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FOREIGN AND COLONIAL AFFAIRS.

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FOREIGN AND COLONIAL AFFAIRS. On Friday, Sept. 6th, Mr. William McKinley, President of the United States of America, was shot while oil a visit to the Pan-American Exhibition at Buffalo by a youth n"me{l Leon Czolgoez, who had been excited by the teachings of Anarchist lec- turers. Though for a time recovery seemed possible, Mr. McKinley succumbfd to his wounds on the I Grief and deep sym- pathy with the American people and Mrs. McKinlev were manifksced by the whole civilised • world. BebÎ< interment at Canton, Ohio, the President's remain* lay in Irtate in the Capitol at Washington, where they were visited by 63,000 of his country- t men. The assassin was tried and con- demned on the 25th for murder, and was electrocuted" at Auburn on Oct. 29th. On Mr. McKinley's death Colonel Theoiore Roosevelt, the Vice-President, became, by the provision of the Constitution, Pros dent in his stead. He at once declared his inten- tion of carrying on unaltered the policy of his predecessor. He is, however, a known enemy of the great Trusts which dominate industrial and political life in the States, and he has set his face against the custom of making official appointments the reward of party services. The defeat of Tammany j Hall at the New York Mayoral elections in November may be regarded as to some degree a result of the new influence he has already brought to bear on the political life of his country. A treaty rerisins the Anglo- American agreement respecting the creation of a canal from the Caribbean to the Pacific was signed in January, but waf. so mutilated by the United States Senate as to lead to its abandonment by Great Britain. In Novem- ber, however, a fresh treaty was signed, Î which practically involves the abrogation of the whole of the rights of Great Britain in the matter, and this treaty was brought before the Senate in December. With the capture of Aguinaldo the revolt in the Philippines has been brought to a virtual conclusion. Civil war in Colombia has led to an American intervention in Isthmian politics, of which it is difficult to see the conclusion. The international crisis" in Chint. has in theory at any rate found a satisfactory settlement in the past year. The negotiations between the plenipoten- tiaries of the Empire and the representatives of the Powers dragged on till Sept. 7th, when the final Protocol was signed in Pekin. < Ten days later the Forbidden City was handed over to the Chinese, and was forth- with set in order for the return of the Court. The Court, however, has not yet arrived, though it is understood to have been on the move many weeks. The in- demnity has been fixed at £ 65,000,000, and interest and sinking fund are secured by increased Customs duties. Two of the offending'mandarins were executed in Pekin last February, and others have been banished by the Emperor. Just two months after the signing ot the Protocol Li Hung Chang, its principal Chinese negotiator, died, and with him all prospects of an early settlement with Russia in regard to her position in Man- churia. Serious trouble has been caused in the Near East by the refusal of Turkey to carry out her obligations under the conces- sion made to the French Quays Company at Galata. Even the departure of the French Ambassador failed to extract a satisfactory j response to the French demands under this j head. Nothing Ictzs than the seizure of Mytilene was required to bring the Sultan to his senses, and to obtain its release the Porte was compelled to give guarantees for the settlement of many other matters cf I difference between the two Powers besides that which caused the original rupture. Throughout the crisis France had the tacit support of Russia, the Czar's visit to France while it was at its height giving emphasis to the fact. After a meeting with the Kaiser at Dantzig, tbe Czar and Czarina reviewed the Frendh fleet off Dunkirk on Sept. 18th, and three days latpr they were present at a review of 130,000 French troops near Compiegne. The Queen of Holland was married in February to Duke Henry of Mecklenbure-Schweria. The ex-comraunica- t tion of Count Tolstoi and other more personal grievances provoked riots among the .students of the Russian Universities in I' March, and these were put down with terrible brutality and ferocity by tho soldiery. The Minister of Education was assassinated, and the Procurator of the Holy Synod was shot at. The death of the Ameer, Abdurrahman Khpn. in October caused some fear of complications in that restless king- dom. Happily, however, his son, Habibullah, was proclaimed Ameer forthwith in perfect quic-t. The Federation of Australia was inaugurated on Jan. 1st, and elections took place in March to the first Federal Parlia- ment. With the aid of a small Protectionist majority in both Houses Mr. Barton and his colleagues are striving to carry a Protective Revenue Tariff in face of strenuous opposi- tion. Several duties have. however, bct-n rejected or reduced. Insufficient rains have again delayed India's recovery from the great famine. The inhabitants of Malta have been greatly agitated by an ordinance legalising the English language in the law courts of the island. «.

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