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-within, the cells of a particular region of the unther, by the formation of membrane around the cell-contents, which are slightly retracted from the wall of the parent cell. These pa- reiit cells are then filled with yellow granular matter and nu- sleus. Then the tissue which encloses them is dissolved, and they are set free. After this the nucleus and the yellow con- 'tents gradually disappear, until the cell is left filled with a colourless fluid containing minute black granules. The next phenomena is the formation of septa, dividing the parent cell into four chambers. In these chambers four cells are formed in the same way as the parent cell had been formed by the sec- tion of a membrane on the circumference-of the contents which have previously become yellow, dense, and granular, and slightly retracted from the cell walls. These four cells, the pollen "cells, sometimes exhibit mulli before they separate from ,each other by the solution of the parent cell, sometimes not. The above facts go to prove that free cell formation is not ef- fected by cytoblasts, according to Schleiden's views, and also that Hofmeister was mistaken in his recent paper on the deve- lopment of pollen, in which he states that the number exist before the septa is produced. Dr. Lankester made some remarks on vegetable monstrosi- ties. After drawing attention to the fact that all the parts are modifications either of the stem or leaves, he exhibited speci- mens and drawings of several plants confirmatory of this fact. S. A course of the common furze, in which the spinous leaves -were converted into broad expanded leaves. 2. Specimens of two species of plantain, in which the bracts of the vare of the flowers were converted into leaves. 3. Specimens of the com- mon radish, in which the stems, petals, and sepals, were con- verted into leaves. 4. A specimen of common goats beard, in which the papyrus and florets were converted into leaves. 5. The capsule of a poppy, from the interior of which pro- jected four leaves partly converted into a capsule. 6. Goose- berries, in which the fruit bore upon its surface small bract or dleaves. The author believed that the production of this ten- aency on the part of the more highly developed parts on the txis of the plant into its lower forms depended on overnlltri- ion, produced by -cultivation or the attacks of insects. In cases of under nutrition there was a tendency to develope the stem or formless masses of tissue, as seen in various forms of vegetable excrescencies. THE EXCURSIONS. On Saturday morning at eight o'clock a numerous party of members proceeded from Swansea to visit the caves and cliffs of Gower. r T One section of the excursionists tempted the dangers of the deep, by making a sailing excursion along the wastes of Gower; examining the various points of interest which present them- selves on every part of the coast-and penetrating even so far as the Worm's Head. Another party moved for a land excur- sion into the country of the Flemings, examining in the route z, the caves so justly celebrated at Paviland and elsewhere. Both parties-returned to Swansea at an early hour in the evening. At the same honir, another numerous party, amounting to some hundreds of members, made an excursion up the Swansea Valley. The party proceeded in,vehicles, good, bad, and indif- ferent, up to Pontardawy, where a separation took place one 'party visiting Cerrig Cennen Castle through Cwmaman, .whilst the other proceeded to Ystrad Lyfera, where they examined the ironworks of J. P. Budd, Esq., and from there to the Lamb and Flag, where, we believe, something in the shape of dinner was provided for those who first arrived at the place. As we had attached ourselves to this party, a few details of its numerous adventures may not prove uninteresting. Well then, we left Swansea at eight o'clock, and proceeded through Trefonis up te Pontardawy without much fatigue and inconvenience. The weather was very propitious, and the country looked beautiful. The Towy. slowly rolled itself down towards the deep blue sea through a variety of serpentine windings. Along the vale also ran the canal, w-hich gave it a very picturesque appearance on many parts of the line. The narrow dales—the numerous plantations on the hill sides—the purling streams from the mountain's eye-the rugged cliff gazing through the thick woods—the bald top of the steep mountain above its woody and grassy covers—the narrow winding paths along its side-the numerous cottages by the road side, and on the brow of the hill, beautified by the white lime of Wales—the smiling flowers in the neat and well ar- ranged gardens before them—were all objects adapted to at- tract the attention and command the admiration of every indi- vidual who had an eye to see nature and a heart to feel its beauties. The natives were fairly astonished. The reaper left Ins sic- kle, the quarryman his hammer, the shoemaker his bench, the smith his anvil, and the housewife her duties, to witness the imposing cavalcade of she sons of science. By gates and by stiles, from rocks and from hedges, from windows and from doors, every effort was made to witness the monster excursion, and the wild -guesses made as to its occasion were neither few nor far between. We dare say their wildness would have amply satisfied the wild Mr. Symons. After proceeding for some time we reached Ysfradlyfera iron works. The party was cordially invited by J. Palmer Budd, Esq., to partake of refreshments. Mr. Budd's house is situ- ated opposite to Taran yr wycldon, from which there are evi- dent indications of an enormous landslip having taken place some long ages ago, and which, according to an old tradition, altered the course of the river, whereby the boundaries of dif- ferent estates have been altered. The party proceeded with Mr. Palmer Budd to visit his iron works, where in the first instance they witnessed the process of tapping or casting. The metal ran beautifully in its liquid state, much to the admira- tion, if not the comfort, of the party present. They were then conducted to examine the blast engine, the operations of which were very lucidly explained by Mr. Budd. He next led the company to inspect his furnaces, and said .that they were all Ile built in one block instead of being detached as usual, whereby a great saving was effected. He then explained the properties of anthracite coal which was used in the furnaces. As it con- tains no bitumen at all, and its per centage of hydrogen being from one to three, the difficulty connected with its use is the production of sufficient blast, as the coal forms such a dense mass. Nature has produced in it purer carbon than the high- est coking process could do. The coal is put into the furnace as large as possible. When it comes out it has lost none of its brightness, and may be used again. Several specimens were then shown of coal that had past through the furnace, which on being broken looked as bright as ever. As it is so dense, the difficulty to blow against in producing blast is formidable. The engine must blow at an unusual pressure in order to work against this obstacle. Otherwise there is no difference between the anthracite coal and coke if sufficient blast is found. Mr. Budd then proceeded to explain his mode of making advanta- geous use of the gaseous escape from the furnaces. Several attempts have been made to remedy this waste, but they were generally of such a nature as to require that the furnace.should cease operation in case of any derangement. In other instances a kind of a gasometer was formed at the top of the furnace, whence the gas was conveyed through pipes in order to be pu- rifiecl all, burned. He had adopted an intermediate course. He found that the temperature of the vapour at two, feel; above the mouth of the furnace was 1,8.0,0 degrees. N.ow, he only wanted 600 degrees. The mere passing of that vapour would be quite sufficient .to communicate that temperature to the blast. The result has-been beyond his (Mr. Budd's) expecta- tion^ as he did not require above one-sixth of the gas that es- caped Another result has been that the cast iron tubes through which this gas is conveyed are almost converted into wrought iron by the chemical action of the gases. The stoves erected three years and nine months ago may remain in repair for an unlimited period. Nothing at all can destroy the appa- ratus. He had never had an apparatus, before which lasted unimpaiied for twelve months. But in this, case the process of decarbonisation renders the pipes as firm as wrought iron. To carry this into effect, Mr..Budd explains that he only wanted four small horizontal flues about twelve inches in diameter, and about three feet below the top of the furnace, and which lead to an adjoining stove, provided with a slack which marked the draught. The stove is always full of vapour, so that the (lainper nii,t be kept down. Necessity had thus led him to a plan in which he saved about thirty-five tons a week of coal, lie calculated that his saving on the furnaces would be £ 800 a year. The outlay at first will be only two-thirds of what it would be under the old plan, and his saving on each furnace lie-expected- would be £ 250. By an outlay of £ 40 be had been enabled to construct a flue to convey some of the remaining portion of the gas to heat his boilers. One of these is now heated: without lire, and does double tlje duty of a boiler heated on-that'plan. He saves by this in cqal about £ 3.00 a year, and by adopting the same principle with regard to the other fur- naces he expects to save £ 2,000 a year. After taking as much as he requires for the stove and the boiler, he has still more Than one half of it running into waste. Mr. Budd then en-, til?d into further calculations similar to those contained in his paper, whioh we have inserted in iast week's paper, The boiler heated by gas was then exhibited. It was beautifully heated at a distance cf 120 feet from the furnace. The party then proceeded to visit the mining works close by. Having made a long stay some of them found to their cost that their vehicles had proceeded without them. They at length reached the Lamb and Flag, Cwin Tawy, many of them, alas but to witness the remains not of a former world, but of a for- mer dinner. The disappearance of mutto.i, fowls, and pastry syas supposed to have taken place through the agency of a ce- 1 ebrated geological dean who had arrived at an early hour, with a party of destructives, and had done ample justice to the viands. After dinner the party was further divided into three com- panies—the first proceeded to the waterfalls—the second to the fossil tree, which is found in the neighbourhood-and the third to the coal works of Abercrave. Some of the last party did not seem over pleased with their enterprise, but having proceeded to the furthest., point ourselves, we can bear testi- mony that there was nothing wanting but determination to enjoy this trip to th'e deep subterranean regions. The ladies we were told lost courage after proceeding; about half a mile. The inclined plane completely frightened them, and their de- sire to return to sunlight was strongly announced in a series of musical sounds, which when uttered by the other sex are called screams. Some of the gentlemen also had to cultivate close acquaintance with the ground in ascending and descend- ing the plane, whilst almost all became more or less proficient in bumpology. Soap and water were in great request on our return from the land of the fairies, and as soon as possible all made the best of their way towards Swansea, which place they reached about nine in the evening. An excursion was also made to the Penllergare grounds, the seat of J. Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq., where preparations on an extensive scale had been made to receive the likembers of the British Association. A large party, including Professor Wheat- stone, Professor LyonPlayfair, Professor Grove, T. W. Booker, Esq., and the Bishop of St. David's, proceeded to the upper lake on Penllergare grounds, to witness the sailing of a boat propelled by an electro-motive force, the ll1VentlOL\ and con- struction of which are due to J. D. Llewelyn, Esq., (the host of this scientific party,) and our talented countryman Mr. Hill. The large body of visitors who witnessed this ingenious con- trivance expressed the greatest satisfaction at the result of this trial of electro-motive power. A splendid entertainment, to which the whole of the numerous assemblages were invited by Mr. Llewelyn, concluded the proceedings of the day. Another party, consisting of Lord Wrottesley, Sir Philip Egerton, Sir Henry De la Beche, Professor Owen, Professor Forbes, Dr. Carpenter, Mr. Bowerbank, Lieut. Spratt, and Mr. Jeffreys went out with Mr. M'Andrew in his yacht, the Os- prey, on a dredging expedition in the Channel. Many ani- mals, and among them the beautiful velella limbosa, were thus collected alive for exhibition at the sectional meeting of the zoological department on Monday.

MONDAY.

,'"FRIDAY.

SECTION G.~-MECHANICS.

TUESDAY.

SECTION F.—STATISTICS.—EDUCATION…