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Carmaitiiensiiim Chamber ot Agriculture. A quarterly meeting of the Carmarthen- shire Chamber of Agricuture was held on Wednesday afternoon last at the Half Moon Hotel, Carmarthen, Avhere Host and Hostess Davies served up an excellent spread. There was a large attendance, and the president (the Rev Jonathan Mairsden, Vicar of Llan- lilwch) oooupied the chair. NEW MEMBERS. On the motion of the Chairman, the folloAv- ing new members were elected: Mr J. L. Piokard, U.C.W., Abeiystwith; Mr John Lewis, Clomendy, Llangain; and Mr Jeremy, Trefynys, Bronwydd. The Chairman submitted the usual loyal toasts, which were enthusiastically received. Mr J. L. Pickard, F.R.H.S., professor of horticulture, etc., at, the University College of Wales then read the following paper on BEE FARMING. WHY KEEP BEES. In bringing before you the subject of boe- famiiig I have no wish to unduly raise hopes of large profits to be made from what after all, is only intended to be a slight adjunct to ordinary farming; nor have I any strong hopes that large and successful fa,rmers will troulble themselves with bee-ma nageiment. I do think, however, that there are a number of small farmers, and farmers sons and daughters who would gladly take up the busi- ness if they only could be convinced that there was profit to be made at it, and that they could be taught how to do it successfully. No doubt many would be bee-keepers are dis- couraged and prevented from entering the business by reports of the low selling price and the difficulty of finding local markets for honey. As to there being no profit in the bee-busi- nss at the present pi-ice of honey, I suppose that can also be said of many other farm pro- ducts in different parts of the country. But I venture to say that there are a good many bee-keopers, even in this nighbourhood, who would never complain at all, only guarantee them a fair crop of honey every year. They will find the market, and take care of the price. The fact is. there has never been a general over-supply of honey in this country. There may often be more produced in any one locality than can be sold there during the year; but theje are always many other places where not nearly enough 11138 been produced to supply the demand. Honey Avilil not usu- ually sell itself, any more than fat chickens fat ducks ii-iill. The honey producer mu.9t make some effort to dispose of his crop. He must see to it thac it is put up into the best posstoie shape for the market, properly gra- ded, and neat and clean. He then needs to Avatcli the market, learn the supply and the demand as far as possible. I wish to say fairly that I do not know anv honey-producer who is getting rich at the business. Bee-keeping is not a get-rich-at-it business. But it is a business in which a fair profit can be made by hard work, and by keep ing everlastingly at it. Many people have an idea that bees Avork for nothing, and find their own board. I know of no other vocation in which those interested expect as great re- turns in so short a time, ami with so little outlay and trouble, as with the honey-bee. But given intelligent care and management bees will add a nice little sum to the annual income. I know of several bee-keepers in this county who make a profit of zC30, or more, every year from their bees. HOW TO START BEE-KEEPING. The first thing of importance is to fix upon a suitabe style of hive. It is a mistake to have several different styles of hives in the apiary, and can ony lead into inconveniences and difficulties when manipulating. Where all the hives are of the same pattern and size, the parts can be interchanged with a minimum of trouble, saving both time, laibour, and expense. There are many differ- ent styles of modern hives in the market, all of them possessing some feature or advantage of their own, and ranging in price from 10s to 50s each. They are all, however, of exactly the same inside dimensions. Any kind of a box will do for a bee-hive provided the inside measurements are accurate, and can be kept watertight. HaM an inch too large or too small inside completely ruins a hive for i\s purpose, as the bees will seal the frames fast with propolis if the hive is a little too small, or seal them equally fast with brace-combs if too large. I am strongly iiifavour of 'home made hives They a,re much cheaper and generally very much better than bought hives, provided they are accurately made. Perhaps the best way to succeed would be to purchase some well known style of hive as a pattern, and employ a locall carpenter, at one's own home, to build others like it out of I in. matchboarding. A capital hive for this purpose would be the "Cottager's Hive" which is advertised at 12s 6d. Two to three hives would be quite sufficient for a beginner, gradually increasing up to twelve, or even twenty hives, as experience and taste dictates. Modern hives are made to accommodate hanging bar-frames, in which the honcycyiiib is built, and all the success of modern bee- keeping depends upon having these combs properly built, and the frames easily movable. Frames are made in two sizes only. Standard frames measure 14 inches in length, 8! ins. in depth, and are used chiefly for raising young in the summer, and for the colonies quarters during the winter. Shallow frames j are (f) 14ins. long by 5^ins. deep, and are used entirely for the storage o?- surplus honey in the summer. The most convenient sized frames are those ii-ill cli held 10 standard frames in the lower chamber, and having two upper chambers, or supers as they are called, holding 8 shallow frames each. The fraimes cost about a. Id each, and iit is not economical to make them a( home. Standard frames in the hive are spaced exactly an inch and a half from mid- lib to mid-rib, and so .important is this point that many appliances have been invented to secure accurate spacing. One of these in- ventions is the W.B.C. metal end, which is made to fix oil the ends Off the frames. They are made liins. Avide for standard frames, and 2ins. Avide for sihaiIlolw frames. They cost 5s Gd per gross, and may be considered really indespensiible. The frames are hung in the have in such a way that there is left a bee- Avay of Jin. at eaoh end, and iin. at .the bottom of the frames. The b3es Avi'll respect these distances and will neither seal them up nor build brace combs in them. It is no use going to the trouble and ex- pense of getting bar-frame hives unless care be taken to get the combs properly built in the frames. To make quite sure of this comb-foundation is used either in full sheets 1 r, 4pe or pieces of sheets as starters. Comb-founda- tion is bees wax passed through steel rollers, where it is pressed to the required thickness and stamped Avith the shape and size of the future cells. It is sold at about 2s 3d per Ib of ¡;:llt'" ¿lhP}fà. Weir-afon ■"tetiM- tion worked up for 6d per lb. Foundation should ahvays be wired into the frames. The simplest way of doing this is to bore two holes a }in. apart in both ends of the frame, |inch higher than the bottom of the comb, passing a piece of reel Avire through these holes, and on both sides of the foundation, twisting the wire quite tightly on the outside ot the frame. This will prevent the danier of sagging, un- shapely combs, or the combs breaking cut of the frames when being handled. There are three simple means of getting a stock of bees for the hive. The best of all is, about April, to get an old fashioned skep, or box, such as one see so frequently in the country, containing a strong colony of bees. This Jœp or box is placed inside the new hive directly upon the 10 standard frames; first covering the frames with a square of linen, or American oilcloth, with a hole of 5 or 6 inches in diameter cut in the centre for the bees to pass tliiviii(yll. Everyttiiiig is now securely wrapt np at the top so that the bees are compelled to go in and on it of the entrance of the new hive. By the middle of June it is probable that the bees, instead of warm- ing, will have begun to build in the standard frames. As as this happens the skep is i gently lifted from the frames, turned bottom upwards close to ilie entrance of the new hive. and the sides gently knocked, when all the bees Aviil like a flock of sheep into the now hive. A sheet, of Excluder Zinc is now placed aibove the frames to keep the Queen down and the skep is returned for three weeks to insure that all the brood is hatched. At the end of that time the bees are again driven, the sleep full of honey i.s removed, and a chamber of Shallow frames is put in its place if necessary. The easiest way to obtain a stock of bees is to secure a swarm in May or June. We will suppose that the bees at swarming have been hived into a skep or bucket in the ordinary

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