MEETINGS OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. ( Continued from the eighth page.) The lias formation was next remarked upon, and also the re- imiins of animals calculated to breathe the atmosphere. Much amusement was excited by Sir Henry's description of some of them, such as flying crocodiles, monstrous reptiles, the icthyo- s iuvus, which was about thirty feet long, with the body of a fish, four paddle fins to make its way through the water, and a large mou'h like that of a crocodile. Another, the plesiosaurus, was equally large, with a neck like that of a swan. The oolictic group, resembling the roe of a fish, contains a great quantity of fossils. The chalk or cretaceous group next followed. This group is f.Jimd in large districts in England. The power of breakers on the sea shore was alluded to especially as observed on the coast of Ireland, which were exposed to the unbroken swell of the great Atlantic ocean, as they were sufficiently powerful to move about masses of rock oj about a ton in weight. As land was depressed beneath water, new formations took place by drifting of the mat- ter. The state of North Wales was, at a remote period,, widely different to what it is now, as there were traces of glacial action there—ice floating about and all the phenomena usually observed in the arctic and antarctic regions. In coal formations there was evidence to show that at one time these remote regions were at the surface of the earth, as traces of streams of running water could clearly be distinguished. Faults in mines were explained. They occur when masses of connected strata are found to have been run right across the direction of the seams, and one part raited higher than the other as if we were to cut through a num- ber of slices of bread, and left one pile an inch or so higher than the other, in which case no one edge of a slice would be opposite that from which it is cut. At the conclusion of this admirable address, the company ex- pressed their thanks for the highly intellectual treat they had re- ceived by loud and long. continued plaudits. At the request of the President, the high sheriff of the county. Thomas William Booker, Esq., delivered a long and elaborate speech. We regret that we were not present during the de- livery of this excellent address, which was received with loud applause. Mr. B. expressed his warm thanks to the Association for visiting the county of which he had the honour of being the civil officer. He then quoted largely from the first historian of tha South Wales coalfield, who wrote in the time of Queen Elizabeth—-George O.ven—who, in his time, was much afraid that this useful article of fuel would be soon exhausted, and who called for suspending its export from England. If Owen had been alive now, he (Mr. Booker) did not know what he would have said to the hon. baronet opposite him (Sir J. Joshua Guest), who consumed one thousand tons of coal daily. At the 1-59 blast furnaces for the smelting of iron, and which produced 550,000 tons of iron a-year, there were con- sumed 1,500,000 tons of coal a-year. The copper works con- sumed about 200,000 tons, and the tin works about 150,000 tons a-year. As near as he could ascertain the shipments last year amounted at Newport to Toiis 640,000 Cardiff 5(50,000 Swansea and Xeath 500,000 Llanclly, say. 50,000 1.7oo. 000 When the home consumption would be afterwards added to this enormous quantity, he believed it would, taking the area at fyily 100 square miles, each square mile to contain an available supply of 64,000,000 tons of coal, amount to Tak- ing this as a basis of a calculation, the area, at 100 square miles of 64 millions of tons each, the South Wales basin would not be exhausted in less than 1,409 years. When they con- sidered of what had been told them of a process of formation continually going on, the supply evidently would not be ex- hausted for ages. Taking the value of the exports of coal, iron, and copper, he believed it would amount annually to four millions of money. Sir H. De la Beehe and Sir T. D. Acland spoke in the high- est terms of the able address of Mr. Booker, and requested that it should be given to the public, to which Mr. Booker gracefully consented. SECTION F.—STATISTICS.—STATISTICS OF BHITTAMY AND THE BRETONS. Joseph Fletcher, Esq. read a paper on this subject, the prin- cipal facts of which had been gathered from inquiries instituted by the French Government into the social, educational, and physical condition of this province. The proportion of the population to the soil is greater than in any other part of France. The disproportion of age in marriages in Brittany was one of the social indications to which the lecturer referred. The average age of the women is 35, and that of the men, 30 years. The Bret in is represented as holding to the place of his hirth-obstinate in his prejudices—adhering firmly to the customs and habits of his ancestors not adopting any improve- ments in agriculture, and devotedly attached to the language of his province. Education is represented as deficient, though some progress has been made since the introduction of the national system in 1833. The Government scheme had been npDOsed by certain religious bodies, which has also contributed to the increase of education. Colonel Sykes made some remarks on the comparative con dióion of the Britons and the W elsh, which was highly fa- vorable to Wales. Archdeacon Williams thought the statistical statements should be received with caution, as they appeared to be based on an inquiry into the least favourable parts of Brittany, and from which general conclusions were drawn and applied to the whole population. He thought that such a mode of reporting on the social condition of the people was very unfair and objectionable. The arch-dea- ("In proceeded at considerable length to show the unsound- ness of the general conclusions. His speech, we be lieve, was not at all relished by Mr. Inspector Fletcher and other Govern- ment men present. Colonel Sykes defended the report on account of its being compiled ou't of statements made by the Government. Colonel Sykes then read an elaborate paper on the local affairs of Bengal. This contribution to statistical knowledge will throw much light on the proceedings of Government in Bengal. SECTION G.—-MECHANICAL SCIENCE. President, Professor Walker, M.A., P.R.S. In this section Mr. Wisha w read his paper and gave his ex- planation of the various applications of Gutta Percha, nume- rous specimens of which in the shape of thread, cord, tubular pipes, "driving bands, constable staves, sticks, whips, inkstands, medallions, shields, and other ornaments—water-buckets, ste- reotype-plates, and almost every other description both useful and ornamental, which appeared exceedingly attractive to the auditory were shown. The paper, after stating that Gutta Per- cha was the concrete juice of a large tree of the same name abounding in Borneo, and obtained by the tapping of the tree periodically by the Malays, stated that its introduction into this country was purely accidental. Dr. Montgomery having transmitted the first sample of it to the Society of Arts in 1843, le at which time he (Mr. Wishaw) was secrcta y. From that period U') to July 11, 134S, between 600 and 700 tons had been imported. From 20 to 60 tons were now regularly imported every month. Gntta Percha is an excellent non-conductor of electricity. A minute (lesc: ipti )n was then given of the pro- cess by which it was manufactured for several purposes. It concluded by enivnerat ng the various purposes, useful and orn .mental, for which it w is used. Among others was a very splendid, communion dish, which attracted the notice of the Bishop of St. David's. THE SPEAKING TELEGRAPH.—Mr. Wishaw next exhibited this rreat novelty. It was manufactured of Gutta Percha, and the sneaker suggested it might be very useful for persons who held different parishes, so that they might address all their parishioners with the same sermon. By merely whis- pering at the mouth of the tube the voice can be conveyed quite"audibly to a distance of at least three quarters of a mile, and a conversation easily kept up. It is probable that it will in a short time supersede the use of bells. Mr. W., by causing a tube 100 feet in length to be inserted, in the mouthpiece of a fhtP, and putting his own mouth to the end of the tube, played (;-oc1 save the Queen" at a d.stance of 100 feet from the per- son giving the flute breath. S' TKT.ROIIA.PU. —Mr. Wishaw then exhibited tho GuttaPercha sub m trine rope or telegraph, which consisted of a tube perforated with a series of small tubes for the con- veyance of telegraphic wires, and which for the purpose of pre- venting its being acted upon by the sea water or marine insects was handed or braided rr.und'by small ropes, and being per- fectly pliable could easily be conveyed across rivers or the channel and sunk. It was shown that where there were no electric wires the sperking telegraph could he conveyed across such rivers as the Thames, the Mersey, and thus a conversa- tion be kept up with perfect ease. Mr J. Scott Russell read a paper on the improvements of steam navigation. These consist in boilers, engines, and pad- dle wheeLs There was an old notion that the piston should not move up and down in the cylinder faster than two miles and a half an hour, which was only two feet ana a half in a second, while the motion of steam w-rs l,lf0 feet in a second. Fortunately, however, this old-fashioned maxim had bee i ab,Ild,jllc.i I and the piston now moved from 250, 270, to 3;0 < feet in a minute, and the lecturer knew no reason why it should not attain the rate of 350 feet. Another great improve- ment has been made in the construction of steam vessels—they are now built in a manner by which they can make much greater progress in water than they formerly could. The pa- per was altogether of a very valuable character. Mr. R. Roberts, of the Globe Works, Manchester, explained to the section the construction of a mechanical contrivance, by which may be effected in a very simple manner movements for which more complicated mechanism is frequently employed. The model consisted of a steel shaft, on which were (closely fitted) two brass discs, having each a boss to keep it steady. One of the discs had eleven teeth (rounded at top and bottom) in its circumference, and was placed on the body of the shaft; the other disc, which was rather the larger, was on the eccentric portion of the shaft, with its face to that of the toothed disc. The plain disc had four studs rivetted into it at equal distances from each other, and at such distance from its centre as to ad- mit of their being brought successively, by the revolution of the eccentric, to the bottom of the hollows in the toothed disc. The following movements may be effected by this model, namely, if the shaft be held stationary and the discs be made to revolve upon it, one of the discs will make twelve revolutions, whilst the other makes only eleven. Again, if the disc be held, whilst the shaft be made to re- volve twelve times, the plain, disc will revolve in the same direction one revolution only; and if the plain disc be held, the toothed disc will perform one revolution in the contrary direction for eleven revolutions of the shaft. It will be evident that almost any other number of revolu- tions may be produced by employing a smaller number of studs, not fewer than three, which will not divide the number of teeth in the disc. The idea of this novel element of mechanism was suggested to Mr. Roberts by a dial movement in an American clock. The description of this new element of mechanism excited great in- terest among mechanicians.
MONDAY. The different sections met to-day as usual. SECTION A. Sir David Brewster said that he would confine himself to the physical and optical aspect of the subject. In so far as it had become a metaphysical question, it was out of the sphere of his own studies. After stating that he had been called upon offi- cially to deliver a short course of leetures on the philosophy of the senses, he had been under the necessity of perusing, with some care, Bishop Berkeley's ingenious essay, entitled "A new theory of vision." He had done so without being desirous to question the bishop's result, or to criticise his speculation. The great object of the new theory of vision was to prove that distance is not seen directly by the eye—that all objects appear in one plane-that even outness is not seen and that it is by experience alone that we learn to see the form and distances of external objects. These opinions, which have been considered as demonstrated, have been adopted by the most distinguished philosophers of the last and present century, and he (Sir David) was not aware that they had been called in question by any writer who had made the subject of vision his particu- lar study. The fundamental proposition on which the new theory of vision rested, according to Dr. Berkeley, was, that distance was represented by a line stretching lengthwise from the eye; but as the image of that line on the retina or bottom of the eye is a point distance, or the line which represents it, has no "linear representation in the eye, or is not visible. He (Sir D. Brewster) considered the proposition as not true. It was true when the section of the line was equal to or greater than the diameter of the pupil, or when the pupil of the eye is reduced to the smallest possible dimensions. In the human eye the line representing distance is distinctly represented on the retina, and it is visible throughout the whole of its length. Sir David then referred to the figures on the demonstrating board as explanatory of his views. He proved that distance was represented by a line on the retina, when vision is per- formed by ONE EYE he had consequently disproved every pro- position which Dr, Berkeley had founded on the opposite con- clusion. He thought it was not easy to understand how Dr. Berkeley could have ventured to deduce general propositions regarding vision from a fact, which, if it were true, was true only when a single eye was used. Man was uot an animal with one eye. Mankind were not the offspring of Polyphemus. The infant obtained its first glance of the visible world by open- ing upon it both its eyes. And in whatever school it was tauoht, whatever were the lessons of experience which it learned, each eye must be considered to be equally proficient in the knowledge which it received. He did not consider it of importance to consider how single vision was produced by two eyes. It might be from the images falling on corresponding points of the retina—a doctrine now exploded. It might be from the decussation of the filaments of the optic nerves—a doctrine also exploded. Or it might be the necessary result of the line of visible direction, as it certainly was. But from whatever it aroie, it was a fact which must be admitted. They had therefore to determine when, and at what distance, an ob- ject would be seen with two eyes when it was seen single. Sir David then adduced a number of facts in support of his views. It was admitted on all hands by naturalists, and even by those who maintained the Berkeley theory, that the young animals saw distance at their birth. The duckling ran to the water as soon as it was extricated from the shell, and in like manner the boa constrictor would bite at and seize an object presented to it. He had never known or heard of an instance where an infant mistook a single object for two but he had, on the con- trary, had innumerable proofs of the fact that the infant had the knowledge of distance, and applied that knowledge prac- tically when it wished to seize any object that it desired. He said, in conclusion, after citing several cases referred by Bishop Berkeley in support of his theory, that after a minute and careful analysis of them all, they proved unequivocally that persons born blind, or who have had their sight restored by the depression or extraction of the crystalline lens, or by the for- mation of an artificial pupil, see objects at different distances from the eye. He did not conceive them. as had been alleged, either to touch the eye or to be placed within it. Dr. Whewell, after expressing his sense of the value and ability of Sir David Brewster's remarks, considered the views he so ably enumerated were confirmatory of the theory of Bishop Berkeley, rather than undermining the old doctrines. SUB-SECTION OF ETHNOLOGY. Professor Latham was in the chair. After the reading of a paper by Sir 11. Schomberg. on a gene- ral alphabet for fill languages," a paoer was then read by Professor Romeo Elton, D.D., On the Ante-Columbiau discoveries of America. The paper read was as follows Memorials of the past, and especially such as relate to the discovery of a great continent, have excited peculiar interest in the human mind in all ages, and among all nations. A few facts, therefore,' will be stated in this paper, exhibiting evidence that America was known to Europeans as early as the ninth century, An Icelandic historian, Tortacus, in the year 1705, claimed for his countrymen the honour of having discovered the New World. This claim has been strengthened by a work published by the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen, in 1837. which has imparted a new impulse to this subject*. The work is entitled Antiqua.tes Americana sive Scriptures Septentrionules Rerum A nte- Columbianuni en America." This is edited by the learned Professor Rafn, of the university of Copenhagen, and pub- lished in the original Icelandic, accompanied by a Danish, and also by a complete Latin translation. This work gives an account of the voyages made to America by the Scandinavian Northmen during the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries. The accounts of the early voyages are published from authentic manuscripts, which date back as far as the ninth cen- tury. From this work, it appears that the ancient Northmen ex- plored a great extent of the eastern coasts of North America; repeatedly visited many places in Massachusetts and llhode island fought and traded with the natives, and attempted to establish colonies. The most northerly region they called Heluland, that is, Slate-land the country further south they called Markland, or Wood land and the tract still more to the south they called Vinland, or Vine-land, which is supposed to have extended as far as Massachusetts and Rhode island. The general features of the ountry accord with the description which they have given. The discovery of America by the Northmen is confirmed by an in- scriptionlrock on the banks of the Taunton river, in the state of Massachusetts, and which, until recently, has defied all efforts at its interpretation. The earliest New England colonist observed the mysterious characters on this rock, and, more than 150 years ago, Dr. Cotton Mather, of Boston, sent an imperfect drawing of the'inscription to the Royal Society. It also attracted the notice of the Rev. Dr. Styles, President of Yale College, nearly 10 ) years ago, who sent facsimiles of the inscription to tuary learned societies in Europe, but ail attempts to decipher it proved vain. An accurate drawing of the inscription was made by the llhode Island Historical Society, a few years since, and a copy was sent to the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen, which has led to a more satisfactory result. The surface of the rock which bears this inscription is about 12 feet in length, 9 feet in width, and is covered with hieroglyphics, forming three distinct lines. The characters are deeply engraven and, in gray working, must have required the labour of several days. The lower part of the rock is subject to the constant aciion of the tide, in consequence of which several of the characters ar obliterated. The word Thorfinus, and 132, are distinctly marked j The Th in Thorfinus are in the Icelandic, and orfinus in the ancient Roman characters. The 132 are also engraven in the ancient Roman form of writing numerals. The circumstance of Roman letters being used may be easily explained. Christianity was introduced into Iceland about the end of the tenth century, at which period there is evidence that the Latin language was cul- tivated in that country, at least by individuals. Now, there is a remarkable coincidence between the monument we have just described, and an account given in one of the ancient manuscripts published in the Antiquates Americana;, in which it is related that Thorfinus, an Icelandic chief, with i32 men, made a voyage to Vinland in the year 1000 that he remained there for three years, and was finally killed in a battle with che natives. It is worthy of observation, as proving they had some knowledge of Christianity, that a cross was placed at the head of his grave. The particulars of Thorfinus's voyage, and his frequent battles with the natives, are also minutely described. The wife of Thorfinus accompanied her husband on his perilous expedition, and, after his death, she. with her son, who was born in America, returned to Iceland. This son of Thorfinus became a chieftain, and from this Icelandic American, according to genealogical table, are descended many eminent men, among whom may be named Professor Finn Magrusen and the celebrated sculptor Thorwalsden. It would be injustice to the principality of Wales to close this article without alluding to the supposed discovery of America by Prince Madoe in the twelfth century. Respecting this subject, the only information we have is derived from the poems of Meredyth ab Bhys, who flourished in the year 1470; of Gutyn Owen, in 1840 and of Cynfrig ab Gronwy, who lived near the same period. From their account it appears that Madoc sailed from Wales in the year 1170 with a few vessels, and leaving Iceland to the north he pursued his course westward. After traversing the ocean for some weeks, lie arrived by accident on a continent which produced the necessaries of life in great abundance, and where the inhabit- ants differed in aspect and appearance from Europeans. After remaining in that country a long time, he left there 120 persons, and returned to Wales with the remainder of his men. lie subsequently equipped a fleet of ten vessels, and sailed for the same continent; but of that expedition no tid:ngs were ever after- wards received, These events are related as well-known facts by bards who lived before the discovery of America by Columbus, a circumstance which is very remarkable. It may be added, as being upon this point, that some travellers have given an account of White Indians* beyotid the rocky mountains, and a statement of the Rev. Mr. Jones, a missionary from Pennsylvania, and a native of Wales—is certainly deserving of attention. He mentions in letters published just at the close of the last century, in the course of his missionary labours in the western regions of America, of having met with some Indians whose complexion was of a much lighter colour than the ordinary tribes, and in whose lan- guage he discovered many Welsh words. The vast mounds and their contents, which have been found in Ohio, and other northern states, may be remarked also as memo- rials of a civilized nation, far in advance of the aborigines of America. At present, however, our information must be con- sidered only as probable conjecture but we may hope that future discoveries will show light upon this interesting subject. Dr. Latham did not believe that lUadoc had ever put his foot in America. The Indians referred to were the Mandine tribe, of which only about fifteen individuals remain. They are somewhat whiter than the other Indians. We have scantier specimens of their language than of any other. The longest vocabulary of it has only been seen by very few persons three or four in all. He thought the Scandinavian claim better proved. Professor Elton said the description of the old MS perfectly corresponded with the present state of the country and rock. A body was dug up about four miles from Taunton, on which was found some pieces of brass, which were evidently not In- dian, but from some foreign nation. A brass- plate was. also found in Salem, Massachusetts, and is now in the possession of Elihu Burritt, with numbers on it, in the Icelandic character. There are also other characters on rocks on the side of the river, but the words are obliterated. The Newport Monument also is very antique. The tradition in the neighbourhood supposes it to be an old mill, but there is every reason to believe in its high antiquity. Dr. Latham said that every one must form his own opinion, as the question is by no means decided. Several other papers were read in this Section, which closed with this abstract of a long paper, On the Gael and the Cymry," by our distinguished countryman the Venerable Arch- deacon Williams, warden of the Welsh Institution at Llando- very, and which, we hope, will be soon presented to the public in a more permanent foriii The conclusion to which a long and careful study of every fact connected with the history of the nations of Western Europe, which are commonly denominated Celtic, have led me,. are the following 14 That three distinct races—the Basque, the Breton, and the Gael—may be easily recognised as still existing and continuing to- exist as the representatives of great nations, which once covered the whole of Western and Southern Europe. "That without taking into consideration on the present occa- sion the Basque people, it may be safely affirmed that the Cymry of Wales and the Bretons of France form a cognate race, closely approaching to each other, in language at least, if not in other points. "That the Cornish people formed a middle link between those two cognate races, but approached much nearer in lan- guage at least to the Bretons in France than to the Cymry in West Britain. That the Gael or Gwyddel, still existing in Ireland and Scotland, is very remote, in language at least, from the Bretons and Cymry, and appears to be the representative of the Galli and Celta of the Greeks. "Thatthevenetiof the Hadriatic and Northern Italy, with many cognate tribes in the vicinity, were the same race at least in language and religion, the Venite of Western Gael, and their confederates. "That the modern Bretons are the pure descendants of the Venite of Gael, the undoubted representatives of those Veiiit6 against whom Julius CrosHr fought. That between the Gael and the Breton, there existed an antipathy and an enmity which cannot be attributed to any other cause than a long course of hostility, first originating in great difference of race. That this same antipathy also existed from the earliest ages between the Gwyddel and the Cymro, which probably originated in similar causes. That in Great Britain co-existent and cognate with the Cymry of the North Western coast, and to which the Bretons of South-Western Britain lived a powerful race, which the Cymro and Bretons denominated Loegrion. That of this race but little can be said positively, but that probable inferences can be drawn that it approaches closer to the Teutonic race than to either the Cymro or the Breton. That ancient Mediajval, and more modern history, studied upon the principle to which these conclusions lead us, will ne- cessarily appear more clear and free from doubts. That a brief notice of the main facts recorded by history respecting these several tribes, and illustrated by philosophical proofs, may tend to show that sufficient reasons can be adduced for each several conclusion. That this detailed proof will be embodied in my forthcom- ing paper. "11th August, 1848." "J01D. WILLIAMS." The section was then adjourned till Tuesday. [Want of space compels us to defer the remainder of the pro- ceedings until next week.]
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WEEKLY SUMMARY. THE last week has been somewhat fruitful ill topics, how- ever barren in interest. Parliament has been actively en- gaged in voting the estimates, which is done with no stintea measure. On Wednesday week, the navy estimates were brought forward. Mr. Ward made a long speech to show the reduction proposed by Government since the estimates were first brought under the notice of the House. Origin- 0 If, ally the total would have shown an increase on the previous year of £ 214,646; but the amount had been reduced by X208,000, so that the increase on the gross votes over last year is only £ 6,644. Mr. liuine and Nlr. Cobden delivered excellent addresses against this lavish waste of public mo- ney. The former gentleman demanded the abolition of the African squadron. In 1847 no fewer than 43 ships were expressly employed in a fruitless endeavour to suppress the slave trade; 28 off the western coast of Africa, 11 at the Cape, and some half-a-dozen on the south-east coasts of South America. Mr. Cobden produced statistics to show that the outlay of Government on our steam marine is about £ 0,000,000. This expenditure was undertaken in order to run a race of folly with other countries. We arc thus ex- pending in our steam war-ships a larger amount of money than is invested in all our merchant steamers engaged in the foreign and coasting trade together. The sum of El S,000,000 of money, for which we are called upon this year, is equal to 8;000,000 quarters of wheat, and to a rental of 1,800,000 ten-pound houses. Promotions have taken place in a most lavish manner, without any attention to the public- wants. On the proposed vote of X23,167 for ecclesiastical grants in Ireland, Mr. Goulburn deprecated the proposed erection of a Roman Catholic chapel for the Royal Hiber- nian Military School: a warm discussion took place. The claim was X900. Mr. Hume supported the grant, regarding it as a vote for education as to the ministers of religion, he thought that every man should pay for his own chosen pas- tor. Very true this latter utterance of the oracle; but what is there to hinder the sapient legislator from seeing that the State has no business to provide a surgery or a consulting' room for the spiritual physician, more than it does for the secular functionary P Mr. Hume divided, when the vote was affirmed by 103 against 12. The old Maynooth ques- tion is again revived. The Maynooth men now appeal for £ 2,685 to keep the college buildings in repair. All the for- mer protestation that the £ 30,000 annual grant to Maynooth was final,, was flung to the winds. There were for the vote, 109; against it, ;38, £ 42,700, for salaries and expenses of the treasury £10,700 expenses and salaries of the Secre- tary of State of the Home Department and other large sums were agreed to. Serious disturbances have taken place in Ashfon-under- Lyne, on Monday and Tuesday last. The Chartists were suspected of projecting a disturbance, with the intention to- obtain a general turn out of all the hands employed in the- factories. Shortly before twelve on Monday night, a police-constable. named James Bright, Was walking down Bentinck-street, and when about fifty yards below the Chartist meeting-room, he was shot through the breast by some person not yet discovered, al- though the perpetrator was surrounded by at leasi fifty persons, armed with guns, pikes, &e. Two other policemen were after-. wards pursued, but they managed wiih some difficulty to reach the town-hall in safety. A messenger was then sent to the bar-. racks, but on his way thither he was met by an armed mob, who compelled him to turn back. Another messenger was next dis- patched, and gained the barrack by a different road. In a very few minutes the military were under arms, and on the spot where the mob had been collected, but previous to the arrival of the mili- tary a large body of special constables, the borough police, and- several mounted special constables had attacked the mob, whom they soon put to flight, taking two of them prisoners. They also found a pike on the road, the shaft of which is about eight feet long, and the blade about twelve inches, sharpened on both sides." Search was immediately made for arms, and several were found in the possession of different persons. Several men had been shot or wounded by pikes. The mob called them- selves National Guards but on the appearance of the mili- tary they immediately dispersed.. "Great fears were entertained by the authorities in Manchester that some attempt might be made to disturb the peace of the town every precaution, however, had been taken, and there is not the slightest probability that any attempt will be made there. The Confederate clubs met on Tuesday night in Manchester with closed doors: all of them were said to be crowded." An extensive conspiracy has been detected in Liverpool, the object of which was to supply arms for the Irish Con- federates. A person of the name of Cuddy has been corn" mitted to take his trial on this charge at the present assizes, when it is expected that extensive revelations will be made of the designs of the revolutionists, on this side the channel.
IRELAND. A FEW weeks ago we gave a rather lengthened expres- sion of our views in regard to the sister island. Events have since proved that our surmises were correct. If that were any joy to us, our predictions have been fulfilled; the squelching" policy has been resorted to, and has produced apparent tranquillity in Ireland. The misguided though sincere leaders of the rebellion, Messrs. Smith O'Brien and Mcagher, and several others of less note, have been arrested., The only persons of any skill and ability remaining at largo- at the time we write are J. B. Dillon and Richard O'G;;?- man, jun. It must have been evident to all except the leaders them- selves, that their proceedings were such as to ensure an ignominious defeat. The very plans on which they depended for success were proclaimed on housetops, and they at last took the field when utterly unprepared with any provisions, to sustain the warfare. Well it is for the sake of peace and order that it is so. How true soever-the averments of the Repealers might be, their policy was fatal to the success of their cause. It was an appeal to'arms, and arms must meet. arms;—they appealed to the sword, and the sword has crushed them •—they adored the pike, and their very idol has, become the means of their destruction. If they had adhered to the moral force doctrine of O'Connell, their fate would have been different. The great man was in all probability a con- summate hypocrite, but he taught a true doctrine; National regeneration conies not by blood. It must come from "truth heeders," and not from steel speeders;" It must issue from the point of the pen, and not from the point of the bayonet. If the Irish Repealers had circulated tracts by the millions, —if they had visited the cities and towns of England, Scot- land, and Wales to tell us of the wrongs of Erin,—if they had trusted more to the press than to gunpowder., their fatW. would have been very different. Smith O'Brien and the eloquent Meagher would not have been inmates of ham jail, nor would the honest and sincere Mitchell have been banished to Bermuda. If they had appealed to truth and principle, truth would have decided the question in ,a more satisfactory manner than the winged sataas" sent to Ireland by Government have done. o. Some of our readers, perhaps, may be shocked at our speaking of Smith O'Brien, Meagher, and Mitchell as honest and sincere men. Be it so. We must find some proofs, however, before we can venture to impugn their honesty. The three seemed to be disinterested, and we are assured from private sources that the latter two were men of great amiability and kindness in all the walks of private life. The world has a queer notion that all sincere men must be mad. The truth is exactly the revc-rse. Where sincerity is wanted madness is present. With the great mass of mankind suc- cess is the test of truthfulness. Had Richard Cobden been transported for advocating corn-law repeal, the present generation of scribes would have written him down as a designing scoundrel. He has succeeded: Providence fa- voured him with a failure of the potato crop, and thereby has so paved his way as to make him an eligible candidate for the treasury benches. If Government were to prosecute Edward Miall for advocating the separation of Church and State, the press would regard him as a convicted radian; but when he succeeds, he will be regarded as the master