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RURAL LIFE. i BY A SON OF THE SOIL, THE CHEERY-EED SHORTHORX. The Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn Associa- tion lias now enjoyed twenty years of activity, and its efforts have done much to spread the high reputation of the breed for a combination of milk and beef. Each April the Association holds an annual bull sale, and the past year saw the most successful sale vet held. Whether next April's sale shows equally good results must depend to me extent on the progress of the war, and also on the suppression of foot-and-mouth 'disease, which continues to break out at in- tervals, in spite of every effort to control and prevent it. Notwithstanding the restric- tions on exports of cattle caused by this dis- ease and by the risks in the earlier part of the war to overseas shipping, the Association granted no fewer than fifty-five export certi- ficates up to October 1st. Buyers of cattle for export to the hot countries always prefer 'animals of a red colour, as ic is the common experience that th's is best able to resist the fierce powers of the semi-tropical sun. Light- coloured cattle invariably suffer more, and, therefore, prove less profitable when sub- mitted to the pure, intense sunshine which floods the vast and almost shadeless ranches. The deep cherry-red colour of the hair of Lincolnshire Red Shorthorns is now well fixed, and for this breeders are indebted to Thomas Turnell, who owned a famous herd "near Wragbv,-which was in its prime a little over 100 years ago. Except for the fixed colour, the breed is similar to other Short- horns, though undoubtedly it owes its good constitution and great hardiness to the LINCOLNSHIRE RED BILL. ■absence of inbreeding in its more recent h's- tory. It has all along been open to outside blood, and even now, although the Herd Book is tWllty years old, the Association still allow a red bull entered in Coates's Herd Book to he used, and admit, the pro- geny to the Lincolnshire lied Herd Bock. Other qualities for which the breed claims special recognition are length of frame, •weight of carcase, and special capacity for 'milk production; and the Lincolnshire Reds have for some years past been prominent in the milk and butter classes at the dairy shows. In this connection it should be remembered that at the time when the Herd Bock was formed the Shorthorn was being bred much more for beef than fur miIV, and it was not until 1901 that the Shorthorn Sc e'ety could be prevailed upon to give prizes for cows showing dairy qualities, while the Dairy Shorthorn (Coates's Herd Book) Association was only formed in 1 Hence, Lincoln- shire Red breeders c?.n claim to ha\e given a valuable lead. Scmo of the individual breeders of Lincolnshire Reds have been pioneei's in the keeping of milk records, and the astonishing improvement in their herds has done much to turn other cattle-owners' attention to the great value of this system. HEDGE LIKE LOADS OF HAY. As the botanical name for the yew, Taxus, implies, the wood of this tree was formerly used for making bows, and in the times when our forefathers were content with such miki methods of death dealing the tree was exten- sively planted. Many of the trees now met with had their origin in this way. But the habit of planting yews in churchyards or in the gardens around sacred temples was adopted by the Greeks from the Egyptians, practised by the Romans, and also by the Britons. Yews are so rarely cut down—being much too slow growing for sylvieultural treatment—that the timber is hardly known to many lifelong users of wood. But'it is a very valuable timber, though drying exceed- ingly slowly after being cut. For cabinet work there is said to be 110 better wood. and tables made from it are some of the choicest. It is >Vry heavy wood, weighing when dry above 601b. per cubic foot, and it seems to be as nearly imperishable as any wood. it 1, UG.v;r, (i.3 n .1lHg- J.TJ.ra tunc n-:o yew is most valued nowadays, though its slow growth causes it to be passed over by gar- deners who want a natural fence or screen to grow in the minimum time. But if one is content to allow a yew hedge to take its own time, meanwhile, of course, giving it proper attention, it will grow to enormous size. At Compton Bassett, Wiltshire, there are yew hedges as wide over the top as a load of hay, and dense enough to bear the weight of the men clipping them. They do best 011 cal- careous soils where sufficient light and mois- ture can reach them, and it is a chalk soil that has produced the enormous hedges just mentioned. The common yew is the only British species, but this has given rise to YEW fit LIT3. I several varieties. The best know 11 and most remarkable is the hidl yew, which is of up- right., column-like habit. It originated in tht mountains of Fermanagh, where it wns found in 1780, and planted at Florencecourt, the seat of the Earl of Enniskillen. This tree is still living, its present dimensions being— height 25ft., circumference 66ft. This is the parent, of all the Irish yews known, and, al- though it is female, its seeds are of no value for purposes of propagation, cuttings being o the only method of reproduction. re- markable seedling sports from the common or English yew are the golden yew, the yellow fruited, and depress, a low spreading shrub The fruit of the yew is normally red and fleshy, and it contains a single egg-shaped seed, the testa or shell of which is hard and the kernel solid and white. These fruits are greedily eaten by birds, but, according to Henry, the seeds, protected by the hard testa, escape digestion, and are voided uninjured. They ar-a known to be poisonous, and birds that have swallowed them may sometimes digest them and thus be poisoned. Au alka- loid (taxin) is present in the leaves and seeds of the yew, but not in the fleshy part of the fruit. It is a curious fact that the percentage of poison may vary in different trees, which may account for the capricious occurrence-of poisoning. It is possible that some birds—for instance, fowls, pheasants, and turkeys- would the seeds, and thus be poisoned. The leaves and shoots are poisonous to cattle, and losses have been numerous through this cause. But^it hp.s been noticed that stock reared near yew do not touch it. The oilier AY'io'li, route ur wholly leruate nowers, yet, it w qurvo \V l::U;'J.VU..1.,1. !.J female trees to bear good crops of fruits each, containing a fertile seed. It is quite worth j while to make use of the seeds for raising a ( supply of young plants, and also on the chance of obtaining a new variety, for all the I numerous forms of the yew known are sup- posed to be seedling sports. TRENCHING WITH EXPLOSIVES Dr. Herbert E. Durham has mads remark- able experiments with explosives as a substitute for deep digging. Using cheddite, he found that a 4oz. cartridge of diameter, which is fired at a depth of oft. and 10ft. from the next, gives a Ico-ening effect in clay soil to a depth of 4-Jft., and attects a, circle of radius about aft. (equalling eight and three quart;r square yards). To test the effect of small charges, he also experimented with a 2-07.. lioz., loz., and loz. cartridge 8ft. apart. This was admitted'}" an ex:ravaga-iit distribu- tion, but the idea was to try whit might he calle^the intensive plan; for in giving a thorough opportunity to the e:;plorivc, a small area in a garden treated at a rat which would be absolutely prohibitive in cost where applied to the whole area. Roughly speaking, the cost of fuse and de- tonator may be put at about Fid., and the powder at Id. an ounce at retail prices; 'X) that on tho estimate of the working efToct of a. 4oz. cartridge, above, a 10ft. circle is worked for 6d. Th's is very iiitieli Ic-zi than would be the e,,¡,t- of trenching to the same depth (4}ft,). 1 he caiiritlgoj are dropped into hoIcE; made with a, soil being afier- warcl-s rammed down 0\1 top of them. Their effect lare:ely depends on the nature and con- dillon (If the ground. If it ii firm throughout, they pulverise it oompkt-Oy, brt if it is natu- ) rally loose or has been deuble-dug they power unless they are sunk deeper. Among the crops wlrch Dr. lirriiam after- wards grew on the site were potatoes and asparagus. One variety of the former, Crim- son Beauty, give a gain v.hich varied from 15 per ccnt. to 88 per cent., according to size of the cartridge used, as compared with the plants grov.n on unexplorled ground. In the case of asparagus, the difference in growth v a.s socn patent to the eye, and the luxuriance of growth was not very far from being doubled. TREATAIEXT OF SANDCKACK. Sandcr.tck is more or le's constitutional, but the imir.ecliatj cause is seme unequal pres- sure or sudden strain on the hoof producing a fissure wlr'cU is usually found on the inside of the fore feet- and in front in the hind feet, j Unless the sender nek is very deep and pene- trates to the sensitive laminm there is not often any lameness, but^ should it be very I I deep the sensitive portion of the foot is in- volved and all inflammatory growth appears between the walls of the cracks, causing great pain and lameness. While the horse is still not lame, it is best, says M.R.C.V.S." in the Marie Lane Express, to get the farrier to burn a furrow just below the hair and above the crack, nearly through the horn, so as to prevent the fissure extending upwards, and from that furrow make a figure Jike an arrow head- with the point at the top cf the crack and the lines pointing downward-.?. Then the farrier must make, an arch below the crack on the lower surface, so that the shoe dees not press on the crack. If necessary a tarred bandage or 0 string must be bound round the foot so as to support the hoof, A mild blister to the coro- nets is also of great assistance, though not necessary. As soon as the horn 11;1. grown down about lin. the- horse can be worked, but a rest is advisable till scne sound horn has grown. Some hc-of dressing cf oeatsfoot oil may be used every day, as this i- an excellent dressing for brittle feet. The farrier should not be. allowed to rasp the front of the hoofs after shoeing, only rasping'below the nails.