-=====- THE CLOSK OF TOE CONGRESS. On Saturday the Berlin Congress reached the -final stage in a formal sitting, at which the several Plenipotentiaries attended in "full dress to aft a :h their seals and signatures to the treaty. This cere- mony conducted, Count Andrassy, the Austrian Plenipotentiary, roe ■ and thanked Prince Bismark in the name of the Congress, for the services he had rendered in bringing its great work to a satis- factory issue exactly one month from the opening of the Congress, and tendering the respectful acknowledgements of the Plenipotentiaries for the great kindness and gracious hospitality they had experienced from the Emperor of Germany and the Imperial family. The Ottoman secretaries were the only ones absent when the treaty was signed, but they made their appearance at a late hour. At the Congress, Prince Bismarck, who was present in his general's uniform, appeared to be grately fatigued. Lord Beaconsfield, who was still suffering fiom gout, leaned upon his stick and Prince Gortsehakoff was carried into the room bv his atteiidaiit4. Prince Bismarck opened the business in a speech, giving a retrospective view of what hid been accomplished, and then invited the Plenipotentiaries to sign seven copies of the treaty which had been prepared, one for each country. The work of signature, which was cor-pletel in the secretary's room, is said to have occupied one hour, in the course of which the Plenipotentiaries ex- changed photographs and autographs. At half- past five the German Chancellor made a farewell spc ec'i, expressing his satisfaction at the happy conclusion of the labours of the Conference, and it was then Count Andrassy moved the vote of thanks already referred to. THE TREATY OF BERLIX. The treaty commences In the name of the Omnipotent God." The tr^amblo sets forth that -the sovereigns of Great Biit,tiii, Germany, Austro- Hungary, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, and the Pre- sident of the French Republic, desiring to regu- late, with a view to European order, conformably to the stipulation of the treaty of Paris of 30th March, 1*5'3, the questions raised in the East by fi- '■•vents of the last years and by the war termi- nated by the preliminary- treaty of Ul Stefano, h ive been unanimously of opinion that the meeting of T congress wou:(} "ffer the best means of facili- taiiii,, an understanding." The names and full styles of the accedited plenipotentiaries are then given, Lord Beaconsfield being thus described, "The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, Viscount TTughenden, peer of Parlia- ment, member of her Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, First Lord of her Majesty's Trea- sury, and Prime Minister of England." These plenipotentiaries, according to the proposition of the Court of Austro-IIungary, and on the invita- tion of the Court of Germany, met at Berlin, furnished with full powers, which were found in good and due form. An understanding having been happily established between them to the following stipulations (then follow the 6-1 articles which constitute the treaty). An examination of the official translation of the treaty and a comparison with the versions already published leads to the following result:—■ Article I is, save the substitution of the word "will" for the word" shall," identical. Under theheading, "Article 2," the Times merely says-" The Bulgarian Principality shall be limited to the south by the chain of the Balkans." In the official document, however, article 2 is a very long one, and is as follows:—" The Principality of Bulgaria will include the following territories: The frontier follows on the north bank of the Danube, from the ancient frontier of Servia, up to a point to be determined by an European com- mission to the east of Silistria and from thence runs to the Black Sea, to the south of Mongolia, which is included in Roumanian territory. The Black Sea forms the eastern boundary of Bulgaria. On the south, the frontier follows upwards from its mouth the waterway of the brook, near which are -situated the villages of Hodzakioj, Selam-Kioj, Aivadsik, Kulibe, Sudzuluk, crosses obliquely the valley of the Deli-Kamcik, passes south of Belibe and Kemhalik, and north of I-ILtiziiil-iile. After having passed the Deli-Kamcik, at 21- kilometre above Cengie, reaches the crest at a point situated between Tekenlik and Aidos-Bredza, and follows it by Karnab id Balkan, Priscvica Balkan, Kazan Balkan to the north of Kotel, as far as Demir Kapu. It proceeds by the principal chain of the Great Balkan, the whole extent of which it follows up to the summit of Uorica. There it leaves the crest of the Balkan, descend southwards between th:o- villages of Pirsop and Duzance, left the one to Bulgaria and the other to Eastern Roumelia, as far as the brook of Tuzen Dere follows that stream to its junction with the Topolnica, then the latter river until it meets the Smovskio Dere, near the village of Petricevo, leaving to Eastern Roumelia a zone of two kilometres. Above that meeting it ascends between the brooks of Smovskio Derc and the Kamenica, following the line of the watershed so as to turn to the south-west at the level of Voinjak and reach directly the point 875 of the Austrian staff map. The frontier line cuts i a straight line the upper basin of the br,)ok of Ichtiman Dere, passes between Bogdina and Karanla, rejoins the line of the water- shed separating the basins of the Isher and the Marica, between Camurli and Hadzelir, follows that line by the summits of Verlina, Mogita, Zinailica Vah, Sumnatica, and rejoins the adminis- trative boundary of the sandjak of Sofia between Sivri Tas and Cadir Tepe. From Carlir Tepe the frontier, going to the south-east, follows the water- shed between the basins of Mesta Karasu on the one side, and the Struma Karasu on the other, runs along the crests of the mountains of Rhodope called Demir Kupu,Tskof Tepe, Kadimesar Balkan, and Aigi, joins the ancient admistrative frontier of the sandjak of Sofia. From Kapetnik Balkan the frontier is indicated by the watershed by the valleys of the Rilska Reka and of the Bitrica Reka. and follows the counterfort called Yo lenica Plonina so as to decend into the or tV struma at the junction of this river with the f:i1" Heka. Leav- ing the village of Barakli to v, it ascends then south of the village of Jtlc and reaches, by the shortest line, the chain of GolemaPl mina at the summit of Gilka, and joins there the ancient administrative frontier of the sandjak of Sofia, leaving, however, to Turkey the whole of the basin of the Suk ireka. From Mount Gitka the western frontier goes towards Mount Crui Vah by the mountain of K-i^vena.Tabuka, following the ancient -administrative limit of the sandjak of Sofia in the upper part of the basins of Egrisk and the Lepnica, mounts with it the crests of B tbnia Pa-ma, and arrives at Mount Crui Vah. From Mount Crui Vah the frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and the Morava by the sum- mit- of the Streser Vilasrolo and Mosio Panina rejoining by the Gacina Crua, Trava Darkovska, and Dranica. plain. then the Deveani Kladanec, the watershed of the High Sukowa and of the Morava, goes directly on the Stol, and descends from it so as to cut the road from Sofia to Pirot, 1000 metres north-west of the village of Segusa. It ascends in a straight line the Vildic Planina and thence to Mount Radocena, in the chain of Kodz, Balkan, leaving to Servia the village of Doikinci, and to Bulgaria that of Seneka. From the summit of Mouijt Radocma the frontier follows towards the east of the Balkans by Ciprovee Balkan an" Stara Kanina up to the ancient eastern frontier of the principality of Servia, near to the Kulu Smiljova Cuka, and thence that ancient frontier as far as the Danube, which it joins at Rak ivirza on the spot of the European commission, on which the signatory Powers will be representen It is understood—1. That this commission will take into consideration the necessity to his Imperial Majesty the Sultan of being able to defend the Balkan frontiers of Eastern Roumelia. 2. That no fortifications can be entered within a zone of ten kilometre round Lamakow. Article 5 is worded very differently in the official 'trauslation. but the definition of liberty in Bulgaria ispractic illy to the same effect. Article? As soon as the prince shall have been Aected," instead of "is installed." Article 8 to 21 inclusive only show verbal altera- tion. a- compared with the published versions, but in a< tide 22 the la4 two •-iauses are different, and read as fo'llows: TI-le period of the occupation ot Eastern Roumelia and Bulgaria by the Imperial Kalian troops is fixed at irne mouths from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. The Imperial Russian Government undertakes that within nine months the passage of its troops across Roumania shall cease, and the principality shall be completely evacuated." Articles 23 and 24 iu the official document are practically the same as articles 55 and ,J[j in the Times version. Article 25, which is numbered 23 iu the Thnes, relates to the occupation by of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and contains the follow- ing final sentence, which i* not in the Tihtes, and which it is understood was added at the last iuoinent With this object, the Governments of Austro-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding as to details." The next few clauses only contain such differ- ences as commonly occur iu the work of different translations. Then there is the following new article, num- bered Tiie principality of Montenegro shall come to a direct understanding with the Ottoman Porte with regard to the establishment o: Mon- tenegrin agents at Constantinople and at certain places in the Ottoman empire, where they shall be decided to be necessary. Montenegrins travelling or residing in the Ottoman Empire shall be subject to the laws and authorities of Turkey, according to the general principles of international law and the established customs with regard to Montenegrins." I c;1 In article 32, which is J9 in the Times, the word" "ratification of" take the place of the word "signature, and there is the fallowing new clause :—" The Ottoman troops shall evaluate the territory ceded to Montenegro in the same period of twenty days. They shall have, however, allowed them a supplementary period of fifteen days as well for evacuating tlolC fortresses and withdrawing provisions and materials of war from them as for drawing up inventories of the implements and ob- jects which cannot be immediately removed." The next three p.rticles are materially the same, but article 36, relating to the frontiers of Servia, was not published by the Tiitteq. It is as follows —Servia receives the territories included in the subjoined delimitation. The new frontier follows the existing line along the shelving of the Drina, from its confluence with the Save upwards, leaving Mali Zrovarnik and Sakhar to the principality, and continues along the ancient limits of Servia as far a- Kopaonik, leaving it at the submit of Kanilug. From that point it follows at first the western boundary of the sandjak of Nisch by the counter- fort in th3 south of Kopaonik, by the crests of the Marica and llonar Planina, which form the water- shed between the basins of the Ibar and Sitnica on one side and that of the Toppica on the other, leaving Prepolac to Turkey. It then turns to the south to the watershed between the Brnenica and the Medvedja, leaving the whole of the basin of the Medvedja to Servia, follows the crests of the Goljak Planina (which forms the watershed bet- ween the Kriva-Rjeka on one side and the Pol- jauica Veternica and Morawa on the other) as far as the summit of Poljanica. It then follows the counterfort of the Karpina Planina as far as the confluence of the Koniska and the Morawa, crosses this river and ascends by the watershed between the Koniska brook and the stream, which falls into the Morawa near Neradovce to gain the Sveti Iliyi Planina above Trgovisle. From thence it follows the crests of the Sveti Iliya as far as Mount Ivljuc, and passing by the point mArked 151*5 and 15 47 on the map, and by the B ivina Gora, it reaches Mont Crui- vvh. Setting out from Mont Crni-vrh, the new line of delimitation coincides with that of Bulgaria. The line of frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and Morawa by the summit of Strser Vilogolo and Mesida Planina, passes GlacinaCtna, Trova Darkosyka,aiid Draiiiica Planina, and then thy Deseani Kladanec, along the watershed between the Upper Sukorva and the Morava, leads straight to the Stol, and descends from the ace to intersect the road from Sofia to Pirot, at a point 1000 metres to the north-west of the village of Segasa. It then ascends in a straight line to the Vidlic Planina, and from thence to Mount Radocina, on the chain of the Kodza Balkan, leaving the village of Doskinci to Servia, and that of Senakos to Bulgaria. From the summit of Mount Radocina the frontier leads along the crest of the Balkans to the north-west by Ciprovec Balkan and Stara Planina, to the ancient eastern frontier of the principality of Servia, near to the Kula of Smiljora Buka, and from thence follows that ancient frontier to the Danube, which it reaches at Rakowitza. Article 39 (numbered 36 in the Times version) should read Territories annexed to Montenegro," and not Servia. This is evideltly a,typographical error. Article 41 (38 in the Timet) reads fifteen days from the date of the ratifications," instead of signatures, as previously published. This article, moreover, contains the following new clause :— The Ottoman troops shall evacuate territories ceded to Servia within the same term of 15 days. A supplementary term of an equal number of days shall, however, be granted to them as well for evacuating the strongholds and withdrawing the provisions and material as for preparing the in- ventory of the implements and objects which can- not be removed at once." Article 42 (which is 39 in the Times) is very different, and has been considerably shortened by the suppression of all relating to the capitalisation of the Servian tribute. The article now reads- Servia having to support a part of the Ottoman public debt fn respect of the new territories an- nexed to her by the present treaty, the representa- tives at Constantinople will fix the amount of it. in concert with the Sublime Porte, on an equitable basis." The next nine articles are materially as already published, but article 38 of the Times version, re- lating to the capitalisation of the Roumanian tribute, has been entirely struck out. Article 56 is entirely new. It is as follows :— "The European commission of the Danube shall come to an arrangement with the proper parties for maintaining the lighthouse on the Isle of Serpents." The remainder of the articles, except that they are arranged in different order, are the same in all practical respects as published in the Times. The treaty concludes with the 20 signatures. y I CLAUSES AFFECTING ENGLAND, The following are those clauses of the treaty of Berlin which more particularly affect British interests, and which were not contained in the version of th-at important document printed on Tuesday. Article 58.—The Porte cedes to the Russian empire in Asia the territories of Ardahan, Kars, and Batoum, and with the last-named port also, the territories comprised between the former Russo-Turkish frontier and the following boun- dary, namely, a line from Makrialos on the Black Sea to Gadapai, thence following the stream to Artvin; from Artvin, through Khorda, whence making a slight curve it runs on the west side of Olti, passing thence to Nariman, Bardus, Ardost, and south of Kagisman to the former Russian frontier. Article 59.—His Majesty the Emperor of Russia declares it to be his intention to make Batoum a free and essentially commercial treaty. Article 60.—The Valley of Alashgerd and the town of Bayazid, ceded to Russia by article 19 of the treaty of San Stefano, are given back to Turkey. The Sublime Porte cedes to Persia the town and district of Kootour; and it is provided that the boundaries shall be fixed by an Anglo-Russian commission. Article 61.-The Sublime Porte engages to realise without delay those ameliorations and re- forms which local needs require in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and guarantees their security against the Circassians and the Kurds. It undertakes to make known from time to time the measures taken with this object to the Powers, who will watch over their application. I Article 62.—The sublime Porte, having expressed j its desire to maintain to the utmost extent the principles of religions liberty, the high contracting Powers take note of its spontaneous declaration. In no part of the Ottoman Empire shall difference of religion be held in the case of any person as a motive for exclusion from or disqualification for any public function, nor from the advantages of the exercise of any profession or industry. All shall be admitted to give evidence before the tri- bunals. Liberty of all worship is proclaimed and no impediments shall be offered either to the hierarchical organisation of the various com- munions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs. Ecclesiastical pilgrims and monks of all nationalities travelling in Turkey shall enjoy the same privileges. The right of protectorate is recognised to all the diplomatic agents aud con- suls in regard to the persons, religions, and holy places of their several nationalities. The rights acquired by France in this respect are expressly reserved, and it is clearly understood that no attempt shall be made to interfere with the status quo established in the S,Ûnts Lictix. The monks of Mont Athos, of whatever country or nationality, are maintained in the possession of the existing advantages, and all shall enjoy without exception an entire equality of rights and privileges. Article 03.—The Treircy of Paris of March 39, 1856. as well as the Treaty of London, of March 13, 1871, are maintained in all those dispositions which are not abrogated or modified by the pre- ceding stipulations. Article 61.-The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged, within a period of three weeks, or sooner if possible, in witness whereof the plenipotentiaries affix their signatures. The Right Hon. Sir A. II. Layard, G.C.B, and His Highness Safvet Pasha, now the Grand Vizier of His Majesty the Sultan, have agreed to the fol- lowing Annex t) the Convention signed by them a-i Plenipontiaries of their respective Governments on June 4, 1878 It is understood between the two high contract ing parties that England agrees to the following conditions relating to her occupation ai.d admin- istration of the Island of Cyprus I. That a Mussulman religious tribunal (Meh- kemei Sheri) shall continue to exist in the Island, which will take exclusive cognisance of religious matters, and of no others, concerning the Mussul- man population of the islands. II. That a Mussulman resident in the Island shad be named by the Board of Pious Foundations in Turkey (Evkraf) to superintend, in cpnj unction with a delegate to be appointed by the British authorities, the administration of the property, funds, and lands belonging to mosques, cemeter- ies, Mussulman schools, and other religious estab- lishments existing in Cyprus. III. That England will pay to the Porte what- ever is the present excess of revenue over expen iiture in the island this excess to be calculated upon and determined by the average of the last five years, stated to be 22,936 purses, to be duly verified hereafter, and to the exclusion of the pro- duce of State and Crown lands let or sold during that period. IV. That the Sublime Porte may freely sell or lease lands and other property in Cyprus belonging y 11 to the Ottoman Crown and State (Arazii Miriye ve Emlake Houmayoun), the produce of which does not form part of the revenue of the island referred to in Article III. V. The Engiish Government, through fair com- petent athorities, may purchase compulsorily, at a fair price, land required for public improve- ments, or for other public purposes, and land which is not cultivated. VI. tThat if Russia restores to Turkey Kars and other conquests made by her in Armenia during the last war, the island of Cyprus will be evacuated by England, and the Convention of June 4, 1878, will be at an end. Done at Constantinople, July 1, 178. Signed) A. H. LAYARD. SAFVET.
MR OSBORNE MORGAN ON THE LAW OF PRIMOGENITURE. In the debate in the House of Commons on Wednesday, July 10th, on the Real Estate Intes- tacy Bill, Mr Osborne Morgan defied anybody to say that reason, or nature, or justice, required that a man's property, whether real, leasehold, or personal, .should go entirely to his eldest son and that his widow and his other children should be left destitute. The hon. member for Wexford had talked about the natural devolution of pro- perty. Was it the natural devolution of property that the widow and youngei children should be thrown penniless on the world ? [Sir G. Bowyer I never said anything of the sort" (laughter).] If they defended such a law, they must do so on some strong ground of public policy. In the feudal ages, when all England was a fortified camp, and all land was held on military tenure, there was a strong ground of public policy for primo- geniture, and primogeniture then prevailed. But when the circumstances on which it rested had entirely disappeared, the law was no longer defen- sible. Surely the rule, Cessante causa, cessat ipsa lex" should hold good in that case. The law had been changed in most countries, but not in Conservative England. Moreover, in feudal times, the severity of primogeniture was tempered and moderated in a way in which it could not be now, because by custom, which had the force of law, the eldest son was then the protector of the family in a sense in which no eldest son could now be. By custom he was required and almost compelled to provide portions for his sisters. His younger brothers, too, ate at his board, slept under his roof, and fought under his banner. Dower, also, in those times, was a real prevision but in later days the ingenuity of the conveyancers, seconded by the action of the Legislature, had so pared it down that it had ceased to be a provision for the widow at all. In listening to some of the opponents of that Bill, one might think it would iuterfere with the whole fabric of our territorial system, from the House of Lords down to the 40s free- holder (a laugh). But the measure did not in the least meddle with what were called family estates, which were settled estates. He would point out to the hon. member that it was very seldom that a man died intestate as regards landed estate, and that the other instances of intestacy were much rarer in cases of real than of personal property. No one proposed to curtail the existing powers of disposition. There were now and then cases in which, owing to sudden death or accident, or to the singular superstition that sometimes made persons reluctant to make a will, men died intes- tate as regards land. What then, was the duty of the law ? He took it that its best object was to do that which nature and reason and justice required, and to give effect to the probable wishes of the dead man himself. There had been a good deal of random talk on the subject, but he might say that his experience of 16 or 17 years enabled him fully to confirm what had been said by the hon. member for Reading, that in four cases out of five small landed properties were given not to the eldest son, but were divided among the several children (hear). No doubt a man might sometimes devise even a small property to his eldest son, but 'that would not be done very often without making some pro- vision for the younger children. As the law now stood, persons left their property less and less t) the eldest son. There was also an artificial dis- tinction between freehold and leasehold, but in some cases of which he knew the two were so com- pletely mixed together that it was hardly possible, to say which was which. There was another point of view from which it would be rccognised that the Bill conferred benefits. It would greatl y facilitate the transfer of land, and would do away with much of the cost of conveyancing. At any rate, ho should vote for the Bill in the belief that it would remove an anomaly, an anachronism, and an injustice; and he thought that a time would come when men would merely wonder at the system that had been so long tolerated (hear, hear).
Yesterday, the new wet dock which has been in course of construction at Ayr during the past four years will be formally opened for traffic. I
In an action heard in Peterhead sheriff court, on Saturday, Sheriff Dove decided taat bearskins acquired by the captain of a whaler during a voy- age to Greenland are the perquisites of the captain, and that the owners of the vessel have nothing to do with them. On Monday night a dinner took place at Walsall to celebrate the formation of a Reform Association, by the advanced Liberals of the borough. The Queenstown pilot boat which had been re- ported lost with all hands has turned up quite safe. Mr Spurgeon was so far recovered as to be able to preach at the Metropolitan Tabernacle on Sun- day morning. Mr Gladstone has promised to address a meeting of the Southwark Liberals on Saturday. Mr Edward Hamilton Hoskins, of Farnham Hall, Herts, a county magistrate and leading agricul- turist in the district, was gored to death by.a bull, on his own estate, on Saturday. General Miles' command engaged the Indians near Wallula on Saturday last. The result is not known. Reinforcements are being sent. The Governor of Oregon has called for volunteers. The body of a young woman, elegantly dressed, was found in the Seine, at Boulogne, the other day. It has been now identified as the wife of a stockbroker in Frankfort, who left her home to follow an actor at the theatre in Strasbifrg. On arriving in Paris she found that her paramour was married, and in a fit of despair threw herseif into the Seine. By the will or Miss Robertson, of Elgin, the sum of £ -30,000 is bequeathed to religious and charitable purposes. Mr Spurgeon's college and orphanage each receive £ 4000; schemes of the Free Church of Scotland, £ 7000; the London Missionary Society, London City Mission, and Baptist Missionary Society, each £ 2000; the National Bible Society, nooJ; besides other bequests. The Rev C. H. Spurge an is one of the trustees. A lad named Moulson, whose father is member of the firm of Moulson Brothers, merchants and manufacturers, Sheffield, died on Tuesday afternoon under very shocking circumstances. He was a pupil of the Sheffield Collegiate School, and a week ago he fought with another lad, the son of Mr Councillor Tasker, and was severely' punished. His parents took little notice of his inj urics until Wednesday last, when medical aid was called in. The lad became worse, and died on Tuesday from congestion of the brain, probably the result of a blow or a fall. PARTRIDGES AN-t) GIWLSE. A correspondent writes that a few days ago the gamekeeper on the Rannagulzion moors, Alyth, had his attention called by his dog to a nest on which was a part- ridge. When the bird was dislodged, it was found that she was sitting on a grouse nest on tive grouse eggs. In course of a few days the partridge laid fifteen eggs beside the grouse eggs. Im- mediately on the five young grouse appearing, the male partridge took charge of the alien family, while the female bird still sat on her own eggs and hatched them. WARNINGS TO MARINERS.—The Commissioners of Irish Lights have given notice that a buoy has been placed S.S.W., distant half a cable's length from the wreck of the Guion steamer Idaho, near Conningmore Rock, on the south coast of Ireland, off the Saltee Islands. The two mastheads of the vessels are above water, and on one of these a cask has been placed. A notice has been issued by the Hydrograpliic Office, upon information received from the Danish Government, that a light is now exhibited frAm a light-vessel placed at the outer extremity of the Horn Reef, on the West Coast of Jutland. The light is a revolving white light, giving a flash every half-minute, and is elevated 31ft. above the sea. During thick and foggy weather a powerful siren trumpet, worked by a caloric engine, will give three blasts in succession every two minutes. A BARONET IN THE POLICE FoReL.-Amoligst the "promotions" which have recently be?n an- nounced as having taken place at the Phoenix depot of the Royal Irish Constabulary, we read "Acting Constable Sir Thomas Echlin, Bart." This means in plain words that Sir Thomas Echlin, Bart., is now enlisted and serving as a common policeman and surely it is a strange instance of the vicissitudes of families. The Echlins have been amongst the English-in-Ireland, and amongst the aristocratic English-in-Ireland, more than two and a half centuries, as Sir B. Burke reminds us. One of the family, or the founder of the family, came over here, like numbers of his countrymen, to be a Protestant bishop at the time that James L was enriching Protestant bishoprics, colleges, and schools out of Catholic confiscations. The'bishop's graiidson became- a Baron of the Exchequer, and the first baronet of the family, in 1721. From that time downwards the scions of the house fre- quently intermarried into the high families of their circle, and the blood of the Echlins, with its heraldries and blazonries, stood high in genealo- gical birth rolls. The case is another instance, we may observe, of the collapse and descent which are overtaking so many of the English families which James I. planted here and enriched out of Irish theft and spoliation. Rathangan, county Kildare, used to be the family residence of the Echlins. The policeman is the seventh baronet.—Freeman's Jour- nal. SHOCKING I HAI,JTCAL JOKE.—A few days ago, a practical joke of a most extraordinary and shock- ing character was played at Haswell West Blue House. It appears that a party of miners were assembled in that public house, when a miner named Thomas Laverick told a miner named Brain that he did not dare to pick off with a pin a piece of white paper on the end of a small metallic case he produced. Brain did not know the nature of the article handed to him, but he expressed his readiness to pick off the piece of white paper, and a pin having been procured he proceeded to per- form his task. In doing so he did not observe that the other men in the room, including Laverick, had quitted the apartment. Presently the pin penetrated the end of the case, which proved to be a dynamite cartridge, and an explosion at once followed. Brain states that he was rendered un- conscious, and on regaining his senses he found himself lying on his back in the rootn, his arms stretched out on each side, and his left hand shat- tered, whilst the right hand was also injured. He scrambled to his feet, and the other men came in looking very much scared by the result of their joke. Brain was taken to Dr Fothergill's, where it was found the injured man had had his left hand blown to pieces. He was otherwise severely in- jured, and tw ) months will probably elapse before he can leave his house again.~Ncwcastle Chronicle. THE RUSSIAN PRESS ON THE WORK or TITR flnv. ORESS.—-The semi official of St. Peter- burg, July 16th ,;as The more deliberately we compare the results of the Berlin Congress with the object assigned by the Emperor of Russia to the war against Turkey, the more we are convinced to the considerable result that have been attained for the Christian populations, whose condition has been ameliorated and guaranteed by autonomous institutions, which, even where the autonomy is not absolute, are placed under the direct and effec- tive control of E irop, This result alone would be immense, but the. Congress has done more. It has stipulated for the definitive independence, re- cognised by th" Porte, of Roumania, Servia, and Montenegro; 1 i cession of Ardahan, Kars, and Batoum to Russia, and the retrocession of Bessara- bia. The Congress has also opened the way to a reconciliation between England and Russia—a result which would be most satisfactory on account of its pacific consequences." The A'qence Rmse further publishes a telegram from Berlin of to- day's date, positively contradicting the statement made by several newspapers, that Count Corti, the Italian plenipotentiary of the Congress, had pro- posed to M. Waddington that the latter should protest against the cession of Cyprus to England, and withdraw from the Congress, but that Prince Gortschakoff, consulted by the Italian and French plenipotentiaries, had dissuaded them from such a course.
The Genedl Qytnrcig for lab t week contained an article entitled, A Ydyw Lleyn Folly r" of which the following is a transla:ioll Is Llcxjn So? In all the wapentakes of Carnarvonshire, there is probably no hundred more interesting than the one known as "Pen Lleyn," extending iu length from Pwllheli to Aberdaron. and in width from Porth Nigwl on the southern to Porthdinllaen on the northern coast. It seems that the metropolis of this territory is the central village of Sarn Meillteyrn—famous for its hiring fairs famous also, recently, for having been the place where was held one of the most notable meetings of this century, not being second even to the great meet- ing now held in Berlin, viz., one of the Love- feasts of thp Lleyn Tories and the anniversary of the Conservative Association at Sarn, Meillteyrn. The day was a very fortunate one, and the place of meeting was exceedingly ominous. It was held, not in one of the small filthy wash-brewhouses of the village, but in the respectable hotel which flourishes under coat of arms of Penrhyn; and it was held also, as a correspondent to one of the Conservative papers affirms, on the anniversary of the veteran hero, the honourable Lord Penrhyn's birthday. Has not Fate signally favoured the Conservatives in affording such time and place ? Then we arc favoured by the correspondent with a long list of the respectable gentlemen who adorned the feast with their presence. Among them are esquires and clergymen: doctors and deacons; mayors and farmers; and it is to be presumed that such an honourable concourse was never witnessed since the days of The Long-knife Perfidy" (Brad ?I Gyllill Hirion) than this gathering of Tories in the metropolis of Lleyn on the birthday anniversary of Lord Penrhyn! Able speeches were delivered, according to our informant, by the gentlemen present. To be informed of this caused us to covet to be present. We well know the majority of the gents who were there; they are good- neighbours, and we would much love to listen to their eloquence because we, poor folks, must confess our utter ignorance of their power to address large congregations, such as, assuredly, had met on this occasion. But there is "no limit to the discoveries of the present age. Therefore, besides discovering the fact that there are able orators among the Conservatives of Lleyn, we also had sundry other revelations of the results of this meeting. Firstly, we did not know before that Lord Pen- rhyn was a veteran hero" (hen icron). This title to his Lordship fell strangely upon our ears. We, many times heard him described as a generous gentleman, and we always considered him one of the best landlords in Wales: but this is the first time that we understood him to be a hero," and especially a "veteran hero." His generosity towards good causes, and his tenderness toward his tenants are well known but these things do not all constitute a hero. Where, and how did lie win his title to heroism? Our thoughts imme- diately ran to the time when he was engaged in a contest with his own workmen but in the history of that contest we can find nothing of the character of true heroism. True, that storm passed over, to the great benefit of both master and workmen but Lord Penrhyn to this day has not condes- cended to treat the matter personally between him- self and his employees. In this he did out. exhibit one half the heroism of his neighbour of the Vay- nol. He came face to face with his workmen, treating the matter without a mediator, and that with commendable heroism. Then we bethought ourselves of the recent war between the Lords in our country, trying to discover something in the circumstances between Lord Newborough and Lord Penrhyn that should entitle the latter to the epithet of a hft-o." After investigating that matter again, we feel that the whole heroism was on the side of the old hero, Lord Newborough. So, taking everything into consideration, our zeal for language, meaning of words, and principles, will not allow us to allow this opportunity to pass over without protesting against calling Lord Penrhyn "a veteran hero," although we are desirous of calling him everything else that is honourable. We hope that the day of his death is far off; but we would advise the Tories of Lleyn not to add to their calendar of feStive days!, until they can establish a memorial festival, not only on the birthday of their hero, but also on his translation to the heaven of the gods of the Toties, according to the mythology of the Conservatives of the ages. In this meeting, also, we get several new dis- coveries regarding the ability and influence of the hon. member for the county. One of the speakers said:—" Althoughour present faithful representa- tive (the Hon. Mr Pennant) is not a giant of an orator in Parliament, his influence, notwithstand- ing, is great. The direct result of his influence in St. Stephen's is the Light Tower of St. Tudwall's, the telegraph wire between Pwllheli and Nevin, and several other advantages (we have translated the sentence as favourably as we could, consider- ing the miserable original). This also sounds very strangely to us. Do the poor sailors, who enjoy the advantages of the Light-house, know to whom they are indebted? Do the good people of Nevin and the surrounding neighbourhoods know, when they receive important telegrams announcing the fate of the heads of their families and their ships, to whom they are indebted for the wire which carry "lightning-words that annihilate distance." It is possible that the people of Nevin are, like our- selves, doubtful that the member for the county had anything to do with ensuring for them these advantages, and, consequently, that they remain true and constant Liberals as ever. Probably our member would be in Egypt when there would be the greatest need for his presence in Parliament. But the strangest thing of all that struck us while reading the account of this strange meeting in Lleyn, was the alliance that exists in that dis- trict between Toryism and Dissent. It is likely that there is no section of Wales where the priest and the preacher, the dean and the deacon, take their seats with so much grace, side by side, at the table of the Tory esquire, as they do at Lleyn. It is seldom that we find, in any part of the country, according to its size and population, so many youths who were brought up with the Non- conformists, perverting themselves to the fold of the State Church, aud some of them utilising, as priests, a few of the qualifications they attained at the Sabbath schools of the Dis- senters. We have every regard for con- scientious convictions. Hence our remarks this time. We deeply sympathise with a thorough convert; but, finding so nuny persons vitit utiriie,(.l coats in one small section of the country causes us to doubt whether all of them can be converts. c asting a glance over the list of persons who at- tended this meeting at Sarn, we find some who are I religious members and officials of the Dissenters. Of course, they have perfect freedom to exercise freedom of judgment in matters political, and we hope that they do not possess too'much of that scarce commodity called consciousness, aud that they can sleep peacefully, without being troubled by that costless and disadvantageous instinct called conscience. If they are ever so troubled, we be- lieve that the best remedy for them would be to conscience. If they are ever so troubled, we be- lieve that the best remedy for them would be to exchange their seat in the chapel for a choir in the church, aud the consistency of profession would bring- with it its own balm. We are not of the number of those extreme men who would persuade a tenant to sacrifice his home and his circumstances, excepting when palpable and important principles are at stake. But there is a vast difference between this and the great haste with which some men rush t to fawn upon the Tories, and to give their pre- C-1 sence at every dinner and meeting for the sake of being noticed of men and acknowledged as Con- servatives. We know in Lleyn men whose presence would be more appreciated by the Tories than these men who are, like others, tenants of Conser- vative landlords; but, somehow or other, these men have enabled themselves to abstain from at- I tending these meetings. We ask, in the face of the other apes, Why do they not act likewise F The Tories themselves only laugh in their sleeves when tliey find this class at their meetings. Thus paith another correspondent in the same Tory paper from which we L imve quoted respecting the 0 report of the meeting at Sarn Meillteyrn:—"We have here the most zealous deacons and the most wryheaded and devotional members who are also the most inveterate Conservatives." But let such things remain for a while. The time will come, ere long, to prove the strength of parties in Car- narvonshire, and then it shall be seen whether Lleyn is really so." BANER AC AMSERAU CYMRU, JULY 17TU. CARNARVONSHIRE AND MR JONES- P.Iltl'Y. ID reply to a correspondent signing himself Gicladwr, in the Baner for the previous week, a correspondent bearing the title of JFil Llwyd writes as follows — Gicladwr appeals to all classes to express their opinions on this subject (the last election), and I, as a representative quarrymau, venture to affirm that the Tories of no county nor boroughs ever practised such wily tricks as did the Tories oi Carnarvonshire in the last election. There was nothing too much for them to do in order to win the battle. How could they assure how much the majority the Tory wuuld be, excepting by knowing how many bad votes they had in the county ? It is well known that the last election took place before the revision of the register in this county, and as the tax collectors as a rule are in the clutches of the Tories, they were at their service to commit any meanness asked of them. I well remember my walking with the agent of one of the Arvon quarries, when we met one of 'the collector, of the poor rates, at the time when the last electoral pot was boiling at its furious height. The agent immediately stopped the collector and asked him on the spot, Are so-and- so's names (naming five persons) on the bookr' The collector replied, No are they to be placed ?' Certainly and remember to do so the moment you go liome, or woe betide you!' I refrained from saying a word at the time, in order to obtain all the secrets I could from them. When the collector went on his way, I remarked to the agent (in whose quarry I worked), Those men have no vote, Mr this is an awful thing.' You shut your mouth, Will,' said he, or else you shall feel after this.' 'Well,' I said, 'do you believe that this i" fair?" "What is that to you :-let every man mind his own business." "All right," I said, and I will assert my right to do whatever I please." And those were the last words I Iopoke to that steward; and doubtless it will be remem- bered how I exposed the stratagems of the Tories in this district at tho time. I recall these facts to show how they could foretell the majority they would obtain. I can confirm Gwladu-r s remarks. Some feared the ballot; others had half piomiscd, and took advantage to fully give their votes, be- cause of their fear of the blue and the Tory ticket; and others voted under the belief that Mr Jones- Parry was safe even against their own votes. Let us search for those stewards who committed every abomination to secure the victory of Mr Pennant, and. notiee what reward they received. and that before the end of that very year. Look in every direction, and you will find that they have all been swept away some like the ldom- ites and the Gomorahites, uito utter destruction and those who are still living, are, like Cain, wanderers over the earth, despised by rich and poor.
Simon Fraser was charged at Edinburgh, on Monday, with murdering his child, by striking it against the floor or walls of the house. The jury found him guilty, but that he being in a amnnani- bulant condition, wis mt responsible for his actions. Sentence was deferred. The Press Association has authority to state hat there is no truth whatever in the reports that Lord Hartington is about to make an electioneering tour,, and that a conclave of Liberal peers has been held. Visitors to the Paris Exhibition who are to avoid 8ea sickness will be glad to learn that there is some prospect of the twin steamship- Oastalia being again commissioned. She is now being put into thorough repair, and is to be fur- nished with a pair of disc-blade paddle wheels. This improvement, it is expecte d, will give the ship an additional speed of nearly three miles an hour, and it is believed that she mav be got ready for running by the end of this month or the beginning of August. A MAYOR DUCKEI).-Oll Monday a new surf boat, the gift of a private individual, was launched at Margate with great ceremony. The mayor, who was to embark in the boat, had to be carried pick- a-back a few yards from the shore to the craft. The worthy man who bore his worship, probably overcome with the magnitude of the responsibility incurred and the vast honour thrust upon him, made an unlucky slip, and his worship slid gra- dually and gracefully from oif his shoulders into the sea. Being of those rotund proportions which give such dignity to the magisterial presence the mayor momentarily disappeared in the bosom of the deep. On his re-appearance at the surface his worship was loully cheered by the assembled thousands as he stepped nimbly into the boat, drip- ping, but neither downcast or doyyn-hearted. As in the evening he presided at a magnificent repast given at the White Hart, there is reason to hope that the first magistrate of Margate was none the worse for his improvised immersion. THE GUITAU IN PORTUGAL. The guitar is certainly, to our critical northern eyes, an effem- inate instrument, and a man who plays upon it in an English drawing room can no more hope to preserve any appearance of manly dignity than if he were piping upon a flageolet, or blowing into that most ludicrous of all instruments-the flute. That a man should be, as well as look, sentiment- ally emotional under the painful circumstances of being tied by a silk ribbon to such an instrument is, however, clearly a matter of conventionality. In many parts of Portugal men play upon the guitar naturally and as a matter of course they strum as we Englishmen whistle. The peasants are universally given to plav upon this instrument, not often, however, achieving more than a simple accompaniment to the voice of chords and arpeg- gios. In the towns the artisans are often guitar players, and as they walk to aud from their work in twos and threes, they lighten tne journey with an accompanied chant or song. My carpenter al- ways brings his guitar with his tools when he comes on a job. He is a fair performer, but lIlY- blacksmith, I think, has a lighter touch 0:1 the instrument, and his tones are certaiulv fuller. The old writers on art mention a table painted' by Holbein which was at one time to be seen in the City Library of Zurich. In the year 1S71 a diligent search was made for this table by Pro- fessor Vogelin, who had at last the happiness to find the missing work. The painted surface of this table is of some interest to the student of cul- ture-history not only on account of its being the first provable work of the young Holbein, but be- cause it contains a very complete set of pictures of the domestic life-of the aa-rly part of the sixteenth century. It was painted [,,1' a Basel family in the spring of 1515, at the period when the lively young painter was adorning the houses and churches of Basel with portraits, frescoes, alter-pieces. It is somewhat of an Achilles shield in its encyclopaedic summary of contemporary life, and has seen,, from the play of children, the preparation of meals, fish- ing, hunting, a tournament, and the occupations of womankind. The humour and frolic of the artist, which were notorious in his life as well as- his art at this period, break forth in representation of a trader who has fallen comfortably asleep, while a troop of monkevs gleefully empty his basket: and in another of "Nobodv." the scape- goat who bears the blame for all the mischief done in house and garden, kitchen and cellar. The pictures gave the painter opportunity for introduc- ing a whole heap of the house utensils of the- period; and we gain a glimpse of the contemporary toilette of the ladies, the household economy, kitchen management, and even the toys of children' in a wealthy Basel family. Many of the articles are represented in their natural size, and are treated as Vexirhild-cr, placed accidentally ou the table. This is the case with some gold pieces, playing cards, a letter, and a seal which bears the name of the artist. JIANS ito.. The table has been exhibited in the Zurich Stadtbibliothek for the last few years, though it, may escaped the notice- of an unprepared visitor.