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-within, the cells of a particular region of the unther, by the formation of membrane around the cell-contents, which are slightly retracted from the wall of the parent cell. These pa- reiit cells are then filled with yellow granular matter and nu- sleus. Then the tissue which encloses them is dissolved, and they are set free. After this the nucleus and the yellow con- 'tents gradually disappear, until the cell is left filled with a colourless fluid containing minute black granules. The next phenomena is the formation of septa, dividing the parent cell into four chambers. In these chambers four cells are formed in the same way as the parent cell had been formed by the sec- tion of a membrane on the circumference-of the contents which have previously become yellow, dense, and granular, and slightly retracted from the cell walls. These four cells, the pollen "cells, sometimes exhibit mulli before they separate from ,each other by the solution of the parent cell, sometimes not. The above facts go to prove that free cell formation is not ef- fected by cytoblasts, according to Schleiden's views, and also that Hofmeister was mistaken in his recent paper on the deve- lopment of pollen, in which he states that the number exist before the septa is produced. Dr. Lankester made some remarks on vegetable monstrosi- ties. After drawing attention to the fact that all the parts are modifications either of the stem or leaves, he exhibited speci- mens and drawings of several plants confirmatory of this fact. S. A course of the common furze, in which the spinous leaves -were converted into broad expanded leaves. 2. Specimens of two species of plantain, in which the bracts of the vare of the flowers were converted into leaves. 3. Specimens of the com- mon radish, in which the stems, petals, and sepals, were con- verted into leaves. 4. A specimen of common goats beard, in which the papyrus and florets were converted into leaves. 5. The capsule of a poppy, from the interior of which pro- jected four leaves partly converted into a capsule. 6. Goose- berries, in which the fruit bore upon its surface small bract or dleaves. The author believed that the production of this ten- aency on the part of the more highly developed parts on the txis of the plant into its lower forms depended on overnlltri- ion, produced by -cultivation or the attacks of insects. In cases of under nutrition there was a tendency to develope the stem or formless masses of tissue, as seen in various forms of vegetable excrescencies. THE EXCURSIONS. On Saturday morning at eight o'clock a numerous party of members proceeded from Swansea to visit the caves and cliffs of Gower. r T One section of the excursionists tempted the dangers of the deep, by making a sailing excursion along the wastes of Gower; examining the various points of interest which present them- selves on every part of the coast-and penetrating even so far as the Worm's Head. Another party moved for a land excur- sion into the country of the Flemings, examining in the route z, the caves so justly celebrated at Paviland and elsewhere. Both parties-returned to Swansea at an early hour in the evening. At the same honir, another numerous party, amounting to some hundreds of members, made an excursion up the Swansea Valley. The party proceeded in,vehicles, good, bad, and indif- ferent, up to Pontardawy, where a separation took place one 'party visiting Cerrig Cennen Castle through Cwmaman, .whilst the other proceeded to Ystrad Lyfera, where they examined the ironworks of J. P. Budd, Esq., and from there to the Lamb and Flag, where, we believe, something in the shape of dinner was provided for those who first arrived at the place. As we had attached ourselves to this party, a few details of its numerous adventures may not prove uninteresting. Well then, we left Swansea at eight o'clock, and proceeded through Trefonis up te Pontardawy without much fatigue and inconvenience. The weather was very propitious, and the country looked beautiful. The Towy. slowly rolled itself down towards the deep blue sea through a variety of serpentine windings. Along the vale also ran the canal, w-hich gave it a very picturesque appearance on many parts of the line. The narrow dales—the numerous plantations on the hill sides—the purling streams from the mountain's eye-the rugged cliff gazing through the thick woods—the bald top of the steep mountain above its woody and grassy covers—the narrow winding paths along its side-the numerous cottages by the road side, and on the brow of the hill, beautified by the white lime of Wales—the smiling flowers in the neat and well ar- ranged gardens before them—were all objects adapted to at- tract the attention and command the admiration of every indi- vidual who had an eye to see nature and a heart to feel its beauties. The natives were fairly astonished. The reaper left Ins sic- kle, the quarryman his hammer, the shoemaker his bench, the smith his anvil, and the housewife her duties, to witness the imposing cavalcade of she sons of science. By gates and by stiles, from rocks and from hedges, from windows and from doors, every effort was made to witness the monster excursion, and the wild -guesses made as to its occasion were neither few nor far between. We dare say their wildness would have amply satisfied the wild Mr. Symons. After proceeding for some time we reached Ysfradlyfera iron works. The party was cordially invited by J. Palmer Budd, Esq., to partake of refreshments. Mr. Budd's house is situ- ated opposite to Taran yr wycldon, from which there are evi- dent indications of an enormous landslip having taken place some long ages ago, and which, according to an old tradition, altered the course of the river, whereby the boundaries of dif- ferent estates have been altered. The party proceeded with Mr. Palmer Budd to visit his iron works, where in the first instance they witnessed the process of tapping or casting. The metal ran beautifully in its liquid state, much to the admira- tion, if not the comfort, of the party present. They were then conducted to examine the blast engine, the operations of which were very lucidly explained by Mr. Budd. He next led the company to inspect his furnaces, and said .that they were all Ile built in one block instead of being detached as usual, whereby a great saving was effected. He then explained the properties of anthracite coal which was used in the furnaces. As it con- tains no bitumen at all, and its per centage of hydrogen being from one to three, the difficulty connected with its use is the production of sufficient blast, as the coal forms such a dense mass. Nature has produced in it purer carbon than the high- est coking process could do. The coal is put into the furnace as large as possible. When it comes out it has lost none of its brightness, and may be used again. Several specimens were then shown of coal that had past through the furnace, which on being broken looked as bright as ever. As it is so dense, the difficulty to blow against in producing blast is formidable. The engine must blow at an unusual pressure in order to work against this obstacle. Otherwise there is no difference between the anthracite coal and coke if sufficient blast is found. Mr. Budd then proceeded to explain his mode of making advanta- geous use of the gaseous escape from the furnaces. Several attempts have been made to remedy this waste, but they were generally of such a nature as to require that the furnace.should cease operation in case of any derangement. In other instances a kind of a gasometer was formed at the top of the furnace, whence the gas was conveyed through pipes in order to be pu- rifiecl all, burned. He had adopted an intermediate course. He found that the temperature of the vapour at two, feel; above the mouth of the furnace was 1,8.0,0 degrees. N.ow, he only wanted 600 degrees. The mere passing of that vapour would be quite sufficient .to communicate that temperature to the blast. The result has-been beyond his (Mr. Budd's) expecta- tion^ as he did not require above one-sixth of the gas that es- caped Another result has been that the cast iron tubes through which this gas is conveyed are almost converted into wrought iron by the chemical action of the gases. The stoves erected three years and nine months ago may remain in repair for an unlimited period. Nothing at all can destroy the appa- ratus. He had never had an apparatus, before which lasted unimpaiied for twelve months. But in this, case the process of decarbonisation renders the pipes as firm as wrought iron. To carry this into effect, Mr..Budd explains that he only wanted four small horizontal flues about twelve inches in diameter, and about three feet below the top of the furnace, and which lead to an adjoining stove, provided with a slack which marked the draught. The stove is always full of vapour, so that the (lainper nii,t be kept down. Necessity had thus led him to a plan in which he saved about thirty-five tons a week of coal, lie calculated that his saving on the furnaces would be £ 800 a year. The outlay at first will be only two-thirds of what it would be under the old plan, and his saving on each furnace lie-expected- would be £ 250. By an outlay of £ 40 be had been enabled to construct a flue to convey some of the remaining portion of the gas to heat his boilers. One of these is now heated: without lire, and does double tlje duty of a boiler heated on-that'plan. He saves by this in cqal about £ 3.00 a year, and by adopting the same principle with regard to the other fur- naces he expects to save £ 2,000 a year. After taking as much as he requires for the stove and the boiler, he has still more Than one half of it running into waste. Mr. Budd then en-, til?d into further calculations similar to those contained in his paper, whioh we have inserted in iast week's paper, The boiler heated by gas was then exhibited. It was beautifully heated at a distance cf 120 feet from the furnace. The party then proceeded to visit the mining works close by. Having made a long stay some of them found to their cost that their vehicles had proceeded without them. They at length reached the Lamb and Flag, Cwin Tawy, many of them, alas but to witness the remains not of a former world, but of a for- mer dinner. The disappearance of mutto.i, fowls, and pastry syas supposed to have taken place through the agency of a ce- 1 ebrated geological dean who had arrived at an early hour, with a party of destructives, and had done ample justice to the viands. After dinner the party was further divided into three com- panies—the first proceeded to the waterfalls—the second to the fossil tree, which is found in the neighbourhood-and the third to the coal works of Abercrave. Some of the last party did not seem over pleased with their enterprise, but having proceeded to the furthest., point ourselves, we can bear testi- mony that there was nothing wanting but determination to enjoy this trip to th'e deep subterranean regions. The ladies we were told lost courage after proceeding; about half a mile. The inclined plane completely frightened them, and their de- sire to return to sunlight was strongly announced in a series of musical sounds, which when uttered by the other sex are called screams. Some of the gentlemen also had to cultivate close acquaintance with the ground in ascending and descend- ing the plane, whilst almost all became more or less proficient in bumpology. Soap and water were in great request on our return from the land of the fairies, and as soon as possible all made the best of their way towards Swansea, which place they reached about nine in the evening. An excursion was also made to the Penllergare grounds, the seat of J. Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq., where preparations on an extensive scale had been made to receive the likembers of the British Association. A large party, including Professor Wheat- stone, Professor LyonPlayfair, Professor Grove, T. W. Booker, Esq., and the Bishop of St. David's, proceeded to the upper lake on Penllergare grounds, to witness the sailing of a boat propelled by an electro-motive force, the ll1VentlOL\ and con- struction of which are due to J. D. Llewelyn, Esq., (the host of this scientific party,) and our talented countryman Mr. Hill. The large body of visitors who witnessed this ingenious con- trivance expressed the greatest satisfaction at the result of this trial of electro-motive power. A splendid entertainment, to which the whole of the numerous assemblages were invited by Mr. Llewelyn, concluded the proceedings of the day. Another party, consisting of Lord Wrottesley, Sir Philip Egerton, Sir Henry De la Beche, Professor Owen, Professor Forbes, Dr. Carpenter, Mr. Bowerbank, Lieut. Spratt, and Mr. Jeffreys went out with Mr. M'Andrew in his yacht, the Os- prey, on a dredging expedition in the Channel. Many ani- mals, and among them the beautiful velella limbosa, were thus collected alive for exhibition at the sectional meeting of the zoological department on Monday.
MONDAY. SECTION C. Professor E. Forbes read a paper on some cystidane disco- vered since the last meeting. Since the last meeting the researches of the Geological Sur- vey of North Wales have brought to light additional species of cystideans, which extend the numbers of species and also of genera described at the Oxford meeting. Among them is a British species, of the genus agalacrinites of Vanuxen, of which the original example was discovered by Dr. Bigs in Canada. These and the pruii eystites, a new fossil discovered at Dudley by Mr. Fletcher, go to show that cystidae of different stages in the Silurian system existed some with arms, some without, and to support the view advanced by the author in zoological position to be crenoids, but really inferior, supplying the link between them and higher echinodernis. SECTION D.—GEOLOGY. Mr. G. W. Ormerod, M-A V.G.S., read a paper on the drainage of a portion of Chat Moss.' Chat Moss is traversed on the north- ern portion by the Liverpool and Manchester railway. The coal field of South Lancashire rises therefrom, "the four foot coal," cropping out in Tyldesley Moss to the north of Chat Moss. Tyldesley Moss, and the neighbouring Moss, the Blackmoor, both probably once portions of Chat Moss, are now re-drained. The thickness of the Moss was shown to be variable. Chat Moss, in the township of Astley, was shown to be traversed by two lines of drift mart, ranging from N.W. to S.E. The height of the bottom of the Moss was stated to be in a line from N. toS., 73 feet, 74 feet, 58 feet, and 8o feet above, and at least 100 feet below, sea level. The portion of Moss which was in the course of drairr- ing under Mr. Ormerod's superintendence, was situated in the township of Astley, the property of Col. and Mrs. Ross. The surface had sunk various depths, according to the facility of taking off the water. On the south boundary the surface had sunk per- pendicularly in the last nine months two feet six inches. By the main leader it had, in the same period, sunk perpendicularly five feet six inches. In one soft part of the Moss the perpendicular height had sunk two feet six inches in the course of one week. At the conclusion of the lecture, Dr. Buckland (the Dean of Westminster) favoured the meeting with a few observations on the importance of the subject, as it went to the whole question of draining, which was of the most vital importance, as it affected the production of food, more especially in reference to the drainage of the vast bogs of Ireland. The great error to be avoided on this subject was that of excessive speculatlon- of incurring a greater cost than could readily be repaid by the produce. The President next offered some observations on the subject. Professor A. C. Ramsay then proceeded with his discourse On the submergence of ancient land in Wales the accumu- lation of new strata around and above it; and the reappearance of the same land by denudation and elevation." In this paper Professor Ramsay first laid down certain es- tablished geological porpositions on which much of the reasoning in the communication hinged. When a stratum rests unconformably on the upturned edges of another series of strata, the lower.rocks were denuded, either pre- vious to, or during the, deposition of the higher strata, and we know of no power at any considerable depth beneath the level of the sea fitted to effect such phenomena, which therefore take place either above or at ita surface. In the district described (near Builth, in Breconshire), the Wenlock shale rests unconformably on the Llandilo flags, which there consist of black slates associated with beds of trap and vol- canic ashes. These rocks having been disturbed and raised above the level of the sea, found the land round which the lowest beds of the unconformable Wenlock shale was deposited, and gradually sinking, beneath the level of the sea, was covered up by higher Silurian strata, which accumulated above it to the vertical thick- ness of 5,000 feet. A part of the old red sandstone was added to this, and during subsequent oscillations of level, these higher rocks (beneath which the old land had been so long and deep buried), were removed, and the Llandilo flags of the district are now land for the second time.
FRIDAY. Mr. Benson read A short description of the relative posi- tion of the various qualities of coal in the South Wales coal field." The varieties of coal found in the mineral basin of South Wales may be divided under three characters:— 1. The bituminous—che small of which will coke. 2. The free-burriiiig-the small of which will not coke but which burns with great rapidity and a considerable volume of flame. 11 3. The anthracite, or stone coal. But these three principal characters of the coals of South Wales are not distinctly marked in their extent or limits as in the same vein of coal there is often a gradual change from the bituminous to the free-burning so between the free-burning and stone coal, on the north side of the basin is a considerable extent of culms, which, losing the free-burning quality of emit- ting flame, are still without the value and the proportions of carbon of the true stone coal. The accompanying map has been coloured merely with the view of illustrating the position and extent of each quality of coal, as likely, to be .interesting to non-resident members of the Association. In a district of the extent of the Welsh coal field, where faults and anuclinal lines have, materially shifted poitions of ¡. veins from their original positions, and of which so large a por- tion is yet unworked, it would be impossible to describe exactly the quantity of each vein of coal. I, therefore, produce the map as affording only a general out- line of, at the same tinie I believe- the description to be suffi- ciently accurate for the object desired. Yellovy describes the bituminous coal; and, as a general prin- ciple, the coal may be described as highly bituminous on the south, ci,op, gradually becoming less so, as the veins approach the north. Thus in the five feet vein which has been exten- sively forked in the neighbourhood of Swansea, .911 the south side the vein was highly bituminous, and on the north rise 'free-burning within a distance of two miles. As the yellow mixes with the pink, so the coals;: gradually lose the quality of coking in close ovens, Many of these coals' are very strong, well adapted, perhaps better adapted than the illorp, bituminous, for smelting purposes; and in the neighbourhood of Merthyr, form the chief supply for the blast furnaces, in which they are either used raw, or the large only is coked, in the open air, for use. The pink describes the purer sorts of free-burning coal, which are. less adapted for smelting purposes than when containing some portion of the bituminous quality. The large of thes" coals is preferred for marine steam engines from its readiness ol combustion, and the absence of clinkers in the grate. Until this map was coloured, my attention was not drawn to the exact line through the basin in which the free-burning coal, admitted, to Government,contracts, viz., Llangennech, Oame- •ron's, Graigola, Brvndowy,. Ltesolven, and Aberdare, are placed. North of the free-burning coal, the pink merging into .brown, shows the position of 't, arious culms, before we arrive at the stone-coal; whilst the last, which-commences near Hirwain, but does not appear to attain the quality of true anthracite il until it approaches the Neath Valley, is represented by the darker brown. In Peihbrokeshire, the remaining portion of coal would ap- pear to consist entirely of anthracite and culms. The absence of yellow and pink in that district attracts attention to the pro- bable destruction of a large portion of the coal measures towards the south-west. On a general estimate the coal held between Pontypool on the east, and Kidwelly, where both crops merge in the sea, would form an area of 750 square miles, of which the propor- tions would appear to be-coking coal, smelting coal, and free coal, 11*15; culm, 2*15; stone coal, 2*15 exclusive of the Pem- brokeshire portion of the coal-field. The remainder of the paper referred to the direction of the coal, and the nature of that found on the north crop of Killy- bebill. After describing the quality of the coal in the South Wales measures, Mr. B. concluded by stating that he ven- tured to make these suggestions with the hope that they would lead to the discovery of a true solution of the cause. Another communication was read by Mr. Benson, On a boulder of cannel coal found in a vein of common bituminous coal. About ten years since, Mr. Logan noticed the frequent coal and iron-stone conglomerates occurring in the sandstones of Town- hill, near Swansea. His attention was first awakened to the sub- ject from the discovery of an undoubted boulder of cannel coal above the seam of common bituminous coal, called the five-foot rock vein, at Penclawdd. The series of coal measures included in the Pennant rocks are easily traceable throughout the South Wales coal-field, from the greater hardness of their sandstone, and their elevation, as a nearly continuous range of hills. It would appear that whilst the sandstones and slabs of the coal- measures below the Pennant rocks have been deposited or formed in comparatively quiet water, the sandstones of the Pennant series contain frequent conglomerates of coal and iron- stone, drifted plants, and occasionally small boulders of granite, with other proofs of drift to a considerable extent having oc- curred during the period of their formation. Bivalve shells are also found in considerable masses in the shales below the Pen- nant group, both on the north and south outcrop, evidently showing that they now repose unmoved from their original beds, whilst the only shells I have yet seen on the Pennant were a short distance from the Penclawdd seam, which is one of the lowest in that series. During the present year another boulder of cannel coal was discovered in the Penclawdd seam, which the workman who found it positively affirms to have been in the vein of bitumi- nous coal. The boulder is 13 inches long, 7 wide, and 3 thick, one corner having been broken off after it had become rounded by attrition, probably a short time prior to its arrival at the spot in which it was found. A siliceous cement has coated a part of the surface of this fracture, has filled the cavity caused by another fracture, and also attaches a piece of rock to the boul- der. The Penclawdd five-foot vein is about 300 yards in geo- logical position below the quarries of the Town-hill sandstone, and throughout this depth there would appear to be frequent instances of drift and false beds of coals; in some specimens the pebbles of the older or drift coal having, from their greater hardness, penetrated into and distorted the drift-plants, which have since become coated with the newer coal. One or two other pieces of cannel coal have been found at Penclawdd, but as these were discovered in the heap of bitu- minous coal, after it had been raised to the surface, and from exposure to the air had heated and slacked, they may have originally formed parts of large boulders, and their present angular form is no certain proof of their having been derived from other beds in the immediate locality. In the subjacent measures of the South Wales coal-field, some seams, associated with regular seams of cannel coal, are known to exist, about 71\t) yards below the Penclawdd vein, and lying conformably with it. In alluding to the boulder he discovered, Mr. Logan re- marks To suppose that the boulder is derived from the lower seams after they have been indurated, converted, and crystal- lised, would, it is apprehended, be carrying the age of the whole deposits to an extent that has never yet been conceived and it is perhaps inadmissible, for it is not easy to account for any mode in which a fragment of them without a disturbance of the stratification, which yet exhibits none of a requisite order, could be displaced and conveyed to the newer beds whilst forming. It is therefore safer to refer the boulder to some an- terior deposit of coal, perhaps no longer in existence. To attempt to determine whether these boulders of cannel coal are derived from the lower measures or from some ante- rior deposit, I have not been able to collect sufficient data, but some pieces of the topstone of the Penclawdd vein may be in- teresting, as they show that a conglomerate of small pebbles of ironstone, apparently identical in quality with the large depo- sits of ironstone of the lower measures, has been deposited within a few inches of the top of the Penclawdd vein of coal. If the boulders have been derived from the lower veins of the series they may probably have been supplied from some partial destruction of the lower measures at the south-west corner of the basin, previous to the formation of the veins included in the Pennant series of sandstones. It may have occurred that during the gradual subsidence of the land beneath the estuary or basin in which the successive strata of coal, sand, and shale have been deposited, communi- cations between such basin and the larger seas have been formed or enlarged, and that the detritus of the lower measures, thus exposed to the action of the sea, has from time to time supplied the boulders and drift during the formation of the Pen- nant series. The greater coarseness of the Pennant sandstones, and the frequent conglomerates and marks of drift, infer that these de- I, posits have occurred frequently under the action of the rough sea, rather than of the quiet lake, and if the boulders of gra- nite should upon examination be found to be equivalent to that of Pembrokeshire,' it would rather, point to the line of drift. The destruction of a portion of the lower beds before the de- posit of the higher, might, as I have ventured to suggest, have been effected without disturbing the conformity of the lower and Pennant measures on the existing portions of the coal- field. The question whether a large portion of the coal measures has or has not been cut off by the anticlinal line of Cefn Bryn, would not affect the suggestion, as this up-heaving of the old red sandstone equally distorts the higher and lower measures, and probably occurred when the present coal-field was again raised above the level of the waters. But if the suggestion is admitted as deserving of further in- quiry, namely, that these boulders are derived from the lower veins of the same coal-field, the inference (and a question of considerable interest it is) would follow that sufficient time has elapsed between the deposit of each vein to allow the perfect crystallization and formation of the vein below it. It also yields information interesting with reference to the ascertain- ing of the manner of the formation of the coal; as it would infer that the material of which, in this instance, the bituminous vein was formed, was originally too soft. and yielding, notwith- standing its present hardness and density, to fracture the boul- der during the period of pressure necessary for its formation and also that the chemical agents acting or escaping during the formation of the bituminous coal, do not appear to have in any way affected the cannel coal deposited within it.
SECTION G.MECHANICS. The following paper was read by Mr. Ashman, last, maker, a humble mechanic of tlwansea :Gentlemen,-I have for several years studied the structureof an artificial leg, which should be found cILit,iil.)Ie and convenient; having heard many complaints of the joint springs giving way. I have arrived at the conclusion that elastic, hgaments, according to the structure of the human leg, will lie found an improvement, bo!h for the safety and convenience of the wearer. I have made a rough model, which I have been kindly allowed to exhibit for inspection, and which I believe to be supe- rior to one made with any kind of metal springs ever jet tried. There is only one spring, and that is to keep down a bolt to pre- vent the leg from bending too much in walking and rid ng, by the lifting up of which, the wearer may sit down with ease. it is my decided opinion that a leg of this construction will last much longer without any necessity for repair than. one with metal springs; and as it can be made much cheaper, in the first-place, there will be a loniclerabJe advantage arising from its introduction to those who may net 1 it. I ha\e had tbesati,;faelion of seeing the ad- vantages arising from its adoption in the case ot one individual for • whom I constructed one, and who has kindly borne his testimony to its etficierey. I am, therefore, led to believe that the .improve- ment has a ciaim to the consideration and support of those in- terested in discoveries of this kind, and I have been induced to introduce my specimen to this meeting for the inspection of the gentlemen present. Dr. Carpenter delivered a lecture in the large chapel, in Park-street, which was again filled, on Monday evening, and the utmost attention was devoted by the audience to the emi- nent physiologist who addressed it. The lecture was illustrated by a numerous and very beautiful display of minute.objects, as seen magnified by the microscope. Dr. Carpenter said that 'die call upon him to deliver the address had reached him-but Very lately indeed he did not know i^ until he had'seen it in the programme. However, he, felt that the Association had, not only a call upon him as one of its members, but, inasmuch as it-often had given him most useful assistance in carrying out some useful inquiries, it had upon him peculiar clainis there- fore, he did not hesitate to come thus forward on the present Occasion. He would venture to compare the microscope with Occasion. He would venture to compare the microscolJewib the telescope, and would prove in the sequel that the telescope was not degraded'by the comparison. The application 6f achro- matism to the microscope had made it altogether a new instru- ment; and it is now, almost, if not quite, perfect. Improved* telescopes and mit j-oscopes are not only used for the discoveries of new bodies, but they render an acquaintance with old ones" much more perfect. A drop of water under a good modern- microscope becomes almost a new world. A little water left to stand on some Vegetable substance, as a leaf, for a few hours,- becomes, under the microscope, something like a hive of ces The most simple form under which organic matter appears, is that of a ceil or bladder. These ceils have the power of increasing irWlUmber by sub-division, and of uniting and iJn11- ing an uniform and a perfect whole and then compound again go on uniting, until at last we have every variety of organic life. All this is demonstrated by the microscope. Many bodies hitherto supposed to be complex, are now seen to be composed of several monads. Motion is not a peculiarity of animal life, for it is now known to be a property of vegetable life; and the disposition of modern science is not to place these: new groups in the animal series, but rather to remove others from the animal to the vegetable kingdom. Indeed this has been done by the most ancient physiologists. The power of forming a third and independent body by the conjugation of two cellules, and thus onto what would seem to be ad infinitum, is the foundation of all increase; and it is an important pro- blem for the botanist to solve, whether it is thus also that the cellule of a pollar grain and that of the germ forms the seed. The microscope has determined that the diotomacese of volcanic products are not animal, but vegetable. Most of the varieties of sponge is armed with spicuhe, of a very beautiful structure; but the variety in use is fortunately not so provided. Dr. Car- penter entered at some length into, a consideration of the family Terabratula, showing its very extraordinry economy, it has long been known to naturalists that the shell is marked with certain dots; indeed, these dots have been made use of for the purpose of classification; but it can now be shown that these dots are subservient to the important purposes of respira- tion. The impetus that has been given to inquiries in this direction is due to our distinguished countryman, Professor Owen, whose investigations into the teeth of animals, recent and fossil, have led to such wonderful results; such, that a minute portion of the tooth is now sufficient to enable the naturalist to determine, not only the genus, but often the species of the animal. It appears that the most simple tooth is the human, and the most complex is that of the Cheiroiherium. What has been said of the tooth is also applicable to a portion of any bone of an animal. Dr. C. concluded his very elaborate and instructive address by some general observations on organi- sation, both vegetable and animal, deducing the most perfect form of organised matter from the simple cell, in both these great divisions of the creation.
TUESDAY. SECTION C. Mr. Glyn delivered a paper on the drainage of marshes, &c. Mr. G. for introduction spoke of the importance of steam in connexion with this paper, and which has been under his cog- nisance twenty-five years, and in fifteen places, on 125,000 acres, by seventeen engines and aggregate 870 horse power.. In the swampy marshes of Lincolnshire efforts have been made to a large extent by manual labour in the usual manner. Oc- casionally happy results occurred, but often a total failure. Windmills had been used to assist manual labour, but when most wanted very often the wind refused its appearance. This was the state of things when the steam engine came into ope- ration. The engine may be made to work twenty hours a day instead of twelve. SCOJp wheels are used as being more happy in their results, specimens of which were shown in large draw- ings. Wheels are made of cast iron the powers of the wheel, are made to suit the running and ebbing flood, drainage only taking place during ebb. Several thousands of tons ot' water are emptied per hour from marshy soils and unprofitable fields, and are now realising large amounts of profits. Wheat grown on this land is now found to be equal to any grown on the best soils. When steam drainage was first introduced it was the prac- tice to pair the land and burn it, then to sow rapeseed and to feed sheep on the grain soil, after which to sow upon the ground the crop of wheat. The wheat sown on this soil had a large stalk, but ears of corn of small size., weak and worth but little. Chemistry, however, has shed light upon the sub- ject, and in connexion with the use of the engine, and throw- ing over the land at regular intervals black earth, and to bring- up the blue marl which was spread upon the surface in the form of manure. The straw in this manner taking up a large quantity of silex, becomes strong and firm, but not too tall, carrying larger and heavier corn, and the mixture of clay gives a better hold to the root, rendering the crop less liable to be laid by the wind and rain, whilst the produce is most luxuriant and abundant,
SECTION F.—STATISTICS.—EDUCATION AND CHIME. On this subject, which, embraced not only the genera! statistics of education throughout the empire, but also the relation of crime to education, a most interesting "paper was read by Mr. Fletcher (Hon. Secretary of the Statistical Society of London), in the Sta- tistical Section and a discussion of considerable length ensued thereon of course, a mere eutiineis all that our space will permit. The lecture was illustrated by a large map, in which England and Wales were divided into eight educational sections, with letters denoting in each division the best and most instructed portions of the division. As it is important in connexion with subsequent observations to notice these sections, it may be observed that tliey embraced, 1st, the southern agricultural and maritime counties secondly, South Midland and Eastern agricultural counties; thirdly, Metropolitan counties; fourthly, North Midland and North Eastern agricultural counties; fifthly, South Midland agri- cultural counties, with dispersed domestic manufactures sixthly, Western, I-c., chiefly Celtic agricultural and mining counties; seventhly, Northern agricultural and mining counties;, and eighthly, Northern and Midland mining and manufacturing counties. The lecturer commenced with describing the nature of the occupations and the state of education in these several sections, and proceeded to show how materially the nature of the occupa- tion in which the population was engaged influenced the amount and decree of education and of crane. It was in the thriving country towns of the purely agricultural districts, and in the sea- port towns of those districts-where persons of leisure and opulence resided, that, the best means of school education were to be found. In towns of this character it was generally found that the several denominations of Dissenters generally agreed in the support of the same public lay-seliool, on the principles of the Bi,iti-Ii ,rjct Foreign Society, in which they were usually aided by the sub- scriptions of liberal Churchmen. Where the predominant in- dustry is agricultural, with a scattering of light mauufacturta amongst the cottages of the poor, the thermometer of education was very low. The women, girls, and little ones generally were employed in these manufactures, to the neglect of their household duties, and the little ones were only scholars at a school kept by some village dame, but in reality a work-shop, with which no school purely for the purposes of, education, and not leachin g the trade of the district, .could compete. The observations of the lecturer particularly applied to section 5, including the court, ties of Hertford, Buckingham, and Bedford, where straw-plaiting,, lace-making, &c., are carried on to a great extent; and to the glove making districts of Somersetshire. The counties in group 6 are agricultural and mining, in the western part of South Britain, and comprising also nearly the whole of Wales. In this district there is (Cornwall excepted) littlenrore than Sunday school instruction iti the in Welsh, owing to the obstacle of language. Group No. 7 also consists of agricultural and mining districts, in the Nor in of England, and the comparison, of the ratio of education of the two populations is very sinking. Here also arises a very interesting-question as to the ditieience between races. The in- habitants of the northern counties are mainly of Scandinaviaa descent; but still we find, though their dialects are rather unin- telligible to a cultivated ear, that, as they contain most of the Saxon roots of the language, there is less difficulty in scriptural education. In the mountainous districts here it is exceed- ingly difficult to maintain, day-schools, and the education afforded by Sunday-schools is very inadeqaate. It is also lamentable to observe, that in the districts occupied by the masses of our mining population day-schools are languishing and, neg- lected. The population in these districts is almost wholly a working population, and there are no resident gentry. There are a few capitalists, v, ho seek to make a fortune but as soon as they have realized it they retire to some more socially congenial neigh- bourhood, and pay but little attention to the educational require- ments of those whom they employ. In these districts, it would appear, from the various inferences drawn by the lecturer, that the Sunday-school system of education was wholly unsatisfactory, and that the great desideratum, was the establishment of day- "sehools. In section 8, comprising West Riding of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Staftotdsliive, Derbyshire. &c. it.i almost needless to say, that every variety of ,»J.I < U-rai, and manufacturing iudustiy is carried on. The f^ricultural- portioli .of this district presents its usual *u«l better ieatures; but where i