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APPLICATION OF FARM-YARD DUNG. In a former paper it was proposed to prepare turnip lands for being sown by means of the operations of Finlayson's grub- ber, after the winter ploughing of one deep furrow. The pur- pose of this paper is to describe the mode of applying farm- yard dung, in accompaniment with that preparation. We know enough of the nature of the food of plants to sup- pose that it must be in a state of solution and suspension, pro- ceeding from minute sub-division; that water is the vehicle, and that the substances which the plants imbibe must be in a very comminuted state to be capable of being suspended in the common carrier. Similar observations have led to the prepar- ing and cooking of food for animals and human beings; and though plants cannot show us so quickly and visibly, we may very reasonably suppose that they possess the insdnctive fa- culty of choosing and rejecting; and we have this exposition niade by them, of their growing more rapidly when fed with one substance than with another, to direct and guide us in the application of aliment to vegetables, as well as to the individual members of the animal kingdom. In the operations of art we must imitate the processes of nature rankness. and coarseness of food produce an unwholesome vegetation, as is seen from excrements dropped on a grass field and the effects of coarse and unpreparedfooél are well known, on the forms of man and other animals, in producing large bloated carcases. A mass of dung, cold or warm, lying in a drill, must be in too gross a form to present and afford ready and palatable aliment to the tender fibres of plants, and a further reduction and mixing is necessary to produce that matrix of comminuted and finely- blended substances in which plants so very much delight to grow. The influence of air and moisture will reduce dry sub- stances to a manure by blending with the soil. Much tima, however, is required, and a great quantity of moisture, and the frequent stirring in the land. It is reasonable to suppose that farm-yard dung, and all substances that are applied to land as manure, should be in a reduced state and in the case of the former it would require an application to the land at an early season, in order that it may be broken and mixed by the subsequent workings of the land by the implements. In dry land and cl early climates the land may be fully half prepared during the previous autumn, and the spring stirrings may be done in the month of May. The farm-yard dung may then be laid on the surface in broadcast, spread very evenly, and ploughed under with one furrow. Finlayson's harrow may then work twice, lengthwise and across, or more if neces- sary, which will mix the soil and the dung, and make the land fit for being sown, in the form of drills or on the flat surface in ridges. In order to facilitate the mixing of the soil and the. dung as intimately as possible, the straw for litter must be cut by the thrashing machinery into lengths of four inches at most, which will not entangle the implements in the process of work- ing the land. The dung will be carried to the field from the yards without undergoing any heating preparation to produce the gaseous elements. This mode of applying farm-yard dung consists in mixing and blending the soil and the dung in the utmost possible manner of intimate comminution. It is in direct opposition to the present most approved mode of the putrefaction of the sub- stances, the generation of heat, and the evolution of the gaseous fluids but it rests on the undeniable specimens- of nature's chemistry which everywhere abound. And though a chemi- cal combination may ever exceed our powers, yet we do not know how near to it a'mechanical mixture may approach and- if it be absurd to expect perfection in any attempt, there can be neither absurdity nor foolishness in making the nearest o,,3s-, possible approaches to it. In support of the theory now advanced, we bring forward the example of Delta grounds, alluvial lands, of lucustrine de- posits, and of deposits of every kind, and of all low-lying grounds where a multitude of different matters have been con- gregated, and where they have been mingled into a state of very great fertility. The wonderful fertility of the Delta of Egypt is well known; yet, from the analysis of the mud of the Nile, here given, we cannot draw any conclusions in what z!) elemsntary matters the principle of fertility is contained. MUD OF THE -NILI, BY GIRARD — Water n Carbon 9 Oxide of iron. 6 Silex 4 Carbonate of magnesia 4 •Carbonate of lime 18 Alum en .48 mo The peculiar state of the combination of the elements, and the external agencies to which-they are exposed, no doubt are the cause of the unceasing-fertility of-the lgypjian soil. Cli- mate, and the exhalations that are caused thereby, have a most powerful effect in counteracting the original constitution of soils; in many cases they defeat the natural quality, and in others they correct the constitutional defects. And though we certainly do not possess the suns or the exhalations of Egypt, that need not deter us from taking a lesson from the fact that is shown us, and trying how far the best mechanical mixture which we can bestow will resemble the formation of nature; and what effects it will produce in the geographical position of our locality.

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