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WELSH EDUCATIONAL CON-I COKD4.T. „„Z CHURCH CONFERENCE AT CHESTER. A targely-attendtxl meeting of the clergy and laity of the djocese of St. Asaph was held on Tuesday, at 'Chester, to consider what is known as the' Wt'l'sh Educational Concordat. The Bishop (Dr .Edwards) presided, and the attend- ance included Lord Kehyon, Lord Mostyn, Hon. George T. Kenyon, M.'P., the 'Dean of St. As;ipri, Archdeacon Wynne Jones, Sir [Robert Cunliffe, Mr Stanley Weyman, and others. The conference sat for several hours, and at the close the Bishop informed the reporters they had no J decision to communicate.
FOOTBALL. WELSH AMATEUR CUP.—FINAL. DRUIDS v. BANGOR. On Wrexham Racecourse. The first half was evenly contested, there being no score. During the second half, 'Lloyd cupened the scoring for the Druids, the same player also adding the se- cond and third goals. A fourth goal was headed by Richards. Result: Druids, 4 goals IBangor, nd. WELSH CUP. —FINAL TIE. WREXHAM v. ABERAMAN. This match was decided at Wrexham on Mon- day, in the presence of nearly 5000 (people, Both Wrexham and Aberaman turned out in full strength. The home team won the toss, and juet as Grunnell commenced operations for Aber- aman, a blinding snow storm began to pelt in the visitors' faces. Play was throughout one- sided, and did1 not improve when sides were changed. During the first half, Wrexham ob- tained five goals, W. Davies effecting three of them. In the second half. Wrexham added three more to fheir .score. Half-time: Wrex- haan, 5 goals; Aberaman. nil. Final: Wrex- li-am, 8 goals; Aberaman, nil. COMBINATION. BANGOR v. TRANMERE ROVERS. At Bangor. Mr William A. Dew, an ex- Mayor of IBangor, kicked off in a. shower of hail. Bangor pressed, and Welsh made a good at- tempt. John 'Roberts experienced hard luck with a fine centre f^om a pass bv Bob Evans. John Roberts later forced a oonu*, and, taking the kick, placed beautifully, íBogue heading through, and opening the score for ganger, who continued to monopolise the game. The home- sters increased their score by a. fine shot by Ar- ridge. Tranmere played hard to ooore, and Bob Roberts had to kick out to clear, and later tlu* vi|s^K>rs forced a corner, which proved of no avail. Half-time: Ban,or 3 geals; Tranmere, nil. The second portion of the game was very unattractive, play being mostly confined to mid- field. Tranmere, however, succeeded in nettinz the ball once. The referee, being rather strict on technical fouls, the game was stopped almost every minute. Result: Bangor, 3 goals; TEraJi- mere Rovers. 1. 'Nantwich, 2 goals; Burs!em 'Port Vale, 1. I Chester, 2 goals; Chirk, 1.
Five per soils lodging in Wrexham were found to be suffering from, small pox »n Tuesday, and were removed to tffie fever hospital.
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[PUBLISHED BY SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT.; ■ GUILTY OR NOT GUILTY? BY W. W. HUTCHINGS, Author of Historic Tragedies of London Life," &C.f &C. (COPYRIGHTS XIII.—THE STRANGE CASE OF SPENCER COWPER&MISS STOUT The little county town of Hertford was in the year 1699 tho scene of a moving drama, which drew upon it the eager attention of the whole nation. On the 16th of July in that year, the first day of the Assizes, the Under-Sheriff brought to the bar, to answer a charge of murder, one whose worst foes—and foes he had—had never expected, or hoped, to see him in that ignoble position. An eloquent and rising young barrister, Spencer Cowper had at this same court, four short months before, given prooi of abilities that promised for him a distinguished future. His elder brother, Wm. Cowper, already advancing by rapid strides in a career wiwen was to end only at the woolsack, was not merely a brilliant advocate, but also a potent voice of he represented this very borough of Hertford. The Cowpers, who championed the'whig in- terest at Hertford, had among their suppoilers a well-known Quaker family of the iiume c: Stout, appropriately engaged in the In e-iVi::g trade. At the time with which we are now con- cerned Mr. Stout was dead, but Mrs. Stout, wivit some of their children, had survived him, '-lid sharing her widowed home vac, a. daughter named Sarah, an attractive young lady ot MX-anu- twenty. She it was, his friend, and ine friend of his wife, whom Spencer Cowper no v. accused of having treacherously and lrulahv murdered. The theory of the prosecution was that the poor young lady had first been strangled and then, when already dead, cast into a stream known as the Priory; and they undertook to prove that this odious crime was the joint work of Mr. Cowper and of threa other gentlemen who up to this time, like himself, had borae un- blemished reputations. These gentlemen were John Marson and Ellis Stephens, two London attorneys, who were acquaintances of Ur. Cow- per's, and William Rogers, a scrivener (or con- veyancer) in the same city, who was known to Marson and Stephens, but was quite unknown to Mr. Cowper. ThatSpe: cer Cowper was the last human being in Miss Stout's company before her death was not denied. He had been invited to stay with the Stouts while at Hertford in March, and when he arrived in the town on +he 13th ne sent ms horse to their stables, though he linr-stlf went to the house where his brother always had rooms kept for him during assize week. Presently ..e came to the Stouts' himself, had mid-d^.dinner with his hostesses, and at four went iuto the town saying, 'so the prosecution alleged, that he would return to supper and to stay the night. He did return, and after supper he and Miss Stout sat together talking until after half-past ten. Then the servant, in his hearing, was ordered to warm his bed. While she was doing so she heard the door slam, and coming down- stairs, found to her surprise that both Mr. Cowper and her young mistress had disappeared. She and Mrs. Stout waited and waited, but no one returned. So the night passed. Next morn- ing word was brought that the young lady had been found floating in the Priory river close to the mill-dam, while Mr. Cowper, it appeared, had passed the night at his brother's lodging! The same day an inquest was held, but an in- vestigation conducted so hastily was necessarily a perfunctory one, and no great importance is to be attaohed to the finding of the jury that Miss Stout had drowned herself while suffering from mental derangement. A fine field was obviously left open for local gossip. It was not long before the finger of suspicion was pointed at the man who was not merely the last human being in the unfortunate young lady's company, but had suddenly flung out of the house in which he was expected to spend the night. A number of persons who saw her body before it was taken out of the water were ready to declare that it was floating, and the common belief Jivas that a person who was drowned infallibly sank to the bottom, as the result of swallowing a great deal of water, and only rose to the surface again after the lapse of some days. How, then, could Miss Stout have drowned herself? Was it not the fact, rather, that she was first murdered— strangled, it may be, or throttled—and then flung into the water by her murderer or murderers to suggest the theory of suicide? These inferences were supported by the undoubted fact that when the body was removed from the water there was nothing to suggest that the stomach contained any. large quantity of water, the appearances being in this respect quite normal. There was some semblance, too, of extravasated blood on the upper part of the body; was not this the result of rough treatment she had received in the efforts to strangle her? Now, too, it was noised abroad that a nighty suspicious conversation had taken place on the night of the jiehneholy occurrence between the men Marson, Stephens and Rogers, who were sharing the same room at a lodging-house in the town. Stephens and Rogers had hired the room at five in the afternoon, had spent a part of the evening at a public-house in the town, and between eleven and twelve o'ch ck had come to their lodging accompanied by '.iarson, who was reeking with sweat, as though he had just been engaged Sin some violent erertion. Having ordered a fire and a bottle of wine, they began to talk about Miss Stout. Stephens and Rogers rallied Marson about her, sieging that she was an old sweetheart of his, and Marson did not j deny the soft impeachment, p"t added—Tn^«t| strangely, as was afterwards thought—"Well, she has thrown me off, but a friend of mine will be even with her by this time." Then they were heard to talk about money. Marson asked the others how much they had spent. "What is that to you?" one of them answered. "Yon have had B40 or B50 for your share." Next Marson himself was asked whether the busi. ness was done," to which he replied that he believed it was, but if it was not it would be done that night; finally pulling a handful of money out of his pocket and swearing he would spend it all for joy that the job was finished. They were also overheard to mention Mr. Cowper's name, and next day Marson and Stephens were sepn walking in the street with that gentleman. Further, when Marson, Stephens and Rogers had left the room, a piece of dirty cord was found in it. What if this were the unhallowed instrument of strangulation r With such material as this crying out for dis- cussion, who can be surprised that tongues at Hertford wagged busily during tho next few weeks? But this was not all. Presently, that is six weeks after the fatality, the young lady's relatives hnd the body exhumed, a post-mortem was made. and all but one of the several doctors present, and that one the representative of the Cowpers, came positively to the conclusion, from the condition of the body, that death could not possibly be due to drowning. Upon this the; four suspected gentlemen were apprehended and! committed for trial. Stephens, Rogers, and; Marson were admitted to bail, but Mr. *owper was ordered to be kept in custody. One point to be determined, as bearing upon the cause of death, was whether or not the body was floating when discovered. At the trial quite a number of witnesses declared that parts of her dress were just above the surface of the water. She was lying on her right side, and though hpr face and her right arm were between the stakes of the mill dam, she was not, they protested, in actual contact with them. It was not because of them, therefore, that she had not sunk. Nor could her feet have been resting on the bed of the stream, for the water just there was at least four feet deep. Besides, when she was taken out of the water it was seen that her shoes and stockings were as clean as when they were put on. So much for the position of the bodv. It was however, mainly upon the evidence of the medical men who made the autopsy that the prosecution relied to pro liiat death was not ascrib.Vde to drowning. W'r.er this part of tho case w:i*j reached Mr. Cowper applied that a number of surgeons and physicians of the highest < <n-| ence whom he had brought from London iviight be called into court. The point was conceded, ndl there fiird in William Cowper, ■•••:■> 1 first anatomist in Europe, and no relation <•+' the prisoner whose namesake he was the learned Or. Tf .'iv.s jj'oane founder cf the Rntish Mnseue: r. Samuel 'larth. whose erudition was equalled by i.i- i < £ iie philosophical Dr. Woliast<> < d several other members of the faculty of hardly inferior distinction. line there was no false modesty about the men whose evidence was to be checked by these shining lights of a profession in which they themselves were very humbie luminaries. One after the other they swore, without the lout m*. tjuafincation, rrom wnat they saw ax tne post- mortem, and described, that it was simply im- possible that Miss Stout could have died from drowning,) whateJ/er else the cause ef death might have been, and though they were acutely cross-examined by Mr. Cowper, they refused to budge an inch from the position they had taken up. On the other hand, Dr. Sloane, Dr. Garth, Dr. Wcllaston, Mr. Wm. Cowper, and their learned brethren went into the box one after the other and declared that the appearances at 'he post- mortem, as described by the doctors who con- ducted the examination, furnished no presump- tion whatever that death was not brought about by drowning—that, indeed, after a lapse of six weeks, it was absolutely impossible for any human being to tell whether drowning .was the cause of death or not. The prosecuting/doctors, as one might almost call them, had assumed that no one could be drowned without swallowing a large Quantity of water, and finding none at the autopsy, the inference to them was plain that death must have taken place before the body got into the water. This assumption their more learned confreres flatly contraverted. A person drowned accidentally, they admitted, m:gllt, in his frantic struggles to save himself, swallow a considerable quantity of water, though even so there might be none of it left in the body six weeks after death. But a person drowning him- belt might receive very iitfcie indeed tumine stomach, and so small a quantity as two ounces flowing down the windpipe into the lungs would be sufficient to produce suffocation. Nor did these learned witnesses challenge only the deduction from the post-mortem appear- ances: they also threw doubt upon the aiieyed fact that the body was found floating, and denied the popular theory that a person whose death had not been caused by drowning would not pink. The normal human body, when dead, was, they averred, slightly heavier than water, and would therefore sink, whether death was due to drown- ing or had taken place before the body was oast into the water. Even one of the medical witnesses „ for the prosecution had admitted this point in cross-examination, liut the prose- cution here relied not upon scientific evidence, even of a mediocre kind, but upon the yarns of a couple of ignorant sailors, who had seen many deaths at sea in shipwrecks and in naval battles, and who gave it as the (pinion generally held among seafaring men that if death took place before immeision the body would not sink. Why, otherwise, asked the more garrulous of these mariners, should the Government go to the expense of fastening three score weight of iron shot to a dead body before consigning it to the deep? However it were with the jury, it might have been thought that one of his Majesty's judges would have had no hesitation in setting aside what Macaulay aptly calls "the supersti- tions of the forecastle," when contradicted by the most learned men of science of the day. Lord Hatsell, however, thought it his duty, and con- sistent with his dignity, to ask Dr. Garth what: he had to say to the seamen's evidence! Dr. Garth, with thinly-veiled contempt, replied that he had no doubt they were mistaken—that this was one seafaring superstition, just as the belief that the wind c-uld be raised by whistling was another. The defence. however, did not merely maintain that a dead body must necessarily sink: it also brought evidence to refute the allegation that the body of Miss Stout was found floatihg. The parish officer, the parish constable, and several other persons were called to testify that the stakes at the dam, about a foot apart, slanted towards the top in the direction taken by the current, and that the body was really resting j upon tho upper, sloping part of these stakes, against wuich it was being pressed by the flowing water. This account of the position of the body is, of course, infinitely more probable than that given by the earlier witnesses, and it is signifi- cant that in cross-examination one of those wit- nesses had admitted that one attempt to take the body into the boat was frustrated by the right arm being, or becoming, entangled in the stakes. In the next place Spencer Cowper set himself to prove that Miss Stout did undoubtedly drown herself. He showed that she was of a melan- choly turn, and produced letters from her which revealed that her melancholy arose in part, at any rate, out of a silly, school-girlish infatuation for him—a man already married, and married happily—to which she had yielded herself, and of which he knew nothing until she told him of it. He had nothing to reproach himself with, and was able to prove by the evidence of his brother that on learning how she was affected towards him he had, as far as possible, kept out of her way. Thus to betray to the whole world the unfortunate young lady's folly was naturally repugnant to Mr. Cowper, and he solemnly pro- tested that nothing but the knowledge that three other lives were at stake would have prevailed upon him to make the disclosure. As to his being expected to lodge at Mrs. Stout's on the night of the 13th of March, he explained that he came to .Hertford intending to accept Mis. Stout's invitation only in the event of the lodg- ings always reserved for his brother having been let. As they had not been let and must in any case be paid for, he decided to sleep in them and simply dine and sup at the Stouts' The ser- vant at the Stouts' might very well have sup- posed that he was going to sleep there, for Miss Stout refused to take his denials, and when the order was given to warm his bed he did not care to debate the matter in the servant's presence, but waited until she had gone. Then he re- peated that it was impossible for him to stay, and having paid Miss Stout a. sum of money, interest on an investment which he had made for her (this meney, by the way. was found in her pocket after she was taken from the water), he settled, the dispute by leaving the house: solvitur ambulando. Mr. Cowper was further able, by a comparison of timers, to prove an alibi. According to Mrs. Stout's servant, it was a quarter to eleven o'clock when she heard the door slam, and by eleven o'clock he was at the Glove and Dolphin, where he had an account to settle, whereas it would have taken at least half-an-hour for any- one to walk from the Stouts' to the mill-dam and thence to the Glove and Dolphin. A few minutes after eleven, as he also proved, he was at his lodgings and went to bed. As for the other prisoners, they all established the fact that they had legitimate business at the Assizes. The heat in which Marson was noticed to be was due simply to his having ridden hurriedly from London to Hertford that day on horseback, a journey of some five-and-twenty miles, for he had been detained at the South wark Court until four o'clock in the afternoon. That Miss Stout's name was bandied about between them they frankly admitted. This was the result of a conversation that had taken place the night before in London, between Marson and a friend named Marshall, an unsuccessful suitor of Miss Stout's. That the flippant talk should have been exchanged just about the time when the moonstruck young lady was on her way to the mill-stream to destioy herself was obviously nothing more than a distressing coincidence. My readers will, by this time, I think, have concluded that the case for the prosecution had utterly broken down, that the prisoners had, in fact, placed their innocence beyond reasonable doubt. The judge's mind, however, seems to have received some other impression from the proceedings, if indeed it h;.d received any impression at all. His brief and most per- functory and inadequate summing up left the jury absolutely without the guidance which juries have the right to look for from the Bench. All that he had to say on the questions at issue between the two sets of medical men was that unless the jury knew more of anatomy than he did, they would not be much edified by what they had heard This failure of duty on Lord Hatsell's part could only have been due to invincible prejudice or to gross stupidity. Looking to his conduct of the trial as a whole, the probability is, I think, that it was due to the latter. The chief prisoner had conducted his case with consummate ability, and with perfect taste. He could not in fact have done better had be been defending a client instead of pleading for his own life. Whatever his feelings when the jury retired to consider their verdict, those of hid brother and of his many friends must have been of the most harrowing kind. Well did they know the fierce political rancour which had been imported into the case. If Spencer Cowper were hanged for murder, Wm. Cowper would infallibly lose his seat for Hertford, and through him his p.-> rty would receive a staggering blow. Nor v.a» this the only kind of prejudice which the defence had to fear. The Stouts, and irany of their co- religionists, were anxious-to secure a convict i-ja in order to relievo at once the young lady's memory, and the fair fame of the sect, of the stigma of suicide. As Spencer Cowper had bit- terly put it in his speech, they were ready to spill the blood of four innocent men" ir order to rid themselves of a reproach. Happily, however, the jury consisted t up- right and sensible men. After half an nuur's deliberation they returned into court and declared that they had found all the p.isoners not guilty. TLese accordingly left the dock, and whil." Spencer Cowper received the gratitude of the men for whose lives, as for his own, he had mad? 0OCh a splendid fight, they were, all over- wneimed witn tne congratulations or rrienas [whose joy at their escape from the toils that had been cast about them by malevolent foes knew no bounds. The affair, however, was not over so far aa Spencer Cowper was concerned. His enemies The affair, however, was not over so far aa Spencer Cowper was concerned. His enemies now began to attack him in acrimonious pam- phlets, arguing out the case all over again, and presently it was sought to put him on his trial iagain on what was known in those days as an appeal of murder. The attempt, however, was unsuccessful, and this much calumniated man lived to take his seat on the Bench, where he dis- tinguished himself among his brother judges by the consideration with which he invariably treated the prisoners at whose trials it was his duty to preside. His second son, John, entered the Church, and became a Doctor of Divinity, became also the father of William Cowper, gentlest of our poets. It is a little curious to reflect that had the jury which tried Spencer Cowper for his life been as stupid as the judge, or had they been amenable to the malig- nant influences playing around themv ^he world would never ,have read the diverting story of John Gilpin, nor have heard of the "cups that cheer but not inebriate." [The End.l
There is a burden of care in getting riches, fear in keeping them, temptation in using them, guilt in abusing them, sorrow in losing them, and a burden of account at Least to be given con- oerning them.—Matthew Henry. God's thoughts are those reflective acts by which He contemplates Himself, and His creatures—by which He realises Himself in Himself. His ways are those acts by which at once He reveals and realises Himself in nature and in man.—I rederick Priest. The Sabbath is the map of heaven, the golden spot of the week, the market-day of the soul, the daybreak of eternal brightness, the queen of days, the cream of time, the epitome of eternity, heaven in a mirror, the first-fruits of an ever- lasting and blessed harvest.—Swinnock. If we were sufficiently advanced to feel our- selves near to one another in body, at the very moment that our thoughts rush together these would be hardly any more heart-rending separa- tions in this world. Alas! it seems that we do not yet deserve to attain such heights.—Charles Gounod. Common-sense.—A kind of mole whose eye sees well what it does see, but sees only at the distance of a yard or two, and then sneeringly asks on what part of the horizon are situated the wonderful objects which others have pretended to see, but which in truth they have only dreamed.—Vinet. What is Custom?—In effect, inferior laws enacted by the tacit agreement of the generality of men, wnose only authority consists in pre- scribing rules of decency in language, habit, gesture, ceremony, and other circumstances cf action, and declared and satisfied by ordinary practice.—Barrow. Never was there a cloud which has not passed, A storm, however long, which did not cease, And though our way be darkly overcast By sorrow's shade, beyond is sure release; As sure as that God lives for aye and aye, If only we keep on our steady way. —Antoinette Van Hoeeen. Love is like a tree—vegetating of itself, striking deep roots through all our being, and often continuing to grow greenly over a heart in ruins. And, inexplicable as it is, the blinder is this passion the more it is tenacious. It is never more firmly seated than when it is without a shadow of reason.—Victor Hugo. How is it men, when they in judgment sit On the same faults, now censure, now acqTiitf 'Tis not that they are to the error blind But that a different object fills the mind Judging of others, we can see too well Their grievous fall; but not, how grieved they fall; Judging ourselves, we to our minds recall Their grievous fall; but not, how grieved they fell. -Crabbe. Thinking leads man to knowledge. He may see and hear, and read and learn, whatever he pleases, and as much as he pleases: yet he will never know anything of it, except that which he has thought over, that which by think- ing he has mado the property of his mind. Is it, then, saying too much, if I say that man, j' by thinking only, becomes truly man? Take away thought from man's life and what re- mains ?—Pestalozzi. 1 We live in a world of progress and unrest. Every object by which we are surrounded is pass-1 ing through evanescent states, which must be caught or they are gone; and since all our work, not being a mere flourish of activity in empti- ness, has oonstant reference to these, there is not a particle of it that can wait. If it is not struck, down upon the instant its solid efficiency is all wasted, and its movement only beats the air. -Martineau. Great ideas are slow of bearing fruit, great works and enterprises long of accomplishment, in proportion to their magnitude. A great thinker in advance of his time, must appeal, from the neglect or depreciation of his own day to the verdict of futurity. If his ideas be true, if his projects and aspirations are in consonance with the eternal order of truth and right; if, in short, his counsel be of God, it cannot come to nought.—Principal Caird. The point is not to be able to write a book; the point is to have the true mind for it. Every- thing in that case which a nation does will be equally significant of its mind. If any great, man among the Romans, Julius Caesar, or Cato. j for example, had never done anything but till the ground, they would have acquired equal ex-1 cellence in that way. They would have ploughed as they conquered. Everything that a great man does, carries the traces of a great man.— Carlyle. We ask in vain why an existence of painful labour elevates some characters and debases others, inspires courage 1n: some aud in some destroys the power; to face the inevitable. We search our experience, and we know that the fact exists;, we apply our intelligence to the study of it. and we admit that the cause of the fact escapes us, The seekers after explanations are bold with words which tell us nothing, and call themselves physiological psychologists, or, if that definition fails, they say that they are psychological phy- siologists, and establish a difference in meaning between the one title and the other. #But all the Greek words they can spsli with Latin let- ters cannot show us what the human heart is, nor make us believe that it is seated in<the right or in the left side of the brain, nor yet that it is! established in the middle, in the island of Reil;j any more than we admit that the human heart! has anything to do with the little muscle pump! we carry in our breasts and which sometimes stops pumping just at the wrong moment for our convenience.—F. Marion Crawford. Let us know that no true step or stand of a itrue man—however lowly his lot—ever yet failed lto leave a lasting impression on this earth, ilndistinguished it may be among the multitude that press along the pathways, they still do their part to make those pathways wider and I firmer. Happy indeed shall they be if to them fall the privilege of leading the way to regions jnot yet trodden by the many. Happy if theirs (be the splendid opportunity of advancing where reason and rectitude point, even though the ■people warn of danger, and refuse to follow, and resist. It is good to serve mankind as they; deserve; it is great to servs them in ways they jiike not-, ways unpopular and unrewarded. Eveni jso did the saviours and prophets who were be-i fere us; and great is their reward. What is greater than to be numbered with those wh» j extended the bounds of human freedom and thought, who enlarged the hope and the vision! ,of mankind r If we could but so advance thei world but an inch, that inch were worth to us; jmore than the wealth and honours that crown) jany other earthly success. And that high possi- I bility of influence is not far from any one of us. Unattainable by any force of personal ambition or self-concentrated aim whatever, it I is open to all who can see howv self-devotion and i pure principle can make the smallest things sublime.—Dr. M. D. Conway. Example sways when precept fails, And sermons are less read than tales. We must not Divorce the feeling from her mate, the deed. ————— —Tennyson. Give all thou canst: high heaven rejects the ore Of nicely calculated less or more. WottUweitk.
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