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w-''.-———----——— WOLSEY, THE…


w- .-——— -— —— WOLSEY, THE CARDINAL-CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND. AN HISTORICAL ROMANCE. [ALL RIGHTS RESMVZD.L 44 if the time should arrive when it may be right- fqUy celebrated, I shall have nothing, my liege, to der ID opposition to your royal will," replied the Ordinal. Chap 28 Equivocation is worse than lying! cried the King. with more than wonted fierceness of tone. j I* Speak out on the point. What is that thou art lining at ?" is The good of the Church, the maintenance of my gavereign's fame, and the welfare of my country Was Wolsey's answer, as he folded his arms across his Ifeast, and bowed with studied dignity before the im- petuous monarch. fl I mistrust thee, Sir Cardinal," said the King"; Wthou shalt learn that we are not content to be a puppet in thy hands!" « There are, methinks, daughters of Emperors and Mugs," Wolsey said, in a deferential tone, and as if pugtng rather than as suggesting the impolicy of the pep contemplated by Henry, from whom the King ad England might choose a wife, with honour to him- IW aDd advantage to his kingdom." I II Silence!" exclaimed Hehry I will wed whom t wJll Affairs of the heart are not to be treated as patters of state-craft; nor will I do thy bidding that pore gold may flow into thy coffers My liege!" cried the Cardinal. My liege, what purest thou ? Dost thou impute to me the acceptance of bribes ?" « Aye, marry, I do, Sir Cardinal," retorted the King. atWbo and what art thou, forsooth, to be above a Wbe? Is there a bishop or a judge, an ecclesiastical Qf Secular official, within this realm of ours that hath not rbis price ? If there is one, I'pray thee tell me where may be found. It is useless to dissemble with ps! As for the monastic and other religious houses, |bey are veritable sinks of iniquity! The day is not "ty remote when I will shake the nests in which notoriously foul birds find shelter to pieces, and scatter |i}e inmates abroad!" The King, when his indignation had been thoroughly aroused-and he bad a habit of lashing felBiself into a fury on the slightest provocation- wmld occasionally allow his ire to cool and, rallying W Judgment to his aid, assume a calmness in strong fjOBtrast to the tumult of passion with which be had allowed himself to be carried away. Dr. Butts seems t9 have been under the impression that Henry suf- fered from epilepsy, and if there was any foundation for this conjecture the insensate acts of the monarch pay be accounted for on the hypothesis that under pertain conditions of excitement he was absolutely pad! 04 The Church," said Wolsey, after a pause, is in- corruptible, and-" if But the priests are corrupt, Sir Cardinal!" inter- posed Henry, "and by my halidom they shall lwi h!" "The Holy Father, Head of the Church——" *• I purpose being Head of the Church within the realm of England cried the King, with an oath, M and mean to enforce my authority! See to it, that the Commission of Inquiry into the legality of my marriage with my brother's widow is at once consti- tuted The Cardinal, finding the King implacable, asked permission to leave him, and receiving it, passed into 1PJ private apartments, while Henry hied to the tennis court, and abandoned himself to the exciting game. I Wolsey saw that the King was no longer to be fyiiled with, and forthwith took steps to induce the fope to send an emissary to England, with the result $hat the Cardinal Campeggio was despatched for the Mirpose of opening a Court. Chap 28 "After the arrival of the Lpgate Campeggio," says Uavendish, with this solemn commission in England, ike, being sore vexed with the gout, was constrained by force thereof to make a long journey or ever he "me to London; who should have been most folemnly received at Blackheath, and so with great triumph conveyed to London. But his glory was inch that he would in nowise be entertained with any such pomp or vain glory, who suddenly came by irftter in a wherry to his own house outside Temple Bar, then called Bath-place, which was furnished for ftlm with all manner of stuff and implements of my lord's provision, where:he continued and lodged during Hi abode here is England." CHAPTER XXIX. Ikt letieth his sovereign frowns, the train of state, Mark tHe keen glance and watch the sign to liate Where'er he trims he meets the stranger's eye, His suppliants scorn him, and his followers fly Now drops at once the pride-of awful state, The golden canopy, the glittering plate, The regal palace, the luxurious board, The liveiy'd army, and the inental lorcl. ffotSET, with the ominous shadow of coming evil projected across his path, as we have seen, deemed it expedient in 1526 to make the King a present at Hampton Court. It has been well said that it was a gift not of love but of despair. Henry's finances j were running low, and it was necessary that the Hoyal exchequer should be replenished. Taught by [ Wolsey that the dissolution of a monastery did not amount to absolute sacrilege—for the Cardinal had despoiled several by permission of Leo the Tenth, and put their revenues to the foundation of his colleges and oole-tha King began to think that he too, as head At the Church, might commence a work of spoliation Is his own personal interest. The basis of a scheme was laid which in the course of a few years resulted In the overthrow of 645 monastery establishments. 28 of which were governed by abbots possessing seats in the Upper House of Parliament. While this movement was in course of development Wolsey, who had not experienced the full weight of the King's wrath, and still occasionally residing at Hampton Court at Henry's desire, entertained the French Ambassadors there with lavish hospitality and unparalleled magnificence. That he did so with alacrity Mld vast outlay is probably due to a belief on his part that the alliance between the English monarch and a princess of France, which he had so much at heart, might be faciliated thereby, and Henry'? passionate projects ÙJ reference to Annie Boleyn c: ncidently frustrated. The stories of wealth whLt tradition says Will &Mars. the Kin!i's fool. di*cc.7er<d in II -ir"%k II- Printing of every Description I I '¡. Hampton Court, while on a visTf toTatciT, tTie rardTnafs I jester, were drawn upon to an extraordinary extent. and 11 the casks containing thousands of broad pieces each," were breached with lavish profusion. Wolsey, according to the statement of Cavendish, called before him his steward, treasurer, controller, and clerk of the kitchen, and "commanded them neither to spare for any cost, expense, or travayle, to make such a triumphant banquet," as that the am- bassadors might not only wonder at it here. but also make of it a glorious report in their country to the great honour of the King and his realm." It is the King's wish," said Wolsey to Cromwell, and that sufficetb me. Peradventure, too, it may convince his highness that he hath no more Icval subject within the borders of England than the man whom he hath seen fit to honour." "Methinks," observed the faithful secretary, someone hath poisoned the mind of the King against your grace." I fear the surmise is warranted by the conduct of his highness," replied the Cardinal; but he hath a noble nature, and his eyes, now blinded by passion, will open to the truth before long." Cromwell shook his head, but kept silence, for he saw that his master's brow was overclouded. Thou'rt in doubt, good Cromwell," said Wolsey in a mournful tone of voice. Aye, marry am I, your grace," was the reply; uan' I I read thy thoughts aright, thou'rt hoping against hope, my lord." I 'have done the King right faithful services," the Cardinal remarked, "and he will not desert '¡ me." "Put not thy trvst in prin :s," observed the secretary in a sentenc es manner, but with respect- ful mein. Thou'rt right, my good Cromwell," said Wolsey, thou'rt right. Gratitude is a rare plant, and is cul- tivated less by monarchs than members of any other class." "The Lady Anne, whom the King desires to wed in secret," Cromwell remarked," is very bitter against your grace." U I know it too well his master observed: I know it too well. She hath taken Cranmer, the married priest-he who wedded the daughter of mine hostess of the Dolphin Tavern in Cambridge, but who folks falsely assert was smuggled into England in a packing-case-under her foster-wing." The King, too, and it may please your grace," added the secretary, "now looks upon him with favour." So be it, so be it," exclaimed Wolsey. And then changing the current of converse the Cardinal bade Cromwell render all the aid he could to make the forthcoming entertainment to the Frenchmen a great success. chap 29 "To accomplish his commandment," Cavendish records, they sent out caterers, purveyors, and divers other persons, my lord's friends, to make pre- paration also they sent for the expert cookes and cunnying persons in the' art of cookerie which were within London or elsevhere, that might be gotten to beautify this noble feast." The gentleman-usher whose descendants, the Dukes of Devonshire, are remarkable for their patronage of art and sustained splendour, and whose transmitted taste finds exemplification at Chatsworth —evidently took great delight in fulfilling the Cardinal's behest. He further records how that the purveiors provided and my lord's friends sent in such provisions as one would wonder to have seen. The cookes wrought both day and night with subtleties and many craftie devices, and lacked neither gold, silver, nor other costly thing meet for their purpose; while the yeoman and groomes of the wardrobe were busied in hanging of the chambers, and furnishing the same with bads of silk and other furniture in every degree. The Cardinal, sending for Cavendish specially, and two other gentleman ushers, charged them to forsee all things touching rooms to be nobly garnyshed. Accordingly," he adds, our pains are not small nor light, but there was daily travelling up and down from chamber to chamber. Then wrought the carpenters, joiners, masons, and all other artificers necessary to be had to glorify this noble feast. There was carriage and re-carriage of plate, stuff, and other rich implements, so that there was nothing lacking that could be imagined or devised for the purpose. There was also provided two hundred and eighty beds furnished with all manner of furniture to them belonging, too long to be particularly rehearsed." The quaint chronicler, however adds, All wise men know what belongeth to the furniture thereof, and that is sufficient at this time to be said." When the Frenchmen arrived they were invited to bunt at Hanworth, a pJce and parke of the King's about three miles off," and in the evening they re- turned to Hampton Coilrr. where every one of them was conveyed to their several chambers, having in them great fires and wine to their comfort and relief." Subsequently dinner, or rasher supper," as it was styled in those days, was served, the chambers where they banquetted being ordered in this sort: First, the great waytipg chamber was hanged with rich arras, as all others were, and furnished with tall yeomen to serve. There were set tables round about covered with richest fare; a cupboard was then garnyshed with white plate, having also in the same chamber to give the more light four great plates of silver with great lights, and large fires of wood and coales." chap 29 The next chamber, being the Chamber of Presence, was hanged with very costly arras, and a sumptuous cloth of estate furnished, with many goodly gentlemen to serve the tables, ordered in manner as the other tables were, saving that the high table was removed beneath the cloth of estate towards the midst of the chamber." Then there was what is now known as a sideboard or buffet," as long as the chamber was in breadth, with six deskes of great high, garnyshed with gilt plate," having candlesticks of silver gilt curiously wrought, which cost three hundred markes, and standing upon the same, two lights of waxe burning as big as torches to set it forth." The plate on this cup- board or sideboard was more for ornament than use, and therefore was barred round about "—it was necessary then, as now, to keep a vigilant eye upon valuable portable property-" that no man could come nigh it, for there was none of all this touched at the banquet, there being amply suffi- cient without it for use." Th reflectors on the walls behind the lamps and candles were of silver gilt, and highly burnished, and great 'perchers' of waxe were burning, with a vast fire in the chimney, and all other things necessary for so noble a feast." The Lady Anne and other ladies were introduced to the Minstrels' Gallery that they might look on tbi 1 I Executed at the "ChroJlicle" Office, Penarth. IIi 9 i i entertainment without being known, and there were also among the privileged spectators of a banquet in which for reason of etiquette or prudence they could not join, the Lady Mayoress, fair Rose Cady, beauti. ful as ever in her matronly prime, while her husband* Lord Mayor of London for that year, held a place of honour in the hall below. chap 29 Henry, although he never forgave the citizen and hit wife for their conduct in byegone years, was too politic to deny Worshipful Master Roundell the honour of knighthood commonly bestowed by monarchs on the chief magistrates of London. Sir Thomas Boleyn's daughter occupied a seat ia the front, and failed not, albeit against the King'. wishes, to attract the attention of many gallants by her demonstrative bearing. Henry, who was not present, doubtless hoped to receive from her full details of the feast, but it was wholly against his wish that the lady whom he had commended to the Cardinal's care, revealed enough of herself to cause it to be bruited among the Frenchmen that she was an observant witness of the scene. Wolsey was indignant at the course pursued by the King, and extremely angry with the Lady Anne" for violating the incognita she was bidden to assume. His plans were in a measure frustrated by her ostentatious demeanour, while those of his rivals and detractors—foremost among whom stood the DUKe. of Norfolk and Suffolk-were likely to be advanced. He saw that he had lost control of the Sovereign's will, and that he must henceforth remain:content to be a puppet in the hands of an unscrupulous wire puller. It is notorious that Anne was 11 marvellouslit dayntie about her gloves, and she took care to show them, covered as they were with jewels and rings of gold, on the crimson velvet cushion in front of her. Katherine was wont to make her maid of honour take, them off when she played at cards, that a deformed nail which disfigured one of her fingers might haply disgust the King! Of Elizabeth, her daughter, on the principle of "like parent like child," it is recorded that although, mercenary in other respects, she was extravagant, fastidious, and capricious in the extreme about her gloves." She used to display them to advantage when playing her virgineIle-once so great a source of attraction to visitors at the Exhibition of Inventions —though the Queen put them off when she wished to display her art to perfection, as was the case when she took care that the Scotch Ambassador should overbear her, and whom she afterwards asked if his mistress, Mary Stuart, could play as well The gloves which Anne wore at Hampton Court were a present from Henry, and probably more costly than those given by the King to Sir Anthony Denny, his executor, and which were sold by auction for t38 17s. 9d., with other effects of the Earl of Arran, upwards of a century ago. By the time that the Lady Anne had taken her seat a fanfare of trumpets announced that the banquet was served," and the officers discreetly went and conducted the French noblemen from their chambers into the place where they should suppe, and caused them there to sit down. That done their service came up in such abundance, both costly and full of subtleties, and with such a pleasant noyse of instru- ments of musicke for the minstrels were playing joyous airs-that the Frenchmen," says Cavendish, "Ieemed as if they were rapt in a heavenly para- dise." The Cardinal, however, did not make his appear- ance until just before the second course was about to be served, when, with the pride which apes humility, he came in suddenly, booted and spurred, as if from a long ride. The company rose every man from his place," but Wolsey, bidding them be seated, gavo-, them preface," and cried out in a loud voice, in ac- cordance with the custom of the day Much good may it do you." Calling for a chair, he sat down in the midst of the • high paradise,' laughing and making merry," to such an extent that his gentleman usher declared he had never seen his master so joyous in all his life before. When the second course was served, there came up. dishes, subtleties, and devices, above a hundred in number," and of so goodly proportion and so costlie," Cavendish goes on to remark, that I think the Frenchmen never saw the like. The wonder was no less than it was worthy indeed. There were castles with images the same as in St. Paul's Church, for the quality was well counterfeited as the painter should have painted them on a cloth or wall. There were beasts, birds, and personages most lively made, some fighting with swords, some with guns and cross-bowes, some vaulting and leaping, some dancing with ladies, some on horses with complete harnesse joustling with long and sharpe speares, and other novelties." Among the quaint but withal costly objects of interest was a chess-board and men of spiced plate," which because the Frenchmen were expert j in that play," the Cardinal presented to one of his guests he also bestowed other presents upon the ambassadors and members of their suite. When the feast had far advanced, Wolsey rose, and having looked in a significant manner in the direction of the gallery for a moment, bowed to the chief Frenchmen present, and taking up a bottle of gold filled with ippocras, and putting off his cappe, ex- claimed: 'I drink to the King, my sovereign lord. and next unto the King, your master.' He them drank a good draught, and called upon the Grand Maistre' in return to pledge him cup and all, the, which was weil worth five hundred markes." The wine-cups went merrily about to the health of the two monarchs. Presently, however, many of the Frenchmen, not accustomed to potations pottle deep, Cavendish tells us, were faine to be led to their beds." Wolsey then rose, and retiring to his privy chamber, put off his boots and riding apparel." Having as- sumed robes of State, with jewelled shoes and many rings, he partook of a short supper," and returned' to the Presence Chamber, where he met his guests, using them "so lovingly and familiarly that they could not commend him too much." The Lady Anne, it may be taken for granted, wa. desirous of giving a good account of all that took place to the King, and as she craved permission to tarry at the palace that night instead of returning to Richmond, she and her attendant dam3s had abundant opportunity of inspecting two or three at least of the private apartments prepared by the Cardinal for his guests. chap 29 In every chamber there were basins and ewers of silver, beds of silk, and hangings of leather or arras; there ware "livery pots of silver and gold, with wine and beere; boules, goblets, and pots of silver to drink from silver candlesticks; torches of waxe. a. fiaa DMmchet. and a cheat loaf.