lJarieties. A LAW among the Arabs permits a man to divorce any of his wives who do not make him good bread. WHAT IS PATRIOTISM ?-In the Northern Star the close of the conflict in Paris is headed, "Last glorious struggle of the pfdriots J" MEDICAL STATISTICS.—The medical men in London are more numerous than the butchers, and nearly as many as the bakers. GIN-DRINKING was first brought into fashion by William III. at St. James's Palace, where his Orange Majesty sat drinking Schiedam till all was blue. HARVESTERS' IMMIGRATION.—Judging from the arrivals at Liverpool, the immigration of harvest labourers into England promises this year to be unusually great. LEGISLATIVE COSTLINESS.It appears from an official report that the expense of taking up the matting every morning a the House of Commons comes to E800 per annum. t THE porters of Constantinople are said to surpass all other carriers in Europe in their power of bearing burdens, often moving with ease under a weight of more than two thousand pounds. liirsii POLIcr.-The Irish constabulary will for the future consist of 10,678 effective men, and will be officered by 35 .county inspectors of three classes, and 375 head const tbles of two classes. COAL.- The Newcastle coal formation contains about 5,575,6-80,000 cubic yards, extending in length twenty-three z, miles; 28,000,000 tons of coal are annually raised, being Si,000,000 of cubic yards.—The Trades'1 Weekly Messenger. MOLDAVIA AND WALLACHIA.—It has been found necessary to decree a general closing of the courts of law throughout Mol- davia and Wallaehia, in consequence of the fearful ravages which the cholera is making in these principalities. THE ALIEN BILL OF 1848.—The provisions of the late Alien Bill have been brought into silent, but effective operation. It is said that about 400 foreigners obnoxious to the Government have been compelled to quit our shores. NEW ZEALAND WAGES.—The following advertisement, which appears in the Southern Cross newspaper, published at Auck- land, in New Zealand, will show the rate of wages being paid in that colony:—"Wanted, six stonemasons: Wage3 from 6s. Gd. toSs. ,per day. Apply," &c. CLASS AGAINST CLASS.—Mr. Osborne, in his admirable speech, said, "If you setclass against elass, the most frightful collisions must inevitably ensue." Upon hearing this, Mr. Hudson exclaimed, On my word, it's precisely the same on a railway ["-—Punch. FALL OF A MOUNTAIN.—The rock known by the name of the nent de.Naye, which was 7,000 feet high, fell on the 3rd inst. into the valley of Montreux (Vaud), and destroyed seven housesandallÙle persons in them. It is said that upwards of 2,000 head of cattle have been killed in the fields. PWLLHELI.—EARLY REAPiNQ.-Oii Fi-idAy, the 14th instant, about half an acre of full ripe new barley was cut on a small farm called Bys-co'ch, Llanbedrog, in this neighbourhood; and on the 15th instant., two other small patches of full ripe new barley were cut, about half a mile distant from the same place. PROSPECTS FOR YourHl MEN.—The American San says that six young" men, who left their native county of Fayette, in Kentucky;, some fifteen years since, in order to seek a livelihood elsewhere, have all met at Washington as members of the House of, Represcntativesduring the present session of Con- gress. HOLYHEAD.—On Tuesday last, while the railway labourers were employed dragging a reservoir in connexion with the ter- minus station at this place, they found the remains of an ele- phant, within a few feet of the surface. The bones were in a: stats of preservation, though probably they had lain there for many centuries. ANECDOTE or. CnABLES Fox.—I have heard,A good story of our friend Charles Fox. When his house in the country was on fire, he found all efforts to save it useless, and being a good draughtsman, he went up the next hill to make a drawing of the nre! the best instance of philosophy I ever heard of.—Cot- tie's Reminiscences. PROPHECIES.—Philip Olivarious, a monk of Orval, in the ,.Iear 1544, predicted, it is said,, all the remarkable events of the present century. The following lines have long been cur- rent in Germany: I would not be a king in 1848; I would not be a soldier in 1849; I would not be a grave-digger in 18.50. But I would be whatever you please in 1851." b PRESERVATION OF WOOTV—The Mining Journal reports a series of experiments with Payne's patent process for preserv- ing timber, the result of which is, that wood sopreserved be- comes imperishable,—iftipervious to wet or dry rot, and to the attacks of insects, and perfectly uninflammable. The softest t- S woods so prepared become susceptible of the finest polish. IN the majority agaihst-Mr. Hume's motion there were only 13'2 members who, by the utmost latitude of language, can be called Reformers, to 221 Tories. Among the 132 professing Reformers were 30 holders of office, 7 officials" unattached" (as they say in the army), and 13 relations or connexions of ministers. There was also a large sprinkling of relations and connexions of Whig Peers, and candidates for office at the bar, and in the army Rnd navy. -TEMPERANCE STATISTICS.—A correspondent has communi- cated to Tis some- rather startling facts regarding the relative consumption of intoxicating liquors and bread in Edinburgh, which he has culled from the Post-office Directory. We ob- serve from his statement that in this city there are 296 spirit- dealers, 3$0 grocers and spirit-dealers, -i!) hotels, 51 taverns and coffee-houses, 48 wine-merchants, and 98 wine and spirit mer- chants,—making 902 concerns in all. Assuming that at cacli of these places an average of £ 5 a-week is realised from sides, the amount realised would be £ 4,510 per week, and no kss a sum than C234,520 a-year! Turning to another page, we find that the number of bakers- in the city" is about 200, the amount of whose sales, at JE30 a-week, would amount to £312;( 00— or-only about £ 7-7,480 more than the amount annualIyexpènded on intoxicating liquors !Scottisl. Presy. (;è. THE ROAD TO WEALTH,—If any one tells you that you can become rich otherwise than by labour and economy, do not listen to him-he is a liar and a poisoner.-Franklin. THE ANNUITY-TAX SALE AT EDINBURGH.—Mr. Sword, one of the two persons whose goods were seized and sold for non- payment of annuity-tax, in a letter to the editor of the Edin- burgh Advertiser, says, the exact value of the articles seized from him and sold, was JE99 15s. A valuable rosewood piano, price JE42, and valued by the annuity-tax appraisers at £10 j a lai-ge mirror, price £ 10, valued by ditto at £ 2 and a rose- wood cheffioneer, with marble top and plate glass back, price £ 8, valued at ;C I were withdrawn from the sale, as not being his property; at the same time he freely offered on the spot other articles of the same kind, which the sheriffs clerk refused, Had the articles sold been fairly exposed in any respectable sale-room, and free from the stigma that was attached to them, there is not a doubt that the produce would have been, at least, JE70 or E80. THE UNFORTUNATE CIPHER. A merchant at Marseilles, having a business correspondent on the African coast, be- thought him, that as some members of his family had shown a partiality for monkeys, he might gratify them by sending for one or two specimens of these animals from Africa. Accord- ingly he wrote to his correspondent to procure two or three of the finest and most admired species, and transmit them to Marseilles. Chance so ordered it that the merchant, in putting down the ou (in English or) between the figures 2 and 3, made the o very prominent, while the 1t remained scarcely visible. Some months afterwards a ship porter came in all haste to the old merchant, and announced to him that his menagerie had arrived. Menagerie!" cried the merchant. "Yes, a mena- gerie, a whole cargo of monkeys had arrived to his consign- ment I" The merchant could scarcely credit the announcement, until the letter of his correspondent was put into his hands. In that epistle the African negodant, a man of the most uncom- promising exactitude, excused himself very earnestly for not having been able, with all his exertions, to procure more than 160 monkeys, in place of the 203 ordered, but promised, as soon as possible, to fulfil the entire demand. The feelings of the honest merchant may be guessed when, on moving down to the quay to satisfy himself on the subject by ocular inspection, he beheld his 160 monkeys, all duly caged and littered, and grinning at him with the most laudable pertinacity. It was the moment when a man might reasonably doubt whether it would be the best to laugh or cry. So much for the value of ciphers. Le Follet. AFFECTION OF AN ADOPTED SON.-The death of Laroche, the editor of the Pere Duchesne, and president of the most re- volutionary club in Paris, is a sad blow to the ultra-democrats, as it is well known that he was at the head of that club, and the most active planner of the insurrection. The circumstances of his death are as romantic as those connected with any hero of ancient ballad. He was always accompanied by a young lad of about fifteen, to whom he seemed much attached, and who is reported to be a foundling adopted by him. The same boy, attired like Laroche, in a blouse and casquette, was seen during the fight combating without a moment's respite at his side, following him wherever he went, loading his gun, and frequently standing before him when he paused to give orders. Laroche fell at the very moment when the National Guards took the barricade, and the insurgents fled to entrench them- selves behind another one raised at a short distance. But La- roche's companion fled not. He remained with his hand locked in that of the dead man, and gazing in speechless agony upon the gaping wound in his side, from which the life-blood had oozed away. He spoke not, he moved not, when the surgeons came to transport the dead, and to relieve the wounded. It required almost superhuman force to tear his hand from that of the corpse. He was taken ill, apparently in a state of uncon- sciousness, to a neighbour's house, where he died next morn- ing, without having uttered a word or tasted food of any kind since the event which seems to have separated the soul from the body long before death.-Paris Corresjwndeni of the Atlas. THE SECRET OF SuccEss.-It may to some appear like vanity in me to write what I now do, but I should not give my life truly if I omitted it. When filling a cart of manure at the farm dunghill, I never stopped work because my side of the cart might be heaped up before the other side, at which was another man I pushed over what I had heaped up to help him, as doubtless he did to help me when I was last and he was first. When I have filled my column or columns of a newspaper, or sheet of a magazine, with the literature for which I was to be paid, I have never stopped if the subject required more eluci- dation, or the paper or magazine more matter, because there was no contract for more payment, or no likelihood of there being more. When I have lived in a barrack-room, I have stopped my own work, and have taken a baby from a soldier's wife, when she had to work, and nursed it, or have gone for water'for her, or have cleaned another man's accoutrements, though it was no part of my duty to do so. When I have been engaged, in political literature, and travelling for a newspaper, I have not hesitated to travel many miles out of my road to ascertain a local fact, or to pursue the subject into its minutest particulars, if it appeared that the public were unacquainted with the facts of the subject; and this at times when I had work to do which was much more pleasant and profitable. When I have needed employment I have accepted it at what- ever wages I could obtain, at plough, in farm-drain, in stone quarry, at breaking stones for roads, at wood-cutting, in a saw- pit, as a civilian or as a soldier. I have in London cleaned out a stable, and groomed a cabman's horse for a sixpence, and been thankful to the cabman for the sixpence. I have subse- quently tried literature, have done as much writing for ten shillings, as I have readily obtained—been sought after, and paid ten guineas for. But had I not been content to begin at the beginning, and accepted shillings, I would not have risen to guineas. I have, lost nothing by working. Whether at la- bouring or literary work, with a spade or with a pen, I have been my own helper.—Autobiography of a Working Man. APPEAL TO THE HOUSE OF LOlms, JULY 17TH.—Cecilia Ful- liai-n, Margaret Lynch, and Maria M'Carthy, appellants; Alex. ander M'Carthy, and nine others, respondents.—This is a very interesting case. The appeal was brought by the plaintiffs from a decision of the Lord High Chancellor of Ireland. The facts of the case are the folloUiiig:-iN] P. Alexander M'Carthy, late of Cork, was a wealthy merchant, who died in 18-13, intestate. His per- sonal estate was nearly worth £ 100,000, He left ten children, namely nine of the respondents, and Maria M'Carthy, the appel- lant. Alexander M'Carthy was his heir-at-law. In 1828, the appellant Maria had, with her father's consent, become a professed nun of the order of St. Ursula, in the Roman Catholic :(-oiyiniti riity of Blackrock, in the county of Cork. On her profession her father paid to the ■■community the sum of £ 1,000. In 1829, the respon- dent Catherine had also become a professed nun, and her father paid the like sum of £ 1,0,;0 on her profession. The father con- sidered that as Maria and Catherine had, upon entering the reli- gious society, taken a solemn vow, called the "Vow of Poverty, by which they bind themselves never to retain or possess any property whatever, that it would prevent them from claiming any share of his property but it seems that the ruling powers in the convent were of a contrary opinion, for when Catherine ap- plied to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Cork, who has sole control of the convent, for permission to assign her rights, whatever they might be, to her fdmily, it was refused by him, and he required her to make an assignment of the property to the superiors of the con- vent; to this she demurred, and said, "that it would be contrary to her conscience to assign property out of her family," to which the bishop replied, that she must remembei her vows, and do as she was directed." But she still refused to sign the deed of assignment until March, 1844, when, being coerced improperly, by the supe- riors in the convent, she assigned her interest to Cecilia Fulham and Margaret Lynch, two of the Sisters" of the convent. Maria had also, in December, 1843, assigned her interest to the same parties, but had afterwards expressly stated that "she had signed the same in conformity with her vow of obedience, and said, that it pained her much to do so bit she had no alternative, as she was strictly "bound by her vows, and that neither she nor her sister Catherine would derive any benefit from the money coming from their father. One of the witnesses who had an interview with Maria, wss informed that" she was compelled to execute the deed against her will, under the order of the superior, who re- quired her to do so in compliance with hervov of obedience, and that after having signed the paper she cried all night and could not sleep and that she wouldsooller throw the property illtothe river, than that the convent should take it from her family." The evidence of the celebrated Father Vladiew went to show that no compulsion or threats had been used towards the two sisters, ex* cept the punishment for broken vows, which was the denial of the communion, and the dread of having committed a mortal sin the punishment of which according to the Romish religion, is eternal punishment hereafter; but that ought to be considered a, very power- ful threat towards a person liketheappellant Maria, who, after sign- ing the deed on the 29th of December, 1843, became so seriously ill that she was partly deranged in her intellect, and continued sbme time in great danger. On a visit to the convent being made by Nelson -M'Carthy, he saw his sister Catherine, who appeared labouring under both mental and corporal suffering, and she told that he had no idea of the mental training that they went tirough; and that it had been publicly decided in the commun ty ihat any member in tlie, convent speaking or acting adversely to the,claims set up by the convent for the property wonld be guilty of.ro.ortal sin. The Lord Chancellor of: Ireland had decided that ihe plaintiffs, on half of the convent, lijid no right to the property, Hence the appeal. On the part of the respondents it was argued that the deeds of assignment had been executed by Maria and Ca- therine without their consent, and contrary to their intentions, and under improper coercion, and are consequently fraudulent and void. Itwa3 also urged that the suit was instituted without the knowledge or consent, although with the name, of the appellant Maria; and also, that as both Maria and Catherine were professed nuns, and having vowed poverty and obedience, they were conse- quently incapable of acquiring property by inheritance, if the old law of the professed being civiliter mortuus vel mortua, is still the law of aprotestant State, as it was of this country when a Roman Catholic State.—On Monday last, the Lord Chancellor, after going at some length into the case, stated his opinion to their lordships to be, that the suit in the court below was improperly framed, in- asmuch as two co-plaintiffs having inconsistent interests, could not join in a suit. He therefore recommended their lordships to dis- miss the bill with costs generally, but without prejudice to any party filing a new bill to reverse the decree of the Lord Chan- cellor of Ireland so far as it offered the direction of an issue, but to retain it so far as it dismissed the bill of the pI aintiff with costs. Lord Brougham and Lord Campbell concurred with the Lord Chancellor, and the House ordered the decree of the court below to be reversed so far as it related to the issue, but retained that part which dismissed the bill. The effect of this decision is to leave all parties in the position they were before the bill was filed, but enable them to commence their proceedings anew in an amended form.
(Selected for the PRINCIPALITY.) HOME. THERE is a land of every land the pride, Belove.i by heaven o'er all the world beside Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons emparadise the night,— A land of beauty, virtue, valour, truth, Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth. The wandering mariner whose eye explores The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, Views not a realm so beautiful and fair, Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air In every clime the magnet of his soul, Touch'd by remembrance, trembles to that pole; For in this land of heaven's peculiar grace, The heritage of nature's noblest race, There is a spot of earth supremely blest- A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest, Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside His sword and sceptre, pageantry and pride While in his softened looks benignly blend The sire, the son, the husband, father, friend Here woman reigns the mother, daughter, wife, Strews with fresh flowers the narrow way of life In the clear heaven of her delightful eye An angel-guard of loves and graces lie Around her knees domestic dutict meet, And fire-side pleasures gambol at her feet. Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found ? Art thou a man ?—a patriot ?—look around 0 thou shalt find. howe'er thy footsteps roam, That land thy country, and that spot thy home.
ON THE LIFE OF MAN. LIKE to the falling of a star, Or as the flights of eagles are, Or like the fresh spring's gaudy hue, Or silver drops of morning dew, Or like a wind that chafes the flood, Or bubbles that on water stood,- E'en such is man—whose borrow'd light Is straight cali'd in and paid to-night. The wind blows out, the bubble dies, The spring entomb'd in autumn lies, The dew's dried up, the star is shot, The flight is pass'd—and man forgot.
THE EVENING STAR. GEM of the crimson-coloured even, Companion of retiring day, Why at the closing gates of heaven, Beloved star, dost thou delay ? So fair thy pensile beauty burns, When soft the tear of twilight flows, So due thy plighted step returns To chambers brighter than the rose. SENSE and beauty, like truth and novelty, are rarely combined. THERE is no power in the wisdom of the insincere.— THOUGHTS IN THE CROWD. THERE are few days in which something does not occur to make us feel that life is a state of trial. -D-,iNBY. CIVILITY .-Ci vility is a kind of charm that attracts the love of all men and too much is better than to show too little. ITAP.IT.-SCIeCt that course of life which is the most excel- lent, and custom wLl render it the most delightful.—PYTHA- GORAS. PROSPERITY is not a just scale adversity is the only balance to weigh friends. Religion is the best armour, but the worst cloak. ONE simple word in praise of those we love, will give a thousand times more pleasure than the warmest commenda- tions of ourselves. THINGS chiselled in soft stone wear out easily, and may be replaced by others. That which is engraved upon a gem, lasts til) the gem is destroyed. THERE are many hours in every person's life which are not spent in anything important; but it is necessary that they should not be passed idly.—COLLINGWOOD. HOME,—We are born at home, we live at home, and we must die at home so that the comfort and economy of home are of more deep, heartfelt, and personal interest to us, than the pub- lic affairs of all the nations in the world. MONEY is not the only thing that is not" our" own; time, and thought, and knowledge, and power, moral influence and spiritual advantage—all must be answered for, for all are God's.—THE LISTENER. INDEPENDENCE.—A man's independence is not to be measured by the greatness of his fortune, or the number of his acres, but by the frame and texture of his mind, by his disregard of trifles or matters of little value. HONEST PRIDE.—If a man has a right to be proud of any- thing it is of a good action, done as it ought to be, without any base interest lurking at the bottom of it.—STERNE'S LETTERS. SECRETS OF COMFORT.—Though sometimes small evils, like invisible insects, inflict pain, and a single hair may stop a vast machine, yet the chief secret, of comfort lies in not suffering trifles to vex one, and in prudently cultivating an undergrowth of small pleasures, since very great ones, alas are let on long leases. WHO would exchange melancholy remembrances for the apathy of him who thinks only of the present ? Who would aT exchange for unfeeling contentment that creature memory which peoples the present time with past joys, past friendships, past love, although the recollection carries sadness along with it ? DIssntULATION .-Dissimulation in youth is the forerunner of perfidy in old age—its first appearance is the fatal omen of "•rowin0, depravity and future shame. It degrades parts and learning, obscures the lustre of every accomplishment, and sinks us into contempt; the part of falsehood is a perplexing maze. After the first denarture from sincerity, it is not in our power to stop. One artifice unavoidably leads us on to ano- ther, till, as the intricacy of the labyrinth increases, we are left entangled in our snare,-DR. BLAIR. HAPPINESS.—-No man can judge of the happiness of another, As the moon plays upon the waves, and seems to our eyes to favour with a peculiar beam one long track amidst the waters, leaving the rest in comparative obscurity; yet all the while she is no niggard in her lustre; for the rays that meet not our eyes seem to us as though they were not, yet she, with an equal and unfavouring loveliness, mirrors herself on every wave. Even so, perhaps, happiness falls with the same brightness and power over the whole expanse of life, though to our limited eyes she seems only to rest on those billows from which the ray is reflected back upon our own sight. FRIENDSHIP is necessary to our happiness here and built on Christian principles upon which only it can stand, is a thing even of religious sanction; for what is the love which the Holy Spirit speaking by St. John so much inculcates but friendship ? The only love which deserves the name a love which can toil, and watch, and deny itself, and go to death for its brother. Worldly friendship is a poor weed, compared with this and even this union of spirit in the bond of peace would suffer, in my mind at least, could I think it were only coeval with our earthly iiiaiisiolis.-COWIIER. .L may indeed be called a bee, In search of sweets, he roams in various regions and ransacks every inviting flower. Whatever displays a beautiful appearance solicits his notice, and conciliates his favour, if not his affection. He is often deceived by the vivid colour and attractive form which, instead of supplying Honey, produces the rankest poison but he perseveres in his researches, and if he is- not often disap- pointed, is as often unsuccessful. The misfonuiu is, that when he has found honey, he enters upon the ea t with an appetite so voracious that he usually destroy^ his own delight by excess' and stitiety., Á_ 4 Ho--Nir,. --The p1.in which is flIt when we are first transplanted from our native soil, when the living branch is cut from the parent tree, is one of the most poignant which we have to endure through life. There are after griefs which wound more deeply, which leave behind them scars never to be effaced, which bruise the spirit, and sometimes break the heart but never do we feel so keenly the want of love, the necessity of being loved, and the utter sense of desertion, as when we first leave the haven of home, and are, as it were, pushed off upon the stream of life. RESOLUTION.—The longer we live the more we are impressed with the deep importance of cultivating this excellent quality. It is greatly overlooked in the usual estimates of a man's cha- racter. We speak of his generosity, his courage, his inte»ritv, his manners and attainments we call him amiable, affection- ate, intelligent, but we seldom inquire if he is resolute. Wc praise the resolution by which an individual carries on a great design, but that is not what we mean. The less obtrusive but far more valuable peculiarity to which we allude, is that quiet, never-sleeping spirit which pervades the whole tenour of some men's existence, and is in fact the secret cause of their great- ness and wealth, and success in whatever they undertake. It; is the spell by which so insignificant a creature as an ant piles a hill for his dwelling by which the coral insect raises an island in the ocean. It is more valuable than gold, and will accomplish more than genius with half the disappointment and peril.
A FUND FOR AGED MINISTERS. A QUESTION WHICH MUST BE ANSWERED, WHAT will become of aged and infirm ministers ? The wri- ter addressed the above question to Dissenters in the principa- lity some years ago, and from that time to the present he has not ceased in some measure to agitate the subject in print, bv private letters, and in conversation with friends. Now his heart is cheered by witnessing some good effect produced. It may appear too soon to exult in joyful congratulations, as the plans for a ministerial aid society are not finally matured. Yet surely the feeling created on the behalf of those friends who have worn themselves out in the work of our blessed Lord seem to warrant the conclusion that now it amounts almost to a certainty that a society is about being formed to provide for the wants of those who are no longer able to meet their own claims. And be it never forgotten that the churches stand as much in need of such a society as the aged pastors do them- selves. The principles on which it is intended to establish the society will appear in some of the Welsh periodicals for August. Should it be deemed desirable, a translation may appear in the PRINCIPALITY (a paper circulating in large numbers through the length and breadth of Gwalia, and worthy of a place on the table of every Dissenter). Questions have been put to the writer respecting the extent of the proposed society. Is it to be open to all Dissenting ministers in Wales ? or is it to be con- fined within the precincts of one denomination? As it re- gards his own feelings, he would say, for all! But universal' co-operation, though most devoutly to be wished, is not a hea- ven to be realised while sojourning in the imperfect and tran- sitory state of mortals. The writer has always lifted his feeble voice against the see. tarian feeling manifested amongst the different sections of "the" one church of God, and more especially against that nonde- script that occasions unkind sentiments and untoward conduct indulged in by parties towards each other in the same denomi- nation But taking all things into consideration he would say that the best way is for all to work denominationally. lie would fling away the idea of selfishness-the littleness of bi- gotry and of sectarianism, and embrace all in one universal brotherhood. At the same time he must confess himself though not a sectarian, to be a denominational man, believing I t5 that a man of no denomination is no man at all. He hopes divine Providence will grant him life long enough to see a mi- nisterial aid society founded by every denomination of Chris- tians. The Wesleyans have long ago given a pattern to the world by making provisions to meet the wants of their aged minis- ters. The writer happens to know some of those veteran sol- diers of the cross who, after thirty or forty years' hard labour are now in the full enjoyment cf means to support them above the frowns of a haughty and unstable world and though their heads are silvered o'er with age and their backs bent with tie weight of years, yet they appear to be living personifications of contentment and happiness. They are a burden to no nco- ple, therefore they are useful. Tney are not dependent, there- fore they are respected. When they are wanted they preach, and when they are allowed they will sit down to enjoy the sexmons of their juniors. The young respect them, love them, seek their counsel, and enjoy their society. Our active and zealous friends the Calvinist Methodists in Wales have also commenced a similar work. They have an "Aged Ministers' Fund," but on too limited a scale. The sums in their report are too small for the wealthy donors, and for the receivers. Success to them to advance, and may others copy good exam. pies! The Independents and Baptists tock their rise in Wales about the same time ages before those noble souls Whitfield and Wesley were born, and yet the followers of these men are destined to give denominational lectures in econonrcs to those who existed denominationally in the world long before them May Baptists and Independents be found sufficii n ly tractable to lend a listening ear and a feeling heart to the instructions imparted. And though the present times are turbulent, though kingdoms are shaken to their foundations, though thrones arc tottering and monarchs are fleeing, yet let Zion rejoice, her foundations are sure, her bulwarks cannot be stormed down, her walls cannot be scaled. May she be able to support all her useful institutions, and especially may she have one for the support of those aged watchmen who have stood on her walls during the colds and the storms of night as well as the heat and the trials of the day. Cnmo BACH,
AN ADDRESS TO THE YOUNG MINISTERS OF THE BAPTIST DENOMINATION IN WALES. BRETHREN,—Permit me, who am less than the least of you. to address you on a subject which bears the same relation to the prsonal interests of every one of you as it bears to that of my own. It would have been more meet for me to receive from you, than to send to you an address on any subject; and though I acknowledge the verity of the doctrine of our divine Master, that "it is more blessed to give than to receive," I must con- fess that, in the present circumstance, I should have preferred the latter still, I am proud of the honour of serving you eitlier in giving or receiving. Without further remarks I hasten to notice the sub- ject to which I would fain call your attention. The subje.t which I would submit to your consideration is that old, un- importune 1, but not unimportant question, What will be- come of the old ministers ?" Which question, I presume, you will not deem irrelevant; for, though at present young, since we grow old, this question in its heavy bearings, as it regard?'. us, is in my estimation far, very far, from being unimportant.. To ask as well as to answer this question is not, I confess, the proper business of our age, so remarkably distinguished for its multiplicity of affairs and that the said question would have been duly and decidedly answered long before our time were it not for the improvidence of our predecessors still, as a ques- tion of so great importance has hitherto been neglected, I trust that an opportunity will be seized, amid the proverbial assi- duity of the times, to take it up, and that what will become of the old ministers r" will at length be duly and satisfactorily answered otherwise the same fault will be found with us bv those that shall succeed us, as we find with those that pre- ceded us; and it is but just that we should stand the same consequences, Though our ancestors neglected to imitate the ant, in gather- ing during the summer of youth towards the winter of age"; there can be but little doubt that the cfuestiort what will bt* come of the old ministers?" has repeatedly offered itself, though it met but with the same reception as that which Pad met with before Felix, nor was it dismissed with less inelif.. ference—" Go thy way for this time they, like Felix, seem to have .arrived at the terminus, before they found a convenient season," You are aware of the inconveniences connected with retaining our office, and discharging the duties of the ministry under the infirmities of old age; of this we'have too ni any instances. How painful it is to see individuals who atone time obtained popularity and influence, striving' to maintain their ground, when, from infirmity and age, they can command nei- ther, They are obliged to preach, having, no other alternative but destitution, and it is piteous in the extreme Ito see them striving to keep soul and body together, knowing, at the same time, that every effort they make hastens their dissolution. Littie thouglit they, whilst in the prime of life, that they should ever be brought to feel the importance of the question "what will become of the old ministers r" Then they were strong and active, popular and innuential, and labouriii,, in fields noted for their widcness and fructuosity, though, when they took to them they were as remarkable for their smallntess and* barrenness but they succeeded, under the divine ble, sing, y to wideti them, and ultimately to bring them into a thriving cohdition, after having spent upon them a considerable quantify (,' ¡"
digging at from lfd. to] 2d. per rod. In preparing for a fal- low crop, there i-s also an expense incurred in harrowing, and i in raising a ridge with the plough, which last is worth about Ye per acre, Mr. Mitchell is of opinioil that a course of seven years, in- 'stead of the usual one of four years, is best adapted to spade husbandry and his object has been to act upon this sys- tem as much as possible. 13 eing satisfied with the first trials, he soon augmented his farm to its present magnitude; and under the seven years' course, the following would be the descriptions of his various crops:—1st year, fallow crop of turnips, cabbages, or beet. 2nd, barley. 3rd and 4th, clover or artificial grasses. 5th, oats. 6th, beans, peas, or táres; and 7th, wheat, -It is to be observed that he always ploughed clover layer for the succeeding crop, not dug it; and that the horses, when not Wanted for other purposes, are employed in assisting the dig- gers in preparing the land for seed. Spade husbandry, indeed, can hardly be expected, even in its completest form, altoge- ther to exclude the plough, when carried on to a considerable extent; for as a certain number of horses are necessary for various operations upon a farm, these will naturally be em- ployed in ploughing, when they are not required for other duty, 1"atlier than that they should stand idle. Twenty labourers, besides a bailiff, are kept upon the farm, instead of thirteen, who would be necessary under the ordinary system; and five or six horses instead of twelve. With so small a number of horses, it is clear, that they would not be equal to all the hay and corn harvest; and hence a good deal of the hay and corn are always stacked in the fields where they are grown. Mr. Mitchell considers it to be an advantageous consequence of snade cultivation, that it improves the soil so much as to enable it to bear the clover artificial grasses for two years in- stead of one by which means the expense of one year's tillage is saved in the course adopted. He thinks it not impossible, likewise, that by the advancing amelioration of the soil, clover may be borne on it more than once in eight years, whidi is the shortest interval of its repetition in the county of Norfolk; some of the other artificial grasses being substituted at the interven- ing period for grass seeds. Spade husbandry is not a system of expense or risk. Less capital is necessary for it than ordinary husbandry, in the smaller number of horses and implements required, while the advantages are speedily exhibited. Its tendency is to diminish and keep down the poor rates, to aid materially the favourable operation of the poor laws while at the same time it raises the workman in the scale of society, by increasing the amount of his remuneration, and by making it depend on steady habits of industry. It bears a considerable resemblance to horticulture in its operation on the soil, which it loosens, deepens, and cleanses much more thoroughly than can be done by the plough and harrow. By turning up the ground, likewise, five or six inches deeper than the plough, which does not ordinarily act on more than three or four inches of soil, there is an opportunity af- forded for the descent and diffusion of the roots, which are often interrupted in their progress by a hard and impervious under surface. With regard to wheat I have had an opportu- nity of observing, that the number and length of the roots are much more considerable in forked than in ploughed land.