Shockiug Accident near llan- in pumpsaict. FARMER KILLED ON THE RAILWAY John Lewis, 47 years of age, a farmer, re- siding at Penllyn, Llanfihangej-ar-arth, met with °a shocking death about midnight on Saturday. He AY as returning home along the railway from Llaaipumpsaint, Avlien upon iie,a,i-illig a tunnel at Pencader a train of empty coaches, which was returning from Lampeter, knock him down. His body was discovered the iollowiing morning by a man named Phillip Thomas. Deceased's legs were severed aibove the knee, and a large wound above the left eye. The decClasled was a mar- ried man with 11 children. Mr Thomas Walters, Coroner, Carmarthen conducted aji inquest at Llanpumpsaint on \lr.nrl"" +.An,l,,O' +1,;1- d Lewis, 48, farmer, Penlilmn, Avhose mutilated remalin6 wore found on the railway near Llanpumpsaiijit on Sunday niornuig. David Low's, stationimaster deposed that Avhen he saw the deceased on Llanpumpaint Station platfojlm ait 10.27 p.m. on Satuiday he was intoxicated, and talked of religious matters. Phillip Thoiibas, f, .-mer, Glaneiadd, spoke to finding the body which was face down- wards. Both legs lay inside the rails, and were held to the body ony by the clothes. John Davies, engine driver, Carmarthen, said he drove a special train, carrying the Countess of Shannon, to Lampeter on Satur- day night, and returned empty. He passed t,he place Avhere deceased was found, but did not notice anything. A verdict of "Accidental death" was re, turned.
——! nantoaredig. SUNDAY SCHOOL TRIP.-OII Monday, the Sunday School trip of the Calvnustic Method- ists, Nantgairedig, took place, the place chasen this year being Llanstephan. A start was made at 7.30 o'clock, the party J^eu^ conveyed in brakes supplied by Mr Da via Morris, Ca,rma,iithen, and the White Mill motor oar Avas aliio engaged. The jouniey down AA'as A*ery much enjoyed, and beautiful weather prevailed throughout the day. The party were accompanied by the Superin- tendents of the Sounday School, Mr Richard Davies, junr., Penygraag and Mr T. P. Jones, jiount Pleasant. Amongst the party was an did lady eigjlity years of age, and who has been a member of the Sunday School during her lifetime. The return jouniey commenced at 6 o'clock, iand home was reached about 9. A most enjoyafble day was spent.
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Newcastle Emlyn Petty Sessions. These sessions were held at the Magistrates Room, Newcastle Emlyn, on Friday the 27th July, before Messrs A. H. Jones (chairman), C. H. L. FitzWliliams, E. Davies, and Rev W. Powell. P.S. Harries charged John James, Pen- pistill, Liandyssul, Cardiganshire, cattle dealer, with drunkenness Avhile in charge of a horse and trap on the highway between Newcastle Emlyn and Liandyssul on the 28th June. Defendant, who did not appear, was fined 10s. P.S. W. Harries charged T. M. Daniel, ironmonger, Newcastle Emlyn, with offences under the Explosives Act. Firstly with stor- ing 19lbs of gunpowder on his registered pre- mises otherwise than in a substantial bag, canister, or other case, made and cilosed so as to prevent any explosive from escaping; and secondly with keeping ojlbs of Gelignite on his registered premises without a certificate from the police. Mr Roy Evans, who defended, pleaded guilty to a technical breach of the Explosives Act, and said it was due to the forgetfulness of the manager. David Davies, Red Lion Inn, Drefach, Llangeler ws charged by Mr P. J. Mitchell, Inland Revenue Officer, Liandyssul, with the above offence. [ Defendant, who did not appear, was fined Is and -cost,
Carmarthenshire Calvinistic Methodists. MONTHLY MEETIN AT LLANPUMP- SAINT. The monthly meeting of the Carmarthen- shire Calvinistic Methodists was held at Llan- pumpsaint on Monday The Rev Thas. Parry, New Inn, presided over a fair attendance. Amongst those presen. were the Rev GAAynoro Davies, of Barmouth, and the Rev B. Ceithio Davies, of Abercarh, both natives of Llanpumpsaint—to which fact several kindly references were made. The Rev Gwynono Davies thanked the members for their kind references, and spoke very feel- ingly of his early associations with that church and district. The Rev Robert Salmon, who was unable to be present, wrote ing that his motion —for the fre-consideration of the scheme for the assistance of the weaker churches from the Centenary Fund—be postponed.—It was agreed that the matter had been sufficiently discussed, and that it could not be raised again until the end of the year. The delegates who had visited Carmel and Llanfynydd churches with regard to the selec- tion of a pastor, reported that the call was unanimous to the Rev John Edwards, of Pe,nllbrey, who had just finished his course at Trevecca. The delegates who had visited Conwil for the purpose of electing deacons reported that three had been selected, and their elec- tion was approved. The report of the sub-committee, with reference to the best course to be adopted regarding the churches at Laugharne, Pen- dine, and Red Roses was considered at some length, but was deferred pending the result of the appeal to the Home Mission Fund. The report of the "Cylch Gronau" Periodi- cals Committee was considered it was of a very satisfactory nature, as was also that of the County Auxiliary Fund. The appointment of new trustees in regard to the property at Bankyfelin was concluded. The borrowing of money by Cwanbadh Church for the erection of a manse was agreed to. and the notes signed. The question of the removal of the College from Trevecca to Aberystwith and of the establishment of a preparatory and secondary school at Tixweoca was considered at length, and the meeting decided to support the whole scheme. The annual examination of candidates for the ministry was fixed for the 21st August at Glananrma n, the Revs John Oliver and Thomas Price to be proctors. The next monthly meeting will be held at Glanamman on the 28th August at 9.45 a.m.
BANKYFELIN. DEATH OF MR D. ROWLANDS, SCHOOLMASTER. —General regret is felt in this neighbour- hood at the death of Mr D. Rowlands, school- master, who died early on Tuesday morning, the 24th July, aged 64 years. Mr Rowlands, who was a widower, had been in ill-health for seven months. He had lived nearly hclf a centiriy in RankyTeliii. and was looked up to as the very ideal of a schoolmaster. He w'^ well known all over South Wales as an adjudicator at eisteddfodau, and as a con- ductor he was second to none, being well able to command the attention of the most in- tractable audiences. He was of a kindly dis- position, and many the poor wastrel has benefitted by his advice and help. He was a pillar of the temperance cause, secretary of the Loyal Carver Friendly Society, and one of the most falithful members of the Method- ist Church. He was an ardent revivalist, and indeed his heart was in every work which AA'as for the betterment of humanity. Many old Bankyfelin boys and girls scattered over the "iorlld will feel sad when they hear that he has gone. The funeral todk place on Friday, at 2.30 p.m.
LLANDOVERY. WHL Mr Richaixl Campbell-Davys, of Aeuadd Fawr, Llandovery, and of Askomel Argyllshire, .barrister-at-law, D.L.. J.P., for Carmarthen and J.P. for Brecknock and Argyll, chairman of the Cilycwm Parish Council, and patron of the living, and owner of the Dolycoed Hotel and Grounds at Llan- wrtyd Spa, who died in London on the 15th of November last. aged 56 yeans, left estate of the gro&s value of £i9,438 8s Id, of wlhich the net personalty has been sworn at £4.683 2s. Plrobate of his Avill. dated the 14th of Novem- ber, 1904. has been granted to his widow, Mis Grace Henrietta Campibell-Davvs, of Ll/Avynoelyn, Carmarthen. The testator con- fii med a of trust, disposition, and settle- ment, dated September 8, 1891, dealing with the Scottish estate, and he confirmed the pro- marriage settlement, Avhereby at £ 80U troni 'nvvv. klOO from her parents diwing her life, and certain capital sums on thier decease, and he left to her the use for -e of his Carmarthen estates with the advowson of Cily- cwm, and a further rent charge of £ 800 on his Carmarthen estates, and on the decease of her j>aire;nts, such an annual sum as with the income from the capital monies received from her parents under, the provisions of her mar- riage settlement as with the first rent charge of £ 800 will bring up her annual income to £ 2,000 a year. Subject thereto, he left tile Neuadd Fawr, ('In wrhossau, Aberhaiad, Court Henry, and Pen • Vfach estates, and his hou.<ehoid effects to his i^on Ivor Ellstan Lloyd, of Dinas, Brecon, with further remain- der to his kinsiman Sir Hent-y William Fair- fax Lucy, of Stimtfoa-d-on-Avon. Any" life tenant i'nheo'iting under this provision to assume the surname and bear or quarter the arms of Campbell-Davys, and he left his lease- liold pix>perty to follow the trusts of his free- hold estate. He charged the said estates with a life annuity of t250 for each of his younger children, and on the decease of each such yoninger child he charged the said estate with a capital sum of 4-3,666 fo rthe benefit of the issue of such child. He empowered the life tenant to charge the estates with a portum fe" a widow surviving him amounting to 1:300 per annum, and the use of his dower house of Er,ryd. The residue of his pe,rronal estate he left to his wife absolutely.
j NEWCASTLE EMLYN. INQUEST.—An inquest Avas held on Friday, the 27th o uly, by Mr H. Brunei White, the Deputy Coroner, at Maudsland, Cilrhedyn, on the body of Anne Evans, Blaentrench, Cilrhedyn, spinster, aged 60 years, who fell down dead on the the pervious day, whilst assisting in the hay at Maudsland. The ver- dict of the jujy was death frow heart disease.
Carmarthenshire Main Boads Committee. The monthly 'meeting of ) CarniMthen- shire Maiin Roads and Bridges Committee was held iat the Carmarthen Townihall on Wednes- day, at 1.30 p.m. There were present: Mr W. Griffiths, Llanelly (chainmon) Sir Jam s Drummond, Bt. Mr T. Jones, Penromv; Mr John Williams, Penlan; Mr Greville, Ponty- beirem; Mr D. Stephens, Kidwelly; Mr A. Stephens, Kidwelly; Mr Watkins, Llan- dovery Mr Jamt-s Phillips, St. Clears Mr D. C. Patray, Llanelly Mr J. W. Gwynne- Hughes, Tregevb; T. E. Brigstccke, Car- marthen; Mr W. X. Jones, Tiryda.fl; Profes- sor D. E. Jones, Oaraiaaithen; Mr J. W. Harries, Penllwyne Mr C. E. Moirris, Car- marthen Mr T. Barrett, Cross Vale; Mr H. Jones Da vies, Glyneiddan; together with the Clerk (Mr J. W. Nicholas); and the Surveyor (Mr C. H. Mounsey). FINANCE. The Clerk said that there was no report to present from tlhe Finance Committee. There was to have been a meeting that morning, but no members had been present. He could give thorn the following figures: During the preceding four weeks, the Surveyor had spent 1:210 18s 8d as compared with an estimate of JE279 Is 7d in the Eastern division and L262 IDs 7d as oompared with t306 Is 4d for the Western (hear, hear). For the next five weeks the estimates were East, £ 304 5s; West, £ 31o 9s 7d. Mr D. C. Panuy asked whether the saving had been in Labour or iilkqfteiiads. The Surveyor said that it was in a sum set aside for contingencies. THE SLEEPING VANS. The vylet'k said that they had received a complaint that there was not sufficient cubic space in the sleepi'ng vans provided for the rollonnion. Messrs Glovor, the makers, said that of all the hundreds of vans they had made this was the first complaint they had received; it opened up a very big question aU over the country, as the same sized van w::s used a:ll over the country. There was plenty of ventilation, and they did net see that there was anything to complain ol. Mr John Wililliamis: How long have we had these vans? The Surveyor: Three years. Mr J. Williams: It is very strange that complaints should be made after three years. There is something continually these vans and roll el's. I propose that we take no notice of it. Mr D. C. Parry: Who made the complaint? The Clerk: The Medical Officer of Health for this district. The Surveyor said that Dr Bowen Jones had informed mm that there was only room in the va,ns for a man and a half, ne sup- posed that would mean a man and a boy. The matter was deferred so that steps be taken to improve the ventilation. MILITARY INFORMATION. A letter was read which had been received from the War Office asking what weight could be ta-ken over Lcughor Bridge. In reply the Surveyor ,-iai'd that he could not nalmca weight. He stated that lie kept his ten ton roller off the bridge, as he did not think it safe. It was pointed out that there was a better way through Pcavtan'dula's. Mr A. Stephens said that this information was doubtless, required far mi'litairy purposes, so as to know how trans-port could be con- veyed in a case of emea-gency. Mr John Williams: There is another road. Mr H. J. Davies: That would mean a j'e- duction in the force. THE COUNCIL OBSTRUCTS THE ROAD. Mr W. Howell wrote calling attention to the fact t,hat a steam roller was left over- night on the iroad near Bunny Port. This was a dangerous practice; and he contended that the council would b3 liable for any accident caused thareby. In the case of a professional man eairning a big income, the Council might be livable to pay £ 10,000.. The Surveyor said that lights were put up when the rdMctrs were drawn up on the road- side. Mr A. Stephens said that the only Liilte-riia- tive was to buy plots of ground all over the dountry, where they could stable the roivens. They were scarcely ready to do that. The CleHk said that he did not think they would be liable for an accident if they showed lights and tcok other precautions. PENYMORFA RIVER DEFENCE. A discussion took place over the defence of the read near Penymcrfa, which is in danger of being undermined by the liver, which is now within three feet of the metal. The Clerk said that Earl Cawdor was not liable to maiintaMi the bank. The Surveyor's plan was to make a pitch parallel wiith the road. It was decided to ask the Surveyor to bring up an estimate for this at the next meeting, as the matter is urgent in view of the autumn 1 floods. TRIMSARAN ROAD. The Surveyor repeated as follcii-& In pursuance of what I believe to be the only system, whereiby the requirements of a read may be practically ascertained, I have (in this. case as I did in the past) had trial holes .put down every 110 yards, eo as to accurately test the strength of the road to prevent Avaste of ma tori ail on strong portions, and to place the metal where is is required, and thus get the best result for a minimum cost. The road in question has undobutedly (as will be seen from the cartoons I sumbit, not been properly attended to, and in its present state is absolutely dangerous. The following particulars will at a glance enable you to see the exact state of affairs: TIÜcknels c,f Foundation or Bottoming in Inches. 1 mile 880 yards—0 inches in thickness. 770 yards—1 do. do. 990 YTds-H do. do. 1 mile 220 yards)—2 do. do. 1320 yards—3 do. do. 1210 yards—4 do. do. 440 i,(Is- 5 do. do. 220 yards—6 do. do. 330 yrunls-8 do. do. Total length—6 miles 1540 yards. Road Crust or Surfacing in Inches. 11 2 miles 660 yards—0 inches in thickness, i 550 yards—1 do. do. 1430 2 do. do. 00 yards—3^ do. do. 660 yards—4 £ do. do. 220 yards—6 do. do. 220 yards—7 do. do. 110 yards—9 do. do. Minimum Thickness Required from Subsoil To Surface on Average to sustain Traffic, 7 Inches. Amount of Stone Required to bring total Thickness up to 7 inches. 1 mile 1-47 inches Tequi,t,ed- 551 tons. 2 nii'e 3-65 inches required—1368 do. 3 mile 3-65 inches required- 1368 dQ. 4 mile 3-50 inches required—i612 do. 5 mile 2-75 inches required—1031 do. 6 1-26 inches) [required—472 do. 7 3-08 inches required—1010 do. f .1.1.1&1"V Total alljolljlt required to give Q. finished I r. ,nc]ies inclusive fimn average thickness or subsoil to surface—tons" Amount included in estimate for 1906 inolud- ing Spallils deposited dun in0 1905-6. 1 n Dopooited on road, Spalls or laige s one Broken Silica 2060 Smrtrosted addition of portion of the Loughor Road estimated amount 500 Total amount suggested 2560 I It will be seen from this tliat it is suggestea to do only the wQrst portions this year, and to spread the putting into fair oa-der over a ^In^refeSe' to oost of Mynyddygareg Silica tone,thc a-moulit sent by rail to Ty- coch and Trimsaran would be,, 1100 tons at a -+ ,f 'l\mn,rh fis. Tniim&aran os 6d. The Car- marthenshire Silica Company's prices would be Tvcoch 6s 4d, Tmnisaran 6s lOd, shewing a saving on 1100 tons of Is 4d .per ton, or £73 ^Miope I imav he ril'loAved to Incidentally mention that the AMhrile of the roads, upon Avhich I have advised the laying of increased amounts of mota-l have been pi aoticalily examined, in a similar way to the one in the present case, and that only upon my having obtained reHiahe and undoubted evidence, have my estimates been formed. ilie Main Road between Kidwelly and Llanelly, by Pemhrey, was almost as weak as the Trimsaran one, but I am glad to say it now has assumed a suitable condition, and its coat Avil drop foil- years. I should be glad if the Committee would visit the crushing plant, where the metal is fed direct into trucks and sent adoiig a local line, which although most convenient for the diistriot, was not previously used. The same applies. to a large saving effected in the LI an el'ly-Ividw ell y (by Peanbrey) Road, the crushing at Burry Port, and the use of a local line. Expressing the hope that you will kindly instruct me in the matter. I beg to remain, Gentlemen, Your obedient Servant, CHAS. H. MOUNSEY, County Surveyor. P.S.—On reference to the cartoon, it will be seen that the road is worst furthest from the s u-rse, of supply, e.g., near Llanelly, whre metal was easily procurable, the thick- ness approximates 7 inches, neair Kidwelly the same applies, but on the mountain where no previous attempt was made to cope with the necessary requirements of the road, it is absolutely devoid of metal. Incidentally, I hope, I may be allowed to point out that throughout the county the worst pieces and those urgently requiring im- provement were those not near the easiest source of supply, and I hope you will see that my amended system of procuring in all parts C)f the county sources is an advantageous and necessary one. The report was adopted. [We have omitted some of the statistics for brevity.—ED., C.W.R.]
I Sad Drowning Fatality at Golden Hrove. Ernest Gilbert Allcar, eighteen years of age, and son of Mr and Mrs Allcar, Baith House, Lallgathen, in the employ of Colonel Mayhew, of Abergkusney, Goilden Grove, met his death through drowning in the River Towy whilst bathing. In company with three others lie proceeded to the River Towy, an the paiiiisli of L'langathen, and ii-aided acil"- and tried to swim. He proceeded a few yards ii-licii he reached a deep pool, and failed to J get out. His companions sn-lam in his direc- tion, but were unable to find hun. Mr Wm. Grim --s, of Jihosfawr, recovered the body with a grappling hook a few hours later. The inquest was held at Aberglasney farm on Monday, before Mr R. S. Lewis, coroner Arthur Allcar said he was a plasterer and father of the deceased, who was also a plas- terer and albout 18 years of age. About 2 o'clock on Sunday, he heard him say he was going to have a bathe. He, was. healthy and strong. Ernest Swithenbank said he was a work- man at Golden Grove farm. He Avent with the deceased to the Towy about 2 o'clock on Sunday last. Deceased took off his clothes, and walked into Welt-n Pool. lit was about 15 feet deep. He began to swim, and after taking two or three strokes he turned on his back and then made a dive, and only came up once. Soon afterwards his hand appeared above the surface of the water, and that was all witness saw of him. He allowed no signs of distress. Thcmtas Blackwood corroborated the last witness. W. Griffiths said he lived at Rhosfawr, and was a fanner. Ajalbcuit a quarter past three he was told by hits son that young Allear was drowned. He went to the river, and the Supt. of Water Bailiffs, Mr Price, came there with a coracle. About five o'clock Mr Price said lie could see the body. They got the grappling hooks and recovered the bedy at about a quarter past seven. The jury, the foreman of which was the Rev J. Alec Williams. Vicar of Llangathen, brought in a verdict of accidental death. The funeral took plaice on Tuesday, the interment being at Llanigathen Churchyajxl. The sincerest sympathy is felt with the fomily in their sad bereavement.
United Counties' Agricultural Society. A meeting ci the Council of the United Counties Agricultural Society was held at the Boar's Head Hotel on Wednesday. There were present: Rev R. G. Lawrence (in the oliair) Mr H. J. Davies, Glyneiddian Mr J. W. Ha rrieis, Penlhvyne; Mr Edward Lewis, Cillefwr; Mr E. Coliby Evans, Carmarthen; Dr Bowen Jones, The Friary Mr R. Foot- man, HavcdAven; Mr David EArans, Llwyn- cadfor; and the Secretary (Mr D. Howell Thomas). THE CATERING. A letter was read from Messrs George, of Cheltenham, the caterers, who said that owing to the great distance and the heavy expenditure they would be unable to under- take the catering at the show this year ex- cept the Committee undertook to provide thorn with a tent. In previous years they had done the catering at a loss. The Secretary said that Mrs Olive had re- fused the offer of the catering before. It was decided to offer Messrs George t5 to undertake the catering at .,ie show. MILK. Mr Footman suggested that the Shorthorn dairy cows should be judged first. This was agreed to. The t-airman asked to whom the milk would belong. Mr H. Jones-Davies: To Messrs George (laughter). The Secretary said that the milk was the the property of the owner of the cows. He did not think the Society could claim the milk, although it was a condition that the cows be milked. JUMPING. It was arranged that the jumping competi- tions should take place immediately after lunch as was done fi«a.st year. Stewards were appointed for the forth- coming show, and the meeting concluded with a hearty vote of thanks to the chairman
Carmaitiiensiiim Chamber ot Agriculture. A quarterly meeting of the Carmarthen- shire Chamber of Agricuture was held on Wednesday afternoon last at the Half Moon Hotel, Carmarthen, Avhere Host and Hostess Davies served up an excellent spread. There was a large attendance, and the president (the Rev Jonathan Mairsden, Vicar of Llan- lilwch) oooupied the chair. NEW MEMBERS. On the motion of the Chairman, the folloAv- ing new members were elected: Mr J. L. Piokard, U.C.W., Abeiystwith; Mr John Lewis, Clomendy, Llangain; and Mr Jeremy, Trefynys, Bronwydd. The Chairman submitted the usual loyal toasts, which were enthusiastically received. Mr J. L. Pickard, F.R.H.S., professor of horticulture, etc., at, the University College of Wales then read the following paper on BEE FARMING. WHY KEEP BEES. In bringing before you the subject of boe- famiiig I have no wish to unduly raise hopes of large profits to be made from what after all, is only intended to be a slight adjunct to ordinary farming; nor have I any strong hopes that large and successful fa,rmers will troulble themselves with bee-ma nageiment. I do think, however, that there are a number of small farmers, and farmers sons and daughters who would gladly take up the busi- ness if they only could be convinced that there was profit to be made at it, and that they could be taught how to do it successfully. No doubt many would be bee-keepers are dis- couraged and prevented from entering the business by reports of the low selling price and the difficulty of finding local markets for honey. As to there being no profit in the bee-busi- nss at the present pi-ice of honey, I suppose that can also be said of many other farm pro- ducts in different parts of the country. But I venture to say that there are a good many bee-keopers, even in this nighbourhood, who would never complain at all, only guarantee them a fair crop of honey every year. They will find the market, and take care of the price. The fact is. there has never been a general over-supply of honey in this country. There may often be more produced in any one locality than can be sold there during the year; but theje are always many other places where not nearly enough 11138 been produced to supply the demand. Honey Avilil not usu- ually sell itself, any more than fat chickens fat ducks ii-iill. The honey producer mu.9t make some effort to dispose of his crop. He must see to it thac it is put up into the best posstoie shape for the market, properly gra- ded, and neat and clean. He then needs to Avatcli the market, learn the supply and the demand as far as possible. I wish to say fairly that I do not know anv honey-producer who is getting rich at the business. Bee-keeping is not a get-rich-at-it business. But it is a business in which a fair profit can be made by hard work, and by keep ing everlastingly at it. Many people have an idea that bees Avork for nothing, and find their own board. I know of no other vocation in which those interested expect as great re- turns in so short a time, ami with so little outlay and trouble, as with the honey-bee. But given intelligent care and management bees will add a nice little sum to the annual income. I know of several bee-keepers in this county who make a profit of zC30, or more, every year from their bees. HOW TO START BEE-KEEPING. The first thing of importance is to fix upon a suitabe style of hive. It is a mistake to have several different styles of hives in the apiary, and can ony lead into inconveniences and difficulties when manipulating. Where all the hives are of the same pattern and size, the parts can be interchanged with a minimum of trouble, saving both time, laibour, and expense. There are many differ- ent styles of modern hives in the market, all of them possessing some feature or advantage of their own, and ranging in price from 10s to 50s each. They are all, however, of exactly the same inside dimensions. Any kind of a box will do for a bee-hive provided the inside measurements are accurate, and can be kept watertight. HaM an inch too large or too small inside completely ruins a hive for i\s purpose, as the bees will seal the frames fast with propolis if the hive is a little too small, or seal them equally fast with brace-combs if too large. I am strongly iiifavour of 'home made hives They a,re much cheaper and generally very much better than bought hives, provided they are accurately made. Perhaps the best way to succeed would be to purchase some well known style of hive as a pattern, and employ a locall carpenter, at one's own home, to build others like it out of I in. matchboarding. A capital hive for this purpose would be the "Cottager's Hive" which is advertised at 12s 6d. Two to three hives would be quite sufficient for a beginner, gradually increasing up to twelve, or even twenty hives, as experience and taste dictates. Modern hives are made to accommodate hanging bar-frames, in which the honcycyiiib is built, and all the success of modern bee- keeping depends upon having these combs properly built, and the frames easily movable. Frames are made in two sizes only. Standard frames measure 14 inches in length, 8! ins. in depth, and are used chiefly for raising young in the summer, and for the colonies quarters during the winter. Shallow frames j are (f) 14ins. long by 5^ins. deep, and are used entirely for the storage o?- surplus honey in the summer. The most convenient sized frames are those ii-ill cli held 10 standard frames in the lower chamber, and having two upper chambers, or supers as they are called, holding 8 shallow frames each. The fraimes cost about a. Id each, and iit is not economical to make them a( home. Standard frames in the hive are spaced exactly an inch and a half from mid- lib to mid-rib, and so .important is this point that many appliances have been invented to secure accurate spacing. One of these in- ventions is the W.B.C. metal end, which is made to fix oil the ends Off the frames. They are made liins. Avide for standard frames, and 2ins. Avide for sihaiIlolw frames. They cost 5s Gd per gross, and may be considered really indespensiible. The frames are hung in the have in such a way that there is left a bee- Avay of Jin. at eaoh end, and iin. at .the bottom of the frames. The b3es Avi'll respect these distances and will neither seal them up nor build brace combs in them. It is no use going to the trouble and ex- pense of getting bar-frame hives unless care be taken to get the combs properly built in the frames. To make quite sure of this comb-foundation is used either in full sheets 1 r, 4pe or pieces of sheets as starters. Comb-founda- tion is bees wax passed through steel rollers, where it is pressed to the required thickness and stamped Avith the shape and size of the future cells. It is sold at about 2s 3d per Ib of ¡;:llt'" ¿lhP}fà. Weir-afon ■"tetiM- tion worked up for 6d per lb. Foundation should ahvays be wired into the frames. The simplest way of doing this is to bore two holes a }in. apart in both ends of the frame, |inch higher than the bottom of the comb, passing a piece of reel Avire through these holes, and on both sides of the foundation, twisting the wire quite tightly on the outside ot the frame. This will prevent the danier of sagging, un- shapely combs, or the combs breaking cut of the frames when being handled. There are three simple means of getting a stock of bees for the hive. The best of all is, about April, to get an old fashioned skep, or box, such as one see so frequently in the country, containing a strong colony of bees. This Jœp or box is placed inside the new hive directly upon the 10 standard frames; first covering the frames with a square of linen, or American oilcloth, with a hole of 5 or 6 inches in diameter cut in the centre for the bees to pass tliiviii(yll. Everyttiiiig is now securely wrapt np at the top so that the bees are compelled to go in and on it of the entrance of the new hive. By the middle of June it is probable that the bees, instead of warm- ing, will have begun to build in the standard frames. As as this happens the skep is i gently lifted from the frames, turned bottom upwards close to ilie entrance of the new hive. and the sides gently knocked, when all the bees Aviil like a flock of sheep into the now hive. A sheet, of Excluder Zinc is now placed aibove the frames to keep the Queen down and the skep is returned for three weeks to insure that all the brood is hatched. At the end of that time the bees are again driven, the sleep full of honey i.s removed, and a chamber of Shallow frames is put in its place if necessary. The easiest way to obtain a stock of bees is to secure a swarm in May or June. We will suppose that the bees at swarming have been hived into a skep or bucket in the ordinary
Jones, Rotten Pill; chain harrow, Mr Henry Rees, Llwynfortune; grindstone, Mr Thomas Wliliams, Pontcarreg; spade, Messrs John Francis, Myrtle Hall; J. Footman, Hafod- wen; W. Williams, Llwynpiod; W. Harries, DryslwynfaAvr; Thomas Morris, Voelewan; Rev R. G. Lawrence, Nantgairedig; dung fork, Messrs Jaimes Phillips, Llwynon; Ed. Lewis, Cillefwr; J. G. Davies, Kincoed; H. Jones, Wairwenallt; John Bowen, Lan; and D. Davies, Boksburg; hay rake, Messrs D. H. Davies, Werndrefi; Dl. Evans, Tynewydd; T. Griffiths, Gelly; Hugh Thomas, Trecor; S. H. Anthony, Penlan; R. W. Stephens, Coed- ybrwin; D. H. Thomas, Starling Park; W. W. Prosser, Gapeldewi; John Bowen, Penffordd- las; <^has. J. Footman, Hafodwen; J. W. Harries, Pilroath; J. L. Pickard, U.C.W,. Aberystwith.
way. They then need to be brought to the new hive about 5 or 6 o'clock in the evening. They are simply tihrown on to a tablecloth or sheet of corrugated zinc placed conven- iently to the entrance to! the hive, when immediately they will t,ake possession of it without further trouble. Early swarms of bees will ugti-aly look after their own food after suitable lodgings have been provided fcr them, but there is no loss to the bee- keeper if he feeds them for a week or tw. after hiving. I regret to say that there is no recognised selling price fo swarms of bees in thi; district. Bees are valuable according to their number and easiness, and should always be bought and sold by weight. I would suggev. ihit a fair price would be Is 6d per lb during May and to the loth June, and Is per lb aftJ. ihsit until the end of the season. This pr;ce would, of course, be influenced by suppy and demand in every district. About 5,000 oees go to the lb. The third plan of getting a stock would be to obtain two or three lots of bees in the early Autumn from someone who intended killing them. Drive these into separate skeps, unie as many as three lots together and treat as a swarm. They will require feeding with 30lbs of syrup to bring them through the Av-inter. This method is not a very suitable one for a beginner. LOCATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF APIARY. Bees may be kept almost anywhere where there ,i.<" not too much traffic to annoy them, and where they are safe from the intrusions of animals. An ideal spot would be an apple orchard facing south or south east, placing the hives here and there as fancy dictates. If they must be standing in a row it is a great advantage to have a sheltering hedge behind them, leaving a yard ot space between the hedge and the hives to serve as a path. Where hives are kept quite close to each other it is advisable to paint them different colours so that the bees may easily recognise their own homes. If the position is a very exposed one, either to the wind or sun, it is advisable to drive a few stakes into the ground, 3 or 4 feet apart in front of the hives, tying a bundle of pea rods to each stake. This little attention will be much appreciated by the bees. THE INHABITANTS AND INDUSTRIES OF THE HIVE. In order to be successful at bee-keeping it is necessary to now something of the inha- bitants of the hive. These are of three kinds. A oolong consists of one queen, several thousand worker bees, and in the summer, some drones. The queen is the mother of all the other bees in the colony. She lays eggs from which all the other bees are developed, and is said'to be capable in the prime of her life of laying 3,000 eggs a day. She has a normal life of five years, but is not equally prolific all this time. It is only dur- ing her second year that she is in full profit. One of the finest arts in bee-keeping is to give young queens to each colony in the early autumn of every year, .and it is impossible to get the maximum profits Aviithout adopting this practise. The worker-bees, as their name implies, do all the manual labour of the colony. They gather nectar from flowers and manufacture it into honey also pollen which they mix with honey, and used as food for the embryo bees; they build the honeycomb., making their own wax when necessary—Avhich is a sort of perspiration that they secrete. They keep the hives clean, act as nursemaids to the young of the colony, and perform the duties of sentinels and soldiers. Their life is a very busy and short one, averaging not -more than six or seven weeks in the busy season, though those that are born in the autumn will live through the Avinter, passing a great part of the time in a semi-liy be mating condition. It is on the strength and numbers of the Avorker bees that the honey-crop depends, and the successful bee-keeper leaves no dodge untried which will be likely to stimulate and build up his colonies ready for their great work of honey producing. j Drones are called into existence at swarm- ing time and usually disappear dwrdng July. Their only use appears to be that odd ones from amongst them are selected to mate with virgin queens.. It is a certain sign of bad management when many drones are in the colony. They kve on the industry of the hive without contributing anything to its use- fulness. The most certain method of keep-11 ing down drones to a minimum number is to keep colonies li,-iad-ed by queens in their 1 second year. THE SWARMING OF BEES. I Much of the modern bee-keepers' success j depends upon his a,bility to control swarming. Swarming is the bees natural method of per- pertuating themseves and usually occurs when the hive lis crowded with bees. It is broughu about follows:—An egg, Avhich in the ordinaiy course would have hatched out into a worker-bee is. abstracted by the worker-bees from a worker-eel 5, Avhere it had been deposited by the queen, and a queen cell is buit ,around it. As scoii as the egg hatches into a grub it is fed on special food, resulting in a muek Higher abdominal and sexual developm" than worker-bees are en- .dQAVPfL.^y'tbn M i,ieell. As soon as this happens, sometimes shortly before, the mother queen leaves the hive, accompanied by thousands of the elder Avorker-bees, to found a new colony. In swarming the old queen invariably leaves home, leaving the virgin queen in possession. Within three days of being born the virgin queen takes her maiden flight, when she is met by a drone in the air and fertilised, the whole operation taking generally less, than three minutes. She receives enough spermatoza at this meet- ing to fertilize many millions* of eggs. It is to the bee-keepers interest to prevent the swarming unless he strongly wishes for an increase of stock and in case he would make an artificial SAAiarm. It is a truism that we cannot have both an increase of stock and surplus of honey from the satme hive. It must be one or the other. Swarming is pre- vented by giving plenty of room to the bees in advance of their requirements and by cutt- ing out the queen-cells as fast as they appear. Doing this, as many other operations in the hive, necessitates handling the bees, and this is where niOAreable frames prove so useful. HOW TO HANDLE THE HIVES. A beginner should never work about his bees without having his face properly pro- tected. A useful bee-veil can be made at a cost of sixpence from a yard and a half of thin black Buckiiami together with an elastic band to fit round the hat. Gloves should not be worn unless the manipulator is very timid. Personally I have never wotn gloves and have not had a veil for many years. I depend entirely upon a briar" pipe and "Ringers," combined with gentleness and perfect confidence. The routifte of management is simple when mastered. At the end of February or early in March all the colonies should be examined. choosing a fine day for the purpose. Any that are found short of food should be given naif a pound pf syrup each fine day, so long as they require it, and this is repeated in April. Any hives that are quite filled with bees may be given a super chamber of shallow frames early in May, leaving weaker stocks until all the standard frames are being worked art. I think it always advisable to use exchider zinc between the standard and shallow frames. When the shallow frames are haM filled with honey a. second super chamber is fitted between the standa,ro frames and the half-filled super. When this is quite full of honey, the bees are blown down with a bi,t of smoke, repeating cs often as necessary, removing all surplus honey before the 10th of August. In some districts honey sells best in Ib sections. There is some- thing about these sweet chunks of glittering sweetness in their pearly white combs that attracts the eye. It makes the prospective btiye,r think ahout his grandfather's days. "That is honey! he exclaims. He buys it once and he buys it again. These are t e customers that beekeepers AAiant TlW fee^ing •s-vrul> that I know of is made of 31bs of water 6lbs of cane sugar, and lib of honey. The water is brought up to boiling point the sugar gradually scattered in, stirring all the time to prevent boilino- ana add the honey when the sugar is dis- solved and simmer for a few minutes. The best feeding vessel I have ever used or seen is made from an ordinary standard fi-ame, covered on both sides with picture-back board ing, Ies an inch or so at the top left for the bees to pass in or out. The boards are first soaked in melted paraffin wax candies and the joints carefully filled with white lead It is hung in the hive, amongst the bees, in the oixhnary way. A little hole in the top bar a the syrup to be poured in through a tunnel without cListurtbing a single bee. Bees in this eouintiy gather their honey chieflv from fruit trees, gorse, Avhite dutch clover, alsike, lucerne, and heather. Mr Lewis Oillefwr, said that he ahvays found that bees swarmed on Sunday, and another thing he had to give them up because they were constantly stinging him. Mr Stephens, Coedybrain, said he could bear Mr Lewis out that bees generally sw ainmed on Sunday, e was surprised that euch a. valuable food and medicine was so cheap in that district, viz.. from 6d to 8d per lb. At Aberystwith some years ago he went to a chemist, and had to pay Is 9d per lb. In London, a specialist recommended it to a patient to cure a cough when everything else had failed. v D- Davies, Boksiburg Hall, said that he had heard bees Avere profitable and he tried a hive, but they got the best of him and he had to give it up. Mr J. Carver, Wenallt, said that he had greatly enjoyed Mr Packard's paper, but did not quite agree with him as to the method of securing swarms of bees. Mr Isaac. Shoeing Forge, Carmai-then said that he found bees were not profitable owing to the doctors bills he had to pay after them (laughter). Mr D. H. Thomas thooight every farmer as a business man ought to have a hobby, a,nd he did not think a fanner could have a better hobby than bee-keeping. He was told they were profitable, and most interesting if they devoted a little time and patience to them. Mr Jack Francis, Myrtle Hill, said he did not know much about bees, but felt con- vinced it would be a good thing if farmers had a hive or two. Mr Hopkin Jones, lecturer at the Univer- sity College, Bangor, said that he was not exactly in the bee line (laughter), but he knew if properly carried out bees were profit- 5-i r» i the station master at Llan dilo Bridge, made a good deal out jrf his bees, and to listen to him ta'lking about his bees was very interesting indeed. Every farmer who had a clover field should go in for bees as it was a very important thing for him! ^ot only dtid the bees extract honey from the flowers but they carried the pollen from flower to flower and thus added to the value of the stock. Clover, like all the leguminous family, were pallenated by insects such as bees. Mr R. R. Carver, Wenallt, said that he did not think bees could be kept for profit if they got less than Is a lb for the honey. The last Ume he sold honey the chemists offered hin. 6d per lb, saying he oould buy it at o^d per lb, and lie told the chemist he would sooner give it away than sell it at the price. He used to sell ewts. at Is 4d per lb, but he never adulterated his honey, although it was adui terated to an awful extent. Mr John Francis, Myrtle Hill, was uf opinion that if they only showed confidence in the bees they could make them friendly. It would be a great thing if fanners' wives and child i-eii. would take up bee-keeping, as then be able to keep themselves The Cliaiirm-an thought every farmer should keep enough bees to produce sufficient honey for the supply of his family. Some of his brethren of the cloth in the South of Eng- land w ere able to make a little money by bee- keeping. He saw one of their balance sheets the other day, and the profit varied from t30 to £ 80 per annum. But he kept hees on a li?nge scale, and no doubt devoted most of his time to the 'industry (laughter). Mr Pickard, in reply, recommended the ladies to go in for making cakes with honey instead of sugar, and see what a difference Avould result. The sting of the bees, besides being useful for ik own protection, was meant for preserving the honey, and Avhen the poison from the sting had been injected into the honey-cell, the honey Avould keep for 20 years. The blue bag was supposed to be a remedy for the sting, but it only served to show their friends Avhere the sting was (laughter). At Aberayron, an old woman, a cripple through rheumatism, was sitting be- fore the fire in her cottage one day in the summer, when he (the speaker) was sent for to clear out a large swann of bees from the chimney. During the operation thousands of bees got into the kitchen, and then the old Avomau screamed, jumped up, and ran up 16 flights of staii-s. THE RAFFLE resulted as folloAvsCast-iron roller, Mr W.