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FRANCE.,

SPAIN.

ITALY.I

SICILY.

GERMANY.

-------------_--IRELAND.'

THE CONFEDERATE LEADERS.

STATE OF WATERFORD.

[No title]

CHEMISTRY AND AGRICULTURE.

!SPADE HUSBANDRY.

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SPADE HUSBANDRY. After all manures have been considered, the spade is; per- haps, the greatest of all fertilizers. A great mass of informa- tion on this head was collected by Dr. Yelloby, not, however, with the view of showing the increased fertility of the soil by deep stirring, as with the intention of demonstrating the im- mense field which is thus opened for the profitable use of the spade husbandry. He remarked—The farm where the system is pursued, which: forms the subject of this letter, is situated at Wattlefield, in the pansh of Wymondham in Suffolk. It is in the occupation of John Mitchell, Esq. The farm consists of 317 acres, of which 207 acres are arable, and 110 in pasture and plantations. It it a mixed soil but is rather disposed to be heavy. The country is flat, and the land requires draining, which is effected by bushes and straw. 3 As soon as it was known that Mr. Mitchell meant to adopt the spade culture extensively and permanently, and not merely as an experiment or a temporary means of increasing employ- ment, the early prejudices against it subsided and as the la- bourers found that the remuneration was fully equal to piece- work, and imidi more than the usual daily wages, and that 77an' ?rhcthcr1 marned OT smgle, was paid according to U in + °ne' 1 so1on1 became very popular, and he was speedily ableto command the seryices of the most steady and expert men m his neighbourhood. Though the process was began with the spade, a strong three- pronged fork, of 14 inches deep and 1 inches wide, which was found to be more manageable and less expensive than the spade, was soon allowed to be substituted for it, on the appli- cation of the workmen. It costs 4s.. 6d, instead of 6s. 6d. weighed 8 lbs.; and when worked down, could be relaid at a trifling expense. The digging is effected by taking in about four inches at a time, pressing perpendicularly, and getting to a proper depth at two thrusts, The earth is not, however, turned out of the trench to a greater depth than ten inches, though the fork may get down as far as thirteen or fourteen; but that which re- mains at the bottom, in the state of what is called U crumbs," answers the purpose equally with the earth which is thrown out, ot terming a permeable medium for the roots of the plant which is to grow in it. The men prefer working together, in order that ■_ their labour may be as nearly as possible on the same description of goil but each takes about nine feet in width,' so that his work can be easily measured. The plan is to have a breathing about every half hour and the men never work more than ten hours p d'ay. Digging-however, is much more laborious than the usual operations of agriculture, though it is much less so under the use of the fork than t,spade. They work the land in ridges of about nine feet in width, and the furrows dividing them are sometimes made by the pldugh, previously to the digging, and sometimes by the management of the labourers, during the work, assisted by the eye only. The men receive for ordinary digging after a white crop, from 2d. to 2!tl.; per rod of 30 square yards; the price varying 2 I according to the tenacity of the soil, and whether manure is to be dug in. This expense, then, amounts to jEt 13s. 4d. per acre; and in many situations this digging to the depth of fourteen or sixteen inches would be fully equal in effect to a summer fallow of several ploaghings on the mere score, there- fore, of economy, the field-digging is, under certain circum- stances, to be preferred. Where the land is to have a fallow crop, that is, turnips, mangel wurzel, or Cabbages (for no part of the fahn, or the land in the immedinte heighbourhood, has ever a naked fal- low), there is a first ploughing, which is done at a seat On when the horses can be best spared, and afterward a