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-=====- THE CLOSK OF TOE CONGRESS. On Saturday the Berlin Congress reached the -final stage in a formal sitting, at which the several Plenipotentiaries attended in "full dress to aft a :h their seals and signatures to the treaty. This cere- mony conducted, Count Andrassy, the Austrian Plenipotentiary, roe ■ and thanked Prince Bismark in the name of the Congress, for the services he had rendered in bringing its great work to a satis- factory issue exactly one month from the opening of the Congress, and tendering the respectful acknowledgements of the Plenipotentiaries for the great kindness and gracious hospitality they had experienced from the Emperor of Germany and the Imperial family. The Ottoman secretaries were the only ones absent when the treaty was signed, but they made their appearance at a late hour. At the Congress, Prince Bismarck, who was present in his general's uniform, appeared to be grately fatigued. Lord Beaconsfield, who was still suffering fiom gout, leaned upon his stick and Prince Gortsehakoff was carried into the room bv his atteiidaiit4. Prince Bismarck opened the business in a speech, giving a retrospective view of what hid been accomplished, and then invited the Plenipotentiaries to sign seven copies of the treaty which had been prepared, one for each country. The work of signature, which was cor-pletel in the secretary's room, is said to have occupied one hour, in the course of which the Plenipotentiaries ex- changed photographs and autographs. At half- past five the German Chancellor made a farewell spc ec'i, expressing his satisfaction at the happy conclusion of the labours of the Conference, and it was then Count Andrassy moved the vote of thanks already referred to. THE TREATY OF BERLIX. The treaty commences In the name of the Omnipotent God." The tr^amblo sets forth that -the sovereigns of Great Biit,tiii, Germany, Austro- Hungary, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, and the Pre- sident of the French Republic, desiring to regu- late, with a view to European order, conformably to the stipulation of the treaty of Paris of 30th March, 1*5'3, the questions raised in the East by fi- '■•vents of the last years and by the war termi- nated by the preliminary- treaty of Ul Stefano, h ive been unanimously of opinion that the meeting of T congress wou:(} "ffer the best means of facili- taiiii,, an understanding." The names and full styles of the accedited plenipotentiaries are then given, Lord Beaconsfield being thus described, "The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, Viscount TTughenden, peer of Parlia- ment, member of her Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, First Lord of her Majesty's Trea- sury, and Prime Minister of England." These plenipotentiaries, according to the proposition of the Court of Austro-IIungary, and on the invita- tion of the Court of Germany, met at Berlin, furnished with full powers, which were found in good and due form. An understanding having been happily established between them to the following stipulations (then follow the 6-1 articles which constitute the treaty). An examination of the official translation of the treaty and a comparison with the versions already published leads to the following result:—■ Article I is, save the substitution of the word "will" for the word" shall," identical. Under theheading, "Article 2," the Times merely says-" The Bulgarian Principality shall be limited to the south by the chain of the Balkans." In the official document, however, article 2 is a very long one, and is as follows:—" The Principality of Bulgaria will include the following territories: The frontier follows on the north bank of the Danube, from the ancient frontier of Servia, up to a point to be determined by an European com- mission to the east of Silistria and from thence runs to the Black Sea, to the south of Mongolia, which is included in Roumanian territory. The Black Sea forms the eastern boundary of Bulgaria. On the south, the frontier follows upwards from its mouth the waterway of the brook, near which are -situated the villages of Hodzakioj, Selam-Kioj, Aivadsik, Kulibe, Sudzuluk, crosses obliquely the valley of the Deli-Kamcik, passes south of Belibe and Kemhalik, and north of I-ILtiziiil-iile. After having passed the Deli-Kamcik, at 21- kilometre above Cengie, reaches the crest at a point situated between Tekenlik and Aidos-Bredza, and follows it by Karnab id Balkan, Priscvica Balkan, Kazan Balkan to the north of Kotel, as far as Demir Kapu. It proceeds by the principal chain of the Great Balkan, the whole extent of which it follows up to the summit of Uorica. There it leaves the crest of the Balkan, descend southwards between th:o- villages of Pirsop and Duzance, left the one to Bulgaria and the other to Eastern Roumelia, as far as the brook of Tuzen Dere follows that stream to its junction with the Topolnica, then the latter river until it meets the Smovskio Dere, near the village of Petricevo, leaving to Eastern Roumelia a zone of two kilometres. Above that meeting it ascends between the brooks of Smovskio Derc and the Kamenica, following the line of the watershed so as to turn to the south-west at the level of Voinjak and reach directly the point 875 of the Austrian staff map. The frontier line cuts i a straight line the upper basin of the br,)ok of Ichtiman Dere, passes between Bogdina and Karanla, rejoins the line of the water- shed separating the basins of the Isher and the Marica, between Camurli and Hadzelir, follows that line by the summits of Verlina, Mogita, Zinailica Vah, Sumnatica, and rejoins the adminis- trative boundary of the sandjak of Sofia between Sivri Tas and Cadir Tepe. From Carlir Tepe the frontier, going to the south-east, follows the water- shed between the basins of Mesta Karasu on the one side, and the Struma Karasu on the other, runs along the crests of the mountains of Rhodope called Demir Kupu,Tskof Tepe, Kadimesar Balkan, and Aigi, joins the ancient admistrative frontier of the sandjak of Sofia. From Kapetnik Balkan the frontier is indicated by the watershed by the valleys of the Rilska Reka and of the Bitrica Reka. and follows the counterfort called Yo lenica Plonina so as to decend into the or tV struma at the junction of this river with the f:i1" Heka. Leav- ing the village of Barakli to v, it ascends then south of the village of Jtlc and reaches, by the shortest line, the chain of GolemaPl mina at the summit of Gilka, and joins there the ancient administrative frontier of the sandjak of Sofia, leaving, however, to Turkey the whole of the basin of the Suk ireka. From Mount Gitka the western frontier goes towards Mount Crui Vah by the mountain of K-i^vena.Tabuka, following the ancient -administrative limit of the sandjak of Sofia in the upper part of the basins of Egrisk and the Lepnica, mounts with it the crests of B tbnia Pa-ma, and arrives at Mount Crui Vah. From Mount Crui Vah the frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and the Morava by the sum- mit- of the Streser Vilasrolo and Mosio Panina rejoining by the Gacina Crua, Trava Darkovska, and Dranica. plain. then the Deveani Kladanec, the watershed of the High Sukowa and of the Morava, goes directly on the Stol, and descends from it so as to cut the road from Sofia to Pirot, 1000 metres north-west of the village of Segusa. It ascends in a straight line the Vildic Planina and thence to Mount Radocena, in the chain of Kodz, Balkan, leaving to Servia the village of Doikinci, and to Bulgaria that of Seneka. From the summit of Mouijt Radocma the frontier follows towards the east of the Balkans by Ciprovee Balkan an" Stara Kanina up to the ancient eastern frontier of the principality of Servia, near to the Kulu Smiljova Cuka, and thence that ancient frontier as far as the Danube, which it joins at Rak ivirza on the spot of the European commission, on which the signatory Powers will be representen It is understood—1. That this commission will take into consideration the necessity to his Imperial Majesty the Sultan of being able to defend the Balkan frontiers of Eastern Roumelia. 2. That no fortifications can be entered within a zone of ten kilometre round Lamakow. Article 5 is worded very differently in the official 'trauslation. but the definition of liberty in Bulgaria ispractic illy to the same effect. Article? As soon as the prince shall have been Aected," instead of "is installed." Article 8 to 21 inclusive only show verbal altera- tion. a- compared with the published versions, but in a< tide 22 the la4 two •-iauses are different, and read as fo'llows: TI-le period of the occupation ot Eastern Roumelia and Bulgaria by the Imperial Kalian troops is fixed at irne mouths from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. The Imperial Russian Government undertakes that within nine months the passage of its troops across Roumania shall cease, and the principality shall be completely evacuated." Articles 23 and 24 iu the official document are practically the same as articles 55 and ,J[j in the Times version. Article 25, which is numbered 23 iu the Thnes, relates to the occupation by of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and contains the follow- ing final sentence, which i* not in the Tihtes, and which it is understood was added at the last iuoinent With this object, the Governments of Austro-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding as to details." The next few clauses only contain such differ- ences as commonly occur iu the work of different translations. Then there is the following new article, num- bered Tiie principality of Montenegro shall come to a direct understanding with the Ottoman Porte with regard to the establishment o: Mon- tenegrin agents at Constantinople and at certain places in the Ottoman empire, where they shall be decided to be necessary. Montenegrins travelling or residing in the Ottoman Empire shall be subject to the laws and authorities of Turkey, according to the general principles of international law and the established customs with regard to Montenegrins." I c;1 In article 32, which is J9 in the Times, the word" "ratification of" take the place of the word "signature, and there is the fallowing new clause :—" The Ottoman troops shall evaluate the territory ceded to Montenegro in the same period of twenty days. They shall have, however, allowed them a supplementary period of fifteen days as well for evacuating tlolC fortresses and withdrawing provisions and materials of war from them as for drawing up inventories of the implements and ob- jects which cannot be immediately removed." The next three p.rticles are materially the same, but article 36, relating to the frontiers of Servia, was not published by the Tiitteq. It is as follows —Servia receives the territories included in the subjoined delimitation. The new frontier follows the existing line along the shelving of the Drina, from its confluence with the Save upwards, leaving Mali Zrovarnik and Sakhar to the principality, and continues along the ancient limits of Servia as far a- Kopaonik, leaving it at the submit of Kanilug. From that point it follows at first the western boundary of the sandjak of Nisch by the counter- fort in th3 south of Kopaonik, by the crests of the Marica and llonar Planina, which form the water- shed between the basins of the Ibar and Sitnica on one side and that of the Toppica on the other, leaving Prepolac to Turkey. It then turns to the south to the watershed between the Brnenica and the Medvedja, leaving the whole of the basin of the Medvedja to Servia, follows the crests of the Goljak Planina (which forms the watershed bet- ween the Kriva-Rjeka on one side and the Pol- jauica Veternica and Morawa on the other) as far as the summit of Poljanica. It then follows the counterfort of the Karpina Planina as far as the confluence of the Koniska and the Morawa, crosses this river and ascends by the watershed between the Koniska brook and the stream, which falls into the Morawa near Neradovce to gain the Sveti Iliyi Planina above Trgovisle. From thence it follows the crests of the Sveti Iliya as far as Mount Ivljuc, and passing by the point mArked 151*5 and 15 47 on the map, and by the B ivina Gora, it reaches Mont Crui- vvh. Setting out from Mont Crni-vrh, the new line of delimitation coincides with that of Bulgaria. The line of frontier follows the watershed between the Struma and Morawa by the summit of Strser Vilogolo and Mesida Planina, passes GlacinaCtna, Trova Darkosyka,aiid Draiiiica Planina, and then thy Deseani Kladanec, along the watershed between the Upper Sukorva and the Morava, leads straight to the Stol, and descends from the ace to intersect the road from Sofia to Pirot, at a point 1000 metres to the north-west of the village of Segasa. It then ascends in a straight line to the Vidlic Planina, and from thence to Mount Radocina, on the chain of the Kodza Balkan, leaving the village of Doskinci to Servia, and that of Senakos to Bulgaria. From the summit of Mount Radocina the frontier leads along the crest of the Balkans to the north-west by Ciprovec Balkan and Stara Planina, to the ancient eastern frontier of the principality of Servia, near to the Kula of Smiljora Buka, and from thence follows that ancient frontier to the Danube, which it reaches at Rakowitza. Article 39 (numbered 36 in the Times version) should read Territories annexed to Montenegro," and not Servia. This is evideltly a,typographical error. Article 41 (38 in the Timet) reads fifteen days from the date of the ratifications," instead of signatures, as previously published. This article, moreover, contains the following new clause :— The Ottoman troops shall evacuate territories ceded to Servia within the same term of 15 days. A supplementary term of an equal number of days shall, however, be granted to them as well for evacuating the strongholds and withdrawing the provisions and material as for preparing the in- ventory of the implements and objects which can- not be removed at once." Article 42 (which is 39 in the Times) is very different, and has been considerably shortened by the suppression of all relating to the capitalisation of the Servian tribute. The article now reads- Servia having to support a part of the Ottoman public debt fn respect of the new territories an- nexed to her by the present treaty, the representa- tives at Constantinople will fix the amount of it. in concert with the Sublime Porte, on an equitable basis." The next nine articles are materially as already published, but article 38 of the Times version, re- lating to the capitalisation of the Roumanian tribute, has been entirely struck out. Article 56 is entirely new. It is as follows :— "The European commission of the Danube shall come to an arrangement with the proper parties for maintaining the lighthouse on the Isle of Serpents." The remainder of the articles, except that they are arranged in different order, are the same in all practical respects as published in the Times. The treaty concludes with the 20 signatures. y I CLAUSES AFFECTING ENGLAND, The following are those clauses of the treaty of Berlin which more particularly affect British interests, and which were not contained in the version of th-at important document printed on Tuesday. Article 58.—The Porte cedes to the Russian empire in Asia the territories of Ardahan, Kars, and Batoum, and with the last-named port also, the territories comprised between the former Russo-Turkish frontier and the following boun- dary, namely, a line from Makrialos on the Black Sea to Gadapai, thence following the stream to Artvin; from Artvin, through Khorda, whence making a slight curve it runs on the west side of Olti, passing thence to Nariman, Bardus, Ardost, and south of Kagisman to the former Russian frontier. Article 59.—His Majesty the Emperor of Russia declares it to be his intention to make Batoum a free and essentially commercial treaty. Article 60.—The Valley of Alashgerd and the town of Bayazid, ceded to Russia by article 19 of the treaty of San Stefano, are given back to Turkey. The Sublime Porte cedes to Persia the town and district of Kootour; and it is provided that the boundaries shall be fixed by an Anglo-Russian commission. Article 61.-The Sublime Porte engages to realise without delay those ameliorations and re- forms which local needs require in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and guarantees their security against the Circassians and the Kurds. It undertakes to make known from time to time the measures taken with this object to the Powers, who will watch over their application. I Article 62.—The sublime Porte, having expressed j its desire to maintain to the utmost extent the principles of religions liberty, the high contracting Powers take note of its spontaneous declaration. In no part of the Ottoman Empire shall difference of religion be held in the case of any person as a motive for exclusion from or disqualification for any public function, nor from the advantages of the exercise of any profession or industry. All shall be admitted to give evidence before the tri- bunals. Liberty of all worship is proclaimed and no impediments shall be offered either to the hierarchical organisation of the various com- munions, or to their relations with their spiritual chiefs. Ecclesiastical pilgrims and monks of all nationalities travelling in Turkey shall enjoy the same privileges. The right of protectorate is recognised to all the diplomatic agents aud con- suls in regard to the persons, religions, and holy places of their several nationalities. The rights acquired by France in this respect are expressly reserved, and it is clearly understood that no attempt shall be made to interfere with the status quo established in the S,Ûnts Lictix. The monks of Mont Athos, of whatever country or nationality, are maintained in the possession of the existing advantages, and all shall enjoy without exception an entire equality of rights and privileges. Article 03.—The Treircy of Paris of March 39, 1856. as well as the Treaty of London, of March 13, 1871, are maintained in all those dispositions which are not abrogated or modified by the pre- ceding stipulations. Article 61.-The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged, within a period of three weeks, or sooner if possible, in witness whereof the plenipotentiaries affix their signatures. The Right Hon. Sir A. II. Layard, G.C.B, and His Highness Safvet Pasha, now the Grand Vizier of His Majesty the Sultan, have agreed to the fol- lowing Annex t) the Convention signed by them a-i Plenipontiaries of their respective Governments on June 4, 1878 It is understood between the two high contract ing parties that England agrees to the following conditions relating to her occupation ai.d admin- istration of the Island of Cyprus I. That a Mussulman religious tribunal (Meh- kemei Sheri) shall continue to exist in the Island, which will take exclusive cognisance of religious matters, and of no others, concerning the Mussul- man population of the islands. II. That a Mussulman resident in the Island shad be named by the Board of Pious Foundations in Turkey (Evkraf) to superintend, in cpnj unction with a delegate to be appointed by the British authorities, the administration of the property, funds, and lands belonging to mosques, cemeter- ies, Mussulman schools, and other religious estab- lishments existing in Cyprus. III. That England will pay to the Porte what- ever is the present excess of revenue over expen iiture in the island this excess to be calculated upon and determined by the average of the last five years, stated to be 22,936 purses, to be duly verified hereafter, and to the exclusion of the pro- duce of State and Crown lands let or sold during that period. IV. That the Sublime Porte may freely sell or lease lands and other property in Cyprus belonging y 11 to the Ottoman Crown and State (Arazii Miriye ve Emlake Houmayoun), the produce of which does not form part of the revenue of the island referred to in Article III. V. The Engiish Government, through fair com- petent athorities, may purchase compulsorily, at a fair price, land required for public improve- ments, or for other public purposes, and land which is not cultivated. VI. tThat if Russia restores to Turkey Kars and other conquests made by her in Armenia during the last war, the island of Cyprus will be evacuated by England, and the Convention of June 4, 1878, will be at an end. Done at Constantinople, July 1, 178. Signed) A. H. LAYARD. SAFVET.

MR OSBORNE MORGAN ON THE LAW…

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