mementos of the barbarism which once dis- graced our land. But legislators are not to be turned sud- denly to direct their course into the ways of mercy; they are slow in their movements, and even reluctant to cast awav those old enactments that impede social improvements and continually obstruct the efforts of humane and generous, souls in all the attempts made to meliorate the sad condition of our fellow-creatures. This has been abundantly exemplified in the protracted labours of a Howard, Sarah Martin, and Eli- zabeth Fry, who had to devote their time, their talent, and their property, and to labour incessantly, with untiring dili- gence and matchless perseverance, to force upon govern- ments the absolute necessity for legal remedies, and for im- provements in prison discipline. The Eclectic Review makes the following observation on the life and labours of Elizabeth Fry Her brother and herself travelled over the three kingdoms, in- troducing decorum into prisons. We know not a more striking proof of the necessity of her labours in reference to female prisoners and convicts, than the fact, that it was not till 1834 that she suc- ceeded in inducing the government of the (lay to adopt so obvious an improvement as the appointment of matrons for convict ships transporting females. She had much correspondence with Lord Melbourne, and several interviews and discussions, before the Government would consent to substitute matrons for sailors in the care of female convicts. It was a work of twenty years of incessant zeal and labour on the part of a sensible and benevolent lady of the upper classes, before co-iiiiioii. deceacy could be introduced into a convict ship such is the spirit of improvement among oligarchical rxders. We should say not before decency was introduced during the voyage but before there was an attempt made to introduce it. The working of the oligarchical rule in this case was, an attempt to put down horrors -fifteen years after they had been accurately de- scribed, and then the attempt to suppress them was only made, I because the pertinacious lady made their maintenance troublesome. I Iti fact, not the least instructive aspect of the life of this lady is, | that which regards it as an exposure and rebuke to the indifference I Iti fact, not the least instructive aspect of the life of this lady is, | that which regards it as an exposure aud rebuke to the indifference õ- and incapacity of. the governmental officials provided by an oligar- chical system. Undoubtedly, great progress has been made in re- gard to the extension of decorum in prisons and in convict ships but this has been effected not because a Peel, a Russell, a Mel- bourne, or a Grey has been Home Secretary, but because a brother and a sister of the Quaker persuasion, and a few other volunteers, devoted themselves to the task, disinterestedly, judiciously, and perse veringly." Public feeling is now decidedly against all wanton cruelty, and especiallyagaillst capital punishment in any case ex- cepting murder; but many will ask "What is to be done when blood is shed? How shall we dispose of the mur- derer?" These questions are very grave, and should have the profoundest consideration bestowed upon them by the whole population of these realms. I will not speculate now on the results of any other modes of punishment than the ex- treme penalty of the present law; but surely the collective wisdom of the land would very soon devise means by which ihe wretched culprit might be left to feel, in some "solitary cell, the heavy burden of his guilt, and the more heavy and intolerable weight of Divine displeasure. The great designs of punishment should be the prevention of crimes, and the reformation of criminals; then let us not forget that man, in this life, is in a state of probation, and as Christians we should by no means violently cut short the probationary seasoil of the soul. The first duty of the nation is to reform the law; but who will engage to cleanse the augean stable? Who can perform this herculean task ? The prime minister gives it up to the legal profession and the law lords are too deeply enamoured with all legal statutes to part with the smallest iota of the cumbrous stuff. The work must be done by the people; and the people must do it by petitions! All the faithful subjects of these realms have undoubtedly an inalienable and inde- feasible right, founded on the." bill of rights," to petition for any reformation or alteration in the laws by which thev are governed. Then as Churchill sang- Let us, as freemen ought, Examine well the rules and principles of government, How empire first began, and wherefore man Was raised to reign o'er man." One gi-eat obstacle in the way to reform our criminal code, is its bearing o t the poor of the land. The wealthy are ex- empt from many of the temptations which beset the indigent, and that influence many of the children of want.to the com- mission of deeds totally unjustifiable. Dr. Goldsmith most justly observes, that elllll 111 fares the land, to hastening woes a prey, Where wealth accumulates, and men decay." The miseries and the wrongs of the poor are too much dis- regarded they undergo more real hardships, in one year, than the rich in all their lives. These may eat, drink, sleep, have servants to attend them. and are sure of subsistence for life; while many of their fellow-creatures are obliged to wander without a friend to comfort or assist them, find enmity in every law, and are too poor to obtain justice. But Little villains must submit to fate, That great ones may enjoy the world in state." —GARTH. When punishments are very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes to avoid the punishment due to the first. My young friends,—let your foot-print always be found in the paths of virtue and religion; and do all you can to meli- orate the miserable condition of the unfortunate. Your's, &c., CnlRo BACH. [We feel assured our youthful readers will regret that these interesting letters are concluded, and will join with us in the request that their gifted writer will soon again take up his pen for their benefit on some subject congenial to his mind. -ED.]
TO WELSH DISSENTERS WHO ADVOCATE GO- VERNMENT GRANTS FOR EDUCATION. GENTLEMEN,—Your views seem to engage all your feel- ings and powers of activity. You have perfect liberty to be and act as you choose. I feel the same. But as your views are the opposite of mine, and those of all voluntary educa- tionists, and as mine engage all my heart and action, there is some.danger that we may come into collision. Some of your number, consistently, no doubt, aim at no less than thwarting me and my friends, in the very plans and objects in whieh'iwe have einbarked to carry out our principles. It appears then that our differences are such as to prevent both parties acting simultaneously, without some degree of con- flict. Our only alternative appears to be an honourable war. This has commenced already. But, as certain sharp ac- tions have passed, and passed, I presume, satisfactorily; passed in such a way as to bring hidden spirits, who were thought to be planning no creditable projects, "from the vasty deepand passed, too, so as to give wholesome Nor- mal lessons to a few erratic adventurers, who violated the laws of fairness: yet, as complaints have been made on my party, for vinegar and spleen in their defence or attacks, and as such complaints may yet be renewed whenever circum- stances may lead to a fresh engagement (I believe this must the case now, as one of your number has come out Goliath- like), I have thought it expedient to offer a few general re- marks, which may assist each party, not to feel the less friendly ,.towards the other, after the occurrence of any con- flict ill future. The present calm of passions, or armistice, appears to me suitable for my attempt. You, of course, do not expect me to be less zealous in pro- pagating my views. Both you and my party are not ex- pected to turn traitors to their consciences. Generals on both sides will keep a vigilant eye upon every movement. Perhaps strong arguments will be used controversies com- menced, in which every great mind will be open to convic- tion, but in which there will be danger of the passions get- ting on fire, by means of such a mental friction. Gentlemen, you may be aware that a sensitive mind is liable to feel unhappy at being set forth under the aspect of a serious heretic. The simple charge of being in the wrong enkindles it at once. Let such a charge be made 111 the -n, mildest manner, the most courteous style, and by means of the most conclusive reasoning, such a mind, arraigned thus, will feel itself illtreated. Let every one watch his own spirit in such a moment of trial, and he will find matters ap- pearing in quite a different light. Was it natural, I ask, that any ofyola should expect your notions published un- eriticised by our party P At wiiat time had any of us con- signed our individualism to your supremacy ? Did you think that mere purity of motives—your conscientiousness and benevolence—could have screened you ? You know that motives, and the abstract character of an action, are different. Had you gone over to the Establishment, you might have had the best motives. Those who think with me on education differ entirely from you on this question yet you would concede that our motives are as good as yours. Therefore your motives could not prevent our attempt to show the fallacy of your views, and the danger of your schemes. We were conscious of doing this from a zeal, of which we are not ashamed before our Maker.. Pos- sessing such a zeal, you would not expect us to cease to act in deference to your sensibilities without an assumption of authority and superiority on your part, which you would not profess. You had acted. We only did the same. To say that things might have been done better, is a truism. To deny imperfection would be absurd. Not to act at all for fear of it would befit a cloistered monk. There are many who pride themselves upon their evangelism, which means nothing more than stupid indolence, the reverse of the apostoiic canons. They endure no hardness as good soldiers. They are not worhmen that need not be ashamed. lieal Christian action, in the season and circumstances of need, is a better counterbalance to its own imperfection, than the holiness of the mere quietude of latent depravity, to shield a man from the guilt of indolence. You may ask, why do you blame us at all; we left you to act uncriticised P I reply, as voluntaries we had no ano- maly to explain. We carry out our distinctive principles. You could not have blamed us without blaming yourselves. Yea, the conditions of Government grants demand the de- velopment of willinghood, to about double the amounts granted. Thus blame could not be attached to us for put- Z, ting forth the power of our principle. But your exertion to propagate Government education required explanation, to show its consistency with your voluntaryism in religion. Your conduct was sufficient to create uneasiness and asto- nishment, in the present state of things among voluntary -===: Christians, on the question of establishments; when the in- fidel secular liberalism of modern governments make piouss men, even those who have no theoretical objection to the union between Cuureh and State, to declare that the inter- est of religion, whether in education or otherwise, demand their separation when we have been attaining every nerve to oppose the introduction of the sceptical go vernmentaiisra of Prussia, which prohibits Sunday schools and prayer meetings, as being too irregular and republican (See Evan- gelical Christendom for this month); when the patrons of your schemes get furiously liberal, and talk in Parliament of sending British religions over the herring brook out of the way, and justify the endowment of Popery as a system of education when the minutes you hail, imply that Dis- senters must present to Government certificates of" moral character," which, unsophistically, must imply religion, thus connecting Dissent with the State; I say when these and many other things are taken into account, you cannot wonder at the strong feeling' on our side with regard to the part you have adopted. The interests at stake, the almost European mania for a State education, which subjects re- ligion to persecution, amd annihilates the liberty of the sub- I ject, and the coming conflict between the ghost of error and n the angel of truth, render the argument on our side almost too serious for wrath—too alpine to take notice of a few molehills in Wales. The present struggle may be the struggle of centuries. Our actions on either side may not be more than the movement of a grain of sand in a conti- nental earthquake, or in an entire mundane revolution. What is of the greatest importance to us, is the preservation of our moral and religious character unblemished in the conflict. Brethren, at least, let us act conscientiously and keep our souls in patience. Some of you hold high educational positions. The Go- vernment would value your opinions, as an index to those oil the most intelligent class in the community. The retain- ing of such positions whilst professing your views might embolden the Privy Council to entertain hopes of an easy conquest over our liberties. The more uninformed classes might be tempted to believe that such literary men could not mistake on the subject in question. As public servants, therefore, their actions, by being thus doubly formidable, as obstructions to us, became natural subjects of complaint and scrutiny. It was no wonder that the strength of our argu- mentative force was directed against such barricades. There was no necessity for anger in doing this. I believe there will be no more. The explanations which have been pub- lished have done immense good. Let there be nothing but plain honest dealing. No circuitous unmanly cunning, or rather prudential scheming, which folks wouhfcall cunning. If principles are good enough to be believed, they are good enough for profession and unless the majority of the com- munity be adverse, profession will only be a means to spread the principles without any difficulty attending it. Should you say that the people are easily led astray by a few on our side, then I would ask is your prudence a proof that you think the people to be on our side ? Or do you assume that the people should not be led astray under "your influence ? Gentlemen, I shall not insult your honour by supposing that you arrogate to yourselves any superiority in the means by which you have arrived at your conclusions. Of course, you know that we have read abundantly, thought and deli- berated most seriously, as well as you. Indeed, bad you adopted a State religion, in charity, I should have supposed it the result of mature and honest reflection. Gentlemen, I trust you will agree with me that it would be wrong to lead any of our religious organisations to de- z3 clare on one side or the other on the question of education. Some of them were originally intended for spiritual purposes* '1; as rallying points for Methodistical soldiers, before the land was possessed. Now, that being done,, such assemblies are a kind of evangelical alliance meetings, which may be of im- portance to social devotion. As they comprehend persons of various shades of opinions, any resolution which would meet all views on the debateable subjects of political society must be null; and any one for either party must be oppres- sive to the other. Certainly the decision of a whole religiotw body, could it be obtained, by means of any organisation, would be nearly tantamount to a national decision. But there is no assembly in Wales that can represent a whole body. There is a conference in England of such a character. By means of it the Government has managed the whole con- nexion to which it belongs. I prefer an inefficient organi- sation to one that might be so used. There are abundant opportunities to act and organise for any purpose we please, and leave others to answer their own specific purposes. In- deed if one party had a claim to seek the decision of a re- ligious assembly, we hold the title for secular educationists cannot legitimately ask such a favour any more than a com- pany of policemen or physicians. Gentlemen, I trust that we shall combat on friendly terms, and that I have made some remarks which may have some influence in promoting a mutual good understanding, for no doubt we shall act with as much zeal as ever. And though we might ask you to throw all your influence into our end of the scale, to make a fair experiment of the voluntary prin- ciple, before you sought State aid, letung actual, not your own prophetic failure, guide you, tempting us to think that you love grants and anything Governmental for their own sakes, for by thus waiting' the proof oc our principle, you would not be compromising your views; yet I shall not press this, lest you should think me inclined to infringe upon your liberty. I hope that all our efforts shall be put forth by feelings and tempers which will bear scrutinywhCll the Great Teacher will appear in the last assize. I am, gentlemen, Yours truly, Haverfordwest, Aug. 26, 1848. E. DATIES.
TO THE REV. D. DAVIES, SWANSEA. My DEAR Sirt,-Tl,.at the meaning of your letter may be clearly understood, will you favour me at your convenience with replies to the following qiestions '-W',Ii,,it is the ulti- mate design of education ? What have been the results of a purely secular education ? What has Sabbath school teach- ing effected, in your experience ? What are the objections you would urge against receiving Government assistance for religious purposes <:> I am, my dear Sir, yours very truly, A MEMBER OF THE SWANSEA COMMITTEE. I have given my name to the Editor, if you may at any time wish it.
ABERGAVENNY EISTEDDFOD. TO THE EDITOlt OF THE PRINCIPALITY. DEAR SIR,—Having seen the Abergavenny Eisteddfod n cl advertised in your paper, I thought that the following obser- vations had better appear in the same medium. All must allow that an Eisteddfod had never existed but for the Welsh bards. The a/Denis the very soul of it, all else is quite subordinate; the chief attent'on, therefore, should be paid to the sons of the muse; but for some years now they have been almost quite neglected, and the patron- age to which they are undoubtedly entitled has been trans- ferred to others far less deserving, and even to some who have no claim at all; the latter are Welshmen it is true, but they are as ignorant of their mother tongue as many, a. cockney is of English grammar. ,v, Poetry being the palladium of the Cymreigyddion society, common sense teaches us the exact niche it should occupy, as well as the attention it ought to command. I would not z, wish to say anything in disparagement of music, provided it be Welsh, but certainly poets must be superior to singers, for music is the handmaid of poetry, and deserves to be treated according to her station, not like her mistress. It is unjust and inconsistent enough to reward a dudgeiniad mom liberally than a bard, but how much more an English singer. I know it for a fact that at the great Eisteddfod held in your town in 1834, upwards of £ 900 was paid to Braliam* and Co., for singing, whilst the poor Welsh bards who walked two hundred miles from North Wales, did not receive a single penny! If tiiis is the manner in which our modern Eisteddfodatt are conducted, let them no longer be called by such a mis- nomer, but let them be called English concerts. I witnessed myself at Abergavenny a member of the committee of management actually prevent a Welsh bard wi-tlt frctiii t a defod Jieirddynys Mrydain to enter the hall of the Cymreigyddion it mattered not that he was capable of
appear that even the poor triumph of a single conviction won by the law officers of the crown, may, after all, be changed into a victory for John Martin. It has been deter- mined by his counsel to bring the judgment in his case be- fore the final decision to the House of Lords, by means of a writ of error, and thus to give Lord Denman a second op- portunity of pronouncing an opinion on trial by jury in Ireland. The point raised is a very ingenious one. After the peremptory challenges of Martin to the jury had been ex- hausted, a juror named Duff; about to be sworn, was ob- jected to by Mr. Butt, on the grounds, that being a burgess of the city of Dublin, and, by the operation of an old charter, the prisoner's property, if convicted, being vested in the corporation, he (Mr. Duff) could not stand as a juror fairly and disinterestedly to try said prisoner. Counsel for the crown opposed this plea, and the court ruled in favour of the Attorney-General.