t Rational Society. ? DELEGATE MEETING AT CARDIFF. ..1 11 The Lord 3Iayor and Lady Mayoress of Car- diff )Alderman and Mrs Lewis Morgan) gave a reception at the City Hall on Saturday even- ing to the president. officers, and delegates of the Rational Association Friendly Society, now in Cardiff tor the qxiinquennial delegate meeting, which commences to-day. The scene inside the City Hall was strikingly picturesque. The eastern staircase was converted into a a. bank of ferns, and the western staircase was lined with stalwart city firemen in full dress, wearing brass helmets. The Lord Mayor, in his gorgeous mayoral robe, and the Lady Mayoress, wearing the chain of office, received the guests in the Marble Hall with all the 'Ceremony that attends 1he civic hospitality. s The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress subse- quently followed the guests to the Assembly Hall, where they were supported on the dais by the president of the society (Mr H. H. Drake, Cardiff), Messrs W. G. Wright. London; H. G. Lake, Norwich W. Labbett, Credilon W. Ridgway. Bristol Henry Pennington, Bradford Richard Dav, Manchester and W. J. Flockton. Manchester all past presi- dents. Also present were Messrs J. Duncan, general secretary, Manchester J. W. Wootton, assistant secretary W. J. Pinnegar (Foresters) and Charles Evans (I.U. Oddfellows), presi- dent and vice-president respectively of the Cardiff Friendly Societies Council'; N. B. Hos- good, Oddfellows' district secretary Coun- cillors Reginald Harrison and Wm. Jones. The Lord Mayor, who was received on rising to address the company with great applause, spoke of the pleasure it gave him as chief magistrate of the city-the Metropolis of Wales—to extend a warm welcome to the delegates. He proceeded to make a happy (reference to the name of the society, saying that every member must of necessity be rational, otherwise "he would not belong to it. He had pleasure in welcoming them because they were representative of a Friendly Society. He was a want) believer in Friendly Society work, and was a member of nearly every Friendly Society in the city of Cardiff. (Ap- plause.) He knew they were doing excellent work—teaching men self-respect, which was one of the most important services that could be rendered, inasmuch as it caused men to secure a wide independence of charity and an outlook upon the future that had in it no fear of receurse to the benefits of the Poor Law. (Applause.) Special circumstances, over which men had no control, sometimeei arose to com- pel people to seek the assistance of the Guard- ians but in the majority of instances, if a man was rational enough to join a Friendly Society, such as they represented, he made provision against a a rainy day and against the time when trouble and difficulty might o.vercome him. (Applause.) He expressed the hope that tlwsir deliberations in Cardiff would mean everything that they themselves would wish, and that their meeting in the city would tend to further the success of the society. He hoped their recollections of Cardiff would be so agreeable that they would come back again— that they would come back in July and see the Welsh National Pageant. (Applause.) The President of the society (Mr H. H. Drake) tendered thanks to the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress for the reception which, he said, had conferred distinction upon the society. Standing there in that magnificent building, of which the citizens of Cardiff were so justly proud, he was reminded that the society owed a debt of gratitude to the Prin- cipality, for the institution of the society was due to a Welsh-speaking native of Newtown. Montgomery-Robert Owen. (Applause.) Mr Drake referred to the coincidence that the meeting came to Cardiff on the jubilee of the society, it being to Cardiff that the first Welsh charter was granted 50 years ago. Since then the society- had spread throughout Glamorgan and Monmouth to Brecon. Denbigh, Flint, and Carnarvon, increasing its members from the 16 in the first branch to 14,800 to-day. (Applause.) He hoped that as a result of the meeting in Cardiff the membership would be largely aug- mented, and expressed a conviction that the welcome they had received would prove a stimulus to thrift. The form of thrift they en- couraged was very largely unselfish in its action, because in paying contributions month by month members did so with the hope that by the blessings of Providence they might never have occasion to seek the benefittowards which they contributed, and in the knowledge that their sacrifices would probably assist and cheer some unfortunate member. (Hear, hear.) At the present moment their attention was turned towards the Chancellor of the Ex- chequer, who had intimated that he had a scheme in hand in connection with State assurance. He could only echo the Lord Mayor's hope that the principle of voluntary! thrift would be preserved to the capable sec- tion of the community, and that legislation might be in the direction of an earnest attempt to confer upon the classes whom they were un- able to reach some of the advantages which they in their more fortunate circumstances had been able to secure for themselves. (Applause.) If such should prove to be the case he be- spoke a friendly and sympathetic reception of the scheme from the members of Friendly Societies. (Applause.) Mr Flocktoii added thanks to the Lord Mayor, and observed amid laughter that whilst Robert Owen was a native of Wales he made his money in Manchester. Mr Jonathan Duncan also expressed thanks for the reception, and remarked that State in- terference was not always bad, instancing that without the rigorous provisions of the Friendly- Societies Act some Friendly Societies would have gone to the dogs lohg ago. The thanks of the delegates were then accorded to the Lord May or and Lady Mayoress amid applause, and the Lord Mayor having replied, Mr W. J. Pinnegar, president of the Cardiff Friendly Societies Council, on behalf of 20,000 members of kindred societies, welcomed the delegates to Cardiff, and expressed best wishes for the success of the meetings. He asked leave to present an illuminated address to the president. The address had been executed on vellum bv Mr E. W. Holder, Bridge-street. It was all prepared by hand, and had local views in sepia. At was read by Mr Charles Evans as follows :— Rational Association Friendly Society. Cardiff Delegate Meeting, 1909. To the Worthy President, Henry H. Drake, Officers and Delegates assembled. Brethren,-On behalf of the Cardiff and Diatrct Friendly Societies Council. over which your own president so ably presided last year, we, the undersigned, extend to you a very cordial and fraternal welcome to the progressive city of Cardiff. As representatives of kindred societies, each endeavouring to fulfil its mission in its own particular way, but having one common object in view, we sincerely trust that your efforts during this quinquennial conference will be pregnant with wisdom, harmony, and goodwill, and will prove beneficial not only to your own members but to the whole Friendly Society movement. We rejoice; to know that the Rational Asso- ciation owes its inception to a native of the Principality of Wales, and that for 72 years it has faithfully carried out the great principles to which we as members of Friendly Societies adhere. We congratulate you upon the position attained by your society amongst the Friendly Societies of the country. At the same time we sincerely hope that the principles animating your members may long continue to aid in the encouragement of thrift and self- reliance, which, especially when voluntarily pursued, are so valuable not only to the individual but to the nation. We trust that your visit to the chief city of Wales will be a pleasant one, and that you will retain many happy recollections of your sojourn in our midst. Signed on behalf of the following societies representing the Cardiff and District Friendly Societies' Council Ancient Order of Foresters, British Order of Ancient Free Gardeners, Independent Order of Oddfellows, M.U., Bristol and South Wales Equalised District Order of Druids, Grand United Order of Oddfellows, United Patriots National Benefit Society, Loyal Order of An- cient Shepherds, R.U., Rational Association Friendly Society, United Ancient Order of Druids, Hearts of Oak, Order of Achei Brith, W. J. Pinnegar, President. Charles Evans, Vice-President. Evan Jones, Treasurer. C. W. Hutchings, Secretary. May 29th, 1909. j The President gracefully acknowledged the presentation, saying that it had proved, like oil that night's proceedings, the truth of the saying chat whatever Cardiff undertook to do was well done. Mr Richard Day, Manchester (assistant general secretary), also acknowledged the courtesy of the Cardiff Friendly Societies Council, and said that Mr Drake was not y selected president because the meeting was to be held this year in Cardiff, but because of his fitness to fill the position. (Applause.)
STATE INSURANCE QUESTION. A Compulsory Scheme. The quinquennial conference of the Rational Association Friendly Society opened at the Cardiff Y.M.C.A. Lecture Hall on Monday morning, when there were a large number of delegates present from all parts of the king- dom. The chair was occupied by Mr Henry H. Drake, Cardiff, the president. Mr William H. Carter, Ebbw Vale, was elected vice-president. "Mr W. B. Tope, the vice-chairman of the Reception Committee, read out an address of welcome from the Reception Committee, and hoped that they would carry away with them many happy memories of Gallant Little Wales." Mr N. B. Hosgood and Mr Evan Jones were also present on behalf of kindred societies to welcome the Rationals to Cardiff. Mr Hosgood referred to tho establishment in Cardiff of the first Friendly Societies Council in the country, and said that their example had been followed in many other districts, with the result that Friendly Societies were able to work together and to consblidate their interests. The Friendly Society movement had been a great factor in the prosperity of the country, but while Friendly Societies were proud of what they had done, they had no right, legally or morally, to interfere with any benefit which might be derived through prospective legisla- tion by those not associated with their move- ment, but they should be careful before accep- ting any particular scheme of State assurance that their birthright was not sold in so doing. Mr Evan Jones, as a Welsh speaking Welsh- man, on behalf of his countrymen gave the association a hearty' Welsh welcome to the chief city in the Principality, and hoped that they would so enjoy their visit to Wales as to make them desirous to visit Cardift again when the pageant took place two months hence. (Laughter.) Votes of thanks were then accorded to the deputation from other societies, to the Recep- tion Committee, and the Rev. G. F. Richard- son, the vicar of St. Andrew's. President's Address. The President (Mr Henry H. Drake), who on rising to dehver his address was received with loud cheers, in welcoming the delegates said this was the first time in the history of the association that a provincial member had pre- sided over a delegate meeting held in the city in which he resided. Their position in the Friendly Society world was seventh on the list of permanent registered Friendly Societies, and they were the second largest centralised type of society. Since the last meeting their mem- bership had increased by 8,072 and their funds by £ 112,115. Their total membership was 126,998, divided amongst the various funds, while there were 58,886 wives registered under the Sick and Funeral Fund. Their total funds amounted to X596,841, of which E517,827 formed the Sick and Funeral Fund. All these funds were solvent with the exception of the Sick and Funeral Fund. and as that was the main object of the association it followed that the principal question at the meeting was the financial condition of that fund. Up to 1880 they bad no means of knowing their degree of solvency, and the valuation at that date taken on an assumed interest earning capacity of 4 per cent. showed a degree of solvency of 17s 5d in the JE. to-day the statutory valuation showed 15s 5d on a 3t per cent. basis. The efficiency of a Friendly Society was gauged not by funds or membership, but by solvency. While in 1903 they saved 3s 6!d per member out of contributions, last year the contribu- tions did not meet the claims by E3,530-a deficiency of 8id per member-and the only saving effected in the Sick and Funeral Fund, amounting to £ 13,337, came from interest on investments. During the last five years their claims had increased by £ 19,000, an average increase of iE3,800 per annum, and if this con- tinued they would soon be compelled to realise securities to pay claims unless there was a reform. Present Condition of Affairs. The primary causes of the condition of affairs referred to were :—1st—The insufficiency of former, and a section of present, contribu- tions. 2nd-Excessive sickness claims. 3rd— Former inattention to profitable outlay of capital. Those members subscribing under Table Ib must no longer be allowed to evade their responsibilities, but must fall into line and adopt Table 1. With regard' to excessive sickness claims, the advent of enactments carrying compensation in accidents arising from occupation had resulted in whole counties (whose staple industries were of a more or less hazardous nature) being worked at a loss for several years, and it was quite clear that such a state of things could not continue. The only alternative was to provide full benefits in sickness onlv. and a much reduced benefit for accidents. With reference to former inatten- tion to profitable investments, it was satis- factory to know that their interest yield for last year showed an average of 3-61 per cent. (R3 12s 2d), but they must secure a better rate than that. It was incumbent upon them to do their utmost to improve their position by means of investments. Referring to the means recom- mended by the actuary for coping with the deficiency, the President suggested the ad op* tion of Table I. to all existing members in strict accordance with age at entry. By this means their liabilities would be immediately reduced by £ 88,302. The payment only of half benefits in compensa-tton cases would further ease them of probably E150,000. He failed to see why old age pensions should retard their numerical progress, or make individuals less anxious to provide for an honourable inde- pendency in sickness. Friendly Societies would have to adapt themselves to the changed cir- cumstances. either by merely providing bene, Lou fits up to the pension age (thus giving the members the advantage of a cheaper assur- ance), or by substituting a superannuation benefit from such age, irrespective of state of health, to run concurrently with the State pensions. Tables of contributions and bene- fits had been prepared, for these were problems which would require earnest attention in the near future. In some localities the regulation of the Old Age Pensions Act had been inter- preted to the detriment of Friendly Society members in receipt of sickness benefits, inas- much as these benefits were construed as an income within the meaning of the Act, with the result that such members had been debarred from the privileges of the pension, and had thus been penalised for a form of thrift which was very largely unselfish in its action, and differed very materially from private or in- dividual savings. Why the national authorities should take into account as income that which local autho- rities might not was an anomaly worthy of a Gilbertian comedy, and one which they must nrotcst against aa a direat discouragement of t\p unselfish form of thrift which had done so much to relieve the ratepayer. Discussing the proposed scheme of State insurance for in- validity, he said that the feeli;ig of Friendly Society members appeared to be distinctly averse to State interference or State competi- tion with the voluntary societies, in so far, at any rate, as the acceptable and capable class of the community were concerned. The volun- tary system was best calculated to serve them because they had the management in their own hands, and more sympathy and friendliness existed under such a system than could possi- bly be engendered under a Governmentor com- pulsory scheme, for where officialism came in at the door, sympathy flew out at the window. But whilst strong in their determination to brook no State interference in the field which they had tended for so many years, and whilst confident of their power to provide for those for whom they catered, they must not forget that there was a large section physically unfit for membership under existing arrangements, and another large section in casual employ- ment whose precarious earnings did not permit them to join their ranks. It would be con- trary to their principles to attempt to say that as they could not reach them no other helping hand should be stretched out to them. Discussion. Mr Jonathan Duncan, general secretary, read a statement to the meeting referring to the fact that their society was established by the noted Welshman and philanthropist Robert Owen, and being in Wales he had to thank the South Wales Daily News for the splendid account given in their Saturday's issue of the inaugura- tion of the society and its recognition of their founder. When they met In Exeter in 1904 the financial problem was fully discussed, but nothing was done to improve the financial basis of the society, as it was thought the position would right itself, but instead of doing so thev found themselves to-day faced with the same problems. During the past five years they had paid away in benefits £ 417,833 for sickness and E83,794 for deaths, whilst during their history they had paid over £ 2,300,000 in benefits. In regard to Friendly Societies' finances the first thing was to have adequate contributions for benefits proposed, and the all important thing afterwards was to secure good investments. With certain slight exceptions their investments were good. He drew atten- tion to the management fund, and said that no large Friendly Society was worked so cheaply as the Rational Association, and the,, salaries paid at the chief office were not excessive, as they were only 51cl per member per annum. The deficiency in the management fund had been wiped off, and they now had a balance of £ 4,339, and this had accrued by allowing 2s 8d per member since 1902. It was perfectly plain that the cost of management had nothing to do with the deficiency. If they desired to place the society on a better financial basis they i should ad just the contributions to meet the sickness claims. Their juvenile department he regretted did not make such headway as it should, and he hoped some steps would be adopted to improve their position. Dealing with recent and pro- posed legislation affecting Friendly Societies, the secretary pointed out that notwithstand- ing old age pensions there was as much need for the present generation to join Friendly Societies as for their forefathers, and it was for the society to see that their claims were fully placed before the public. Referring to State insurance against sickness and inva- lidity, he had along with others the honour of conferring with the Chancellor of the Ex- chequer. He pointed out, that there was no intention on the part of Mr LJoyd George to injure Friendly Societies, but rather to help them. and he understood that they did not bind their societies in the least degree. It was made perfectly plain that there should be no interference with the management, and that the funds should be fully protected. The main principles of the scheme provided for the pre- servation of self-management, and there would be no State competition with Friendly Socie- ties—that it would be a contributory scheme, and it was suggested that the assured paid half, while the other hall was provided by the employer and the State. Members of existing Friendly Societies would be exempt from con- tributions to the State scheme unless they failed to keep up their voluntary subscrip- tions. Those outside the Friendly Societies whose earnings were under iEI60 per annum would be allowed a certain time after the pass- ing of the Act to offer themselves as candi- dates for membership of a recog- nised benefit society, and if they did not the law would compel them to join the State scheme and attach them to some Friendly Societies upon the Government list. The State scheme would be worked through and by the Friendly Societies, and the accounts of the Government scheme would be kept quite sepasate from the accounts of voluntary members of Friendly Societies and subjected to Government audit. It was suggested that contributions should.commence at 16 and end at 70. If such a scheme on the lines specified lever came about no society was better equipped for carrying out its provisions than the Rational Association Friendly Society. (Applause.) Votes of thanks were passed to the president and the secretary for their addresses, and the conference proceeded to discuss the rules. The delegates were afterwards entertained to tea at the Cory Hall by Mr John Cory, and in the evening the president gave a very suc- cessful levee at the Cory Hall.
United Free Gardeners. STATE PENSIONS AND INSURANCE. The sixty-second A.G.M. of the National United Order of Free Gardeners was opened at Goole on Monday, Grand Master B. Matthews, of the Wolverhampton district, presiding Over a big attendance of delegates. In his presi- dential address Bro. Matthews said that while a start had been made with old age pensions, they were far from satisfied. He stoutly maintained that no member of a Friendly Society who was entitled to an old age pension should be penalised on account of what he had accumulated for sickness emergencies by being a member of a Friendly Society the Govern- ment, evidently with the best of intentions, were on themove with the great question of State or compulsory insurance for sickness. They had placed Friendly Societies on their trial, and it was asked if the societies would be superseded. They were indebted to the Chan- cellor of the Exchequer and other prominent membersof the Gowemment for the assurance they had given that their interests would be strictly safeguarded. They should keep a strict eye on the Government, and he strongly believed that a scheme would De formulated that would compel the great mass of men, indifferent and thoughtless who would not voluntarily contribute for sickness and in- walidity to either join a Friendly Society or contribute to a State fund. In regard to their Order, he regretted that the membership had fallen from 71,030 to 68,206, while the funds had decreased nearly £50,. notwithstanding that there was £2..100 less paid in sick and death claims. The Grand Master appealed for more loyalty throughout the Order, and said /'the cause of secession was due not to slate clubs, but resulted from carelessness, indiffer- ence, want of interest on the part of individual members,and the general lack of efficiency and earnestness. The juvenile Branch of tho Order was not progressing as ittehould, and he considered every lodge should have its juvenile branch. Bro. Wright of Sandbach, in proposing a vote of thanks to the Grand Master for his address, referred to the realisation of old age pensions, and said that in the immediate future he,believed that there would be some- thing carried out which would be a greater boon to thix country, and that wa4so6n insur- I ance against sickness and invalidity. Such insurance ought to national and compul- sory. (Hear, hear.) He thoiight that instead 9lBP9?ijW? it would be better to wait and see what sort of a scheme it was going to be. Bro. Fullwood, of Brierley Hill, seconded, and said he did not agree that they should sit down and do nothing until they had a scheme thrust upon them.
BRASSWORKERS' SOCIETY. The 37th annual conference of the National Society of Br-assworkers was held at Birming- ham on Monday. In moving the report, Mr W. C. McStocker, the president, denied that Trade Unionism was played out. It had as important work still to do as it had accom- plished in the past. The Government were propounding a scheme for labour exchanges and compulsory insurance, but if the Govern- ment really desired to help the Trade-Unionist it should insist on every worker being regis- tered in his trade society. The conference approved a resolution ex- pressing satisfaction, that the Government in- tended to deal with sweating in certain trades, and the hope that the principle of the Sweated Industries Bill would be extended to all trades which could prove the e,vil to exist. Another resolution thanked the Government and the Labour members for improving the fair wages clause contract on the metal polishing, turn- ing, and screwing trades, with the following modification That in such trades where the occupations are fitted for women workers they ishall receive the same wages as men."
ANCIENT SHEPHERDS. ALL-ABSORBING SPORT. Why Members Lapse. The business at the conference of the Ancient Shepherds commenced on Monday morning in the Public Hall at Worcester, under the presi- dency of the Chief Shepherd, Bro. Mackie, Edinburgh, who in a comprehensive address referred to the enormous advance made by the Order. Referring to the number of lapsed members, the Chief Shepherd said this was not due to industrial depression, but rather to young men being wholly absorbed in sport, having no thought for the day of sickness and death, and even where they had that thought there was a growing feeling that the State would do what was necessary. VThev were, however, making greater advance in the juvenile section, and this would be the salva- tion of such societies. He touched upon a burning question when advocating the cen- tralisation of sickness funds. on the game prin- ciple as funeral benefits, and said this would bring security to all and injustice to none. Old age pensions would enable them to spend the evening of life without the gaunt spectre of parochial relief or the cold hand of charity haunting them, but he argued strongly in favour of universal pensions. Dealing with the question of State insurance of sickness and invaliding, the Chief Shepherd referred to the fact that Friendly Societies after working for four generations had a mem- bership of close on six millions, whilst there were no less than fifteen million artisans in the country. Were they, then. to join in a crusade against any Government, which said that the working men should make provision for them- selves and those dependent upon them by join- ing a sound Friendly Society ? And where they would not do this of their OWTI accord they should be compelled to contribute to a Government fundwhich would provide such benefits. That proposal by Mr Lloyd George would dispose of the class who had the means and were not willing to join those who were willing but not able to pay, and those who were refused by ordinary societies on medical grounds would both be provided for. He urged that until the scheme of the Chancellor of the Exchequer was bfore them in concrete form they should withhold final judgement. Friendly Society leaders who had been consulted had been subjected to much criticism, some of it other than fair. Legitimate criticism was much to be desired, but when it descended to in- sinuating that they were willing to sell the birthright of the societies they belonged to or to prostitute the interests they were elected to safeguard to personal or selfish ends. Then those of them concerned had a right to protest with all the strength they had. (Loud ap- plause.) They took the opposite course to their predecessors who waged a fruitless cam- paign against old age pensioners and now looked foolish. Instead of being a com- petitive force the State scheme should be a powerful auxiliary to the sound Friendly Societies of the land.
I.O.G.T.GRAND LODGE OF WALES I Assembly at Llanwrtyd Wells. The annual Grand Lodge Session of tin Independent Order of Good Templars of Wales was opened at Llanwrtyd Wells on Whit- Mondav, and continued on Tuesday. Jointly also were held the yearly meet- ings of the Temperance Association. A recep- tion meeting for the representatives of the several Welsh lodges was held at the Baptist Chapel on Monday night, when the Rev. Rees EVans, C.C., occupied the chair, and Revs. Williams (Baptist). Richard James (Con- gregational. and other local temperance workers spoke, extending a hearty welcome to all. Several members of the Order, including the Rev. Morris Morgan (Swansea), Mr H. J. Williams (Plenydd), and others, responded. The business of the Grand Lodge was pro- ceeded with on Tuesday, when a resolution was-passed to the effect that the Lodge re- joiced at the effort made in the Licensing Bill of last year to deal effefctively and moderately with the crying evils of the liquor traffic. They also desired to record thanks to the Govern- ment for carrying their gseat measure through all the stages of the House of Commons, and regarded the action of the Upper House as a great injustice ,to the nation and a barrier to public welfare. They further rejoiced that the Government adhered to its Bill, and pledged themselves to give the Government all legiti- mate support. Copies of the resolution were ordered to be sent to Mr Asquith, Mr Balfour, Lord Lansdowne. Lord Crewe, and the Arch- bishop of Canterbury. The Lodge, alluding to the Budget, ap- proved of the liquor traffic having to bear its full share of taxation in proportion to the monopoly it derived from the State and the grave burdens in the shape of pauperism and crime it imposed on the community, and de- clared that the Budget proposals were fair attempts to apportion these burdens more fairly and equitably. Thirty-two representatives of officers were present, including the Revs. Rees Evans (Llan- wrtyd Wells) and John Williams (Abergwynfi), Mr H. J. Willianas (Plenvdd). Mr J. Morris J ones (Denbigh), Mr O. N. Jones (Pwllheli), grand secretary, and the Rev. Morris Morgan Swansea. Visitors from the English Grand Lodge included Mr and Mrs Jenkins, Swansea. The juvenile department was thoroughly discussed, and working arrangements made for the future. There was a children's meeting at the Congregational Church on Tuesday afternoon, and the temperance juveniles of the town and district were subsequently given tea at Victoria Hall. A public meeting was conducted in the Cal- vinistic Methodist Chapel on Tuesday evening, when Councillor Joseph Matins, J.P., Grand Chief Templar of England, was the principal speaker. COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS. The conference of the Commercial Travellers Association opened on Monday in Northamp- ton. Mr Feiru (Hull) and Mr Grainger (Stock- port) were elected respectively chairman, and vice-chairman for the year. The secretary announced that a good deal of friction had been caused by the misstatement that Mr Winston Churchill thought that there was not enough material to base a Bill on the Bank- ruptcy Commission's report. The President of the Board of Trade would introduce a Bill dealing with men of straw at the first oppor- tunity. Mr Coysb, the secretary, requested permission to become a candidate for Parlia- ment. This was opposed by many delegates, but an amendment was rejected by an over- whelming majority, and the conference gave its permission. GROCERS' ASSISTANTS. I Encouraging progress was reported at the annual conference of the NationalAssociation of Grocers'Assistants held at Nottingham on Mon- day,under the presidency of Mr R. A. Tomlin- son, who expressed gratification at the Govern- ment's intention td institute the compulsory insurance of employees. The necessity for a stronger measure in relation to shop hours had been demonstrated, and they welcomed the Government's proposal to deal further with the matter. I The association also strongly condemned the living-in system, which, they were glad to be able to state, was fast disappearing in the gro- cery trade. During the day a complimentary luncheon was given in honour of Mr J. A. Rees, f formerly of Swansea, who is retiring from the I honorary secretaryship. Must Murder £ 1-a-week Clerk." Presiding at the annual conference of the National Union of Clerks atBristol on Monday, Mr W. J. Read said that as a Union they were going straight for a minimum wage of 35s weekly. They had to murder the JEl-weekly clerl. and exorcise hil ghost from the mind of the sweating employers.
) Land and the Budget. DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE'S WAIL. "Deplorable Ignorance." The Duke of Devohshire, speaking on Mon- day at Mansfield Agricultural Show, said that while not wishing to indulge in observations upon matters which had painfully obtruded themselves upon their notice during the past few weeks, he could not help saying that in future they would not only have to look at things as they were, but at things as they were not. After land had been divested of every- thing they had to arrive at a capital value, and on that they had to pay a contribution to the State. If they made a mistake they would be heavily penalised. They were taxed if they were right and taxed if they were wrong taxed if they kept land and taxed if they sold it. He could not help thinking that if his Majesty's Ministers would spend their Whitsun- tide vacation in visiting agricultural shows and acquainting themselves with the difficulties that agriculturists had to contend with they would not be in such a deplorable state of ignorance when they returned to the House as many appeared now to be. Lord Onslow and the Land Taxes. The Earl of Onslow, ex-President of the "Board of Agriculture, and the chairman of the Executive Committee of the Central Land Association, makes, in the Daily Telegraph," the following criticism of the land proposals :— The Bill imposes no fewer than seven new taxes on the owner of land, who may be deemed to derive over £5,000 from it, viz. (1) 2d more in income tax, with (2)6d additional as. super-tax, and (3) Increased estates duties. (4) Where it may be estimated that land is suitable for building there is a further assessment of td in the £ of its value over what it is worth as agricultural land, viz., JE1 an acre rent. (5) When it does become available for build- ing, thare is a charge of one-fifth of its in- creased value to the State. (6) A further tax on ungotten minerals," and (7) On the reversions on all leases which fall in. I'. But not content with this, the Bill compels them to spend millions in having their land valued twice—for total value and site value. And, after all, it mav be found, when the capi- tal invested in it is deducted, that the prairie value of the land is nil. Again, although a landowner is to return the value of his land under each separate occupation, the Commis- sioners of Inland Revenue may value it inch by inch. The true value of land is what each owner's property would fetch if offered for public sale. In my opinion (says Lord Onslow) the duties imposed on the Commissioners, special Com- .missioners, and referees could not be equit- ably discharged, even by archangels.
MERTHYR POLICE ASSAULTS. I At Merthyr on Tuesday John Regan and John Crimmings were charged with being drunk and dissorderly and assaulting Police sergeant pa vies and Police- constable Herbert at Dowlais. The officers were knocked down and kicked, and the sergeant had -his eye blackened. For being drunk and disorderly each defendant was fined 10s and costs, and for assaulting the police they were sentenced to two months1 imprison- ment without the option of a fine. The Stipen- diary remarked upon the frequency of cases of assault on the police, and said that he would have to increase the punishment if piore cases of the kind came beforehim.
£107,500,000. Co-Operative Turnover. NEWCASTLE CONFERENCE. President's Striking Address. The 41st annual congress of the Co-Opera- tive Union (the delegates to which from sooie- ties in Great Britain and Ireland number about 1.700) opened in tho Palace Theatre, New- -astle, on Monday, Mr W. R. Itae, the new president, in the chair, after a civic welcome had been given to the delegates, The President delivered his address. He remarked that the past year had been a very trying one in this country. Following the recent crisis in commercial matters across the sea, there came lessened exchanges between the great markets of the world, and as a natural consequence trading results fell, and production decreased. Nowhere has this stag- nation been felt so keenly as in the shipbuild- ing centres, and perhaps most so on the North East Coast, where the class of steamers usually built was that commonly known as the tramp." And to make matters worse in their immediate district, the regulations relating to what was known asthe "Plirnsoll mark on steamers were altered, adding as it were by the stroke of a pen a million tons of carrying capacity to the existing fleet of British ships. New vessels had therefore not been in demand. The most striking incidents brought into pro- minence during this depression were the won- derful patience of the out-of-worker and the enormous value as a factor in the struggle with poverty of the thrift side of co-operation. They ought not to be distressed at all at the fact that extensive withdrawals had been made from capital accounts. Rather they should be glad, very glad, that these thousands were there to be withdrawn. But even m the face of the national shrinkage in trade the figures for the year, so far as co-operative trading is concerned, were very favourable. During the year 1908 the business done by the societies ex- ceeded that of 1907 by nearly £ 2,000.000 (having risen from IE105,717,699 to E107,550,654), and the membership by nearly 100,000 (from 2,434,035 to 2,516,194). What a splendid testimony in favour of their methods generally that even in a time of universal depression, when facts were twisted and opinions disturbed by the advo- oacy of all sorts of quack reforms, they found such steady and solid increase. Two Million Homes. When allowance was made for dual member- ship, for the admission of the yonng people and the retention of the old, he found that they had an entry into and some influence on the life of nearly two million homes, or between a quarter and a fifth of the whole community. The incidents of competitive trading that had adversely affected the purchasing power of the whge-earner had been put behind them, but they had a long row to hoe yet before they reached the degree of ..industrial emancipation so often talked about. Those who thought- and he believed their number was becoming larger every year—must have been often puzzled to explain how it was that, in this land of plenty, where enormous wealth had followed the advances made in production, there should be such grinding poverty in the lot of so many, and so little at any time between the worker and want. (Hear, hear.) He was not thinking nor speaking of wasters." They, whether lazy tramps or equally lazy millionaires, did not appeal to him at all. (Cheers.) But he felt for those thousands of willing, capable, honest workers whose labour at the best might bring daily bread, but certainly provided nothing for the morrow. But the unequal and capricious distribution of wealth was not the only lion in the way that they must face and overcome. Behind it and to some extent contributory loomed the question of the control. of the land. Ever of intense importance to a community, land- holding and, land-owning were to-day more than ever matters of vital interest. The first source of wealth and always predominant where labour was concerned, the land and its possibilities could not be ignored. In the dis- semination of the truth about the distribution of wealth and the control of land they had an educational policy, aye, a d'nty worthy of even their huge numbers and great strength. It might require years of earnest labour, but to feel that in ten or even 20 years their people would be really interested in these important problems and enlisted as a whole organised army in the cause of reform must be an in- spiration to every one of them. Educational Needs. In spite of all the work done by the Central Education Committee—and considering the means at their disposal they- have done well who could say that they had more than begun their educational work ? Who could say, with these problems awaiting solution, that they were even within sight of the realisa- tion of the state within a state," that phrase which had so often been a stimulus to them until their members had clear ideas and clearer intentions on these two great subjects 1 If their movement-stood for anything else than thrift it stood for industrial freedom and control of the means of production. This was its' t&rger hope, its higher purpose." By their acquiescence in the capitalism and land-control of to-day they were bringing nearer the time when the whole country would be openly, as indeed be feared it was secretly, in the hands of a few that were very rich. On all sides there was the danger of the rule of the plutocrat, and in all countries in every age plutocracy had been a menace to liberty, a tyrant to. labour, and death to patriotism. There was a struggle in the near future again between the many who had not and the few who had, and this combat between privilege and the power of wealth oli the one hand as against paralysis and penury on the other would demand from those who fought for the people and freedom a depth of consecration, a nobility of aim, and an unswerving fidelity to a degree that had never been required before. Are we as a movement, he asked, to take the side of the many ? All the traditions of the past range co-operative effort on the side of the people. The enthusiasm that gave it birth and has fired the hearts of so many since was kindled by the discovery that there was in the new movement a new hope, a new gospel for industry. Shall we who to-day are richer because of the new hope play coward in the face of the future ? Shall we not rather prove our armour, array our forces, and get ready for the fray? And our armour—what of it? We go forth to fight for new economic principles and new views of the relationship of capital to labour. We seem to believe that economic science should be based on life rather than on property, that capital should be the servant of the master of labour, that produc- tion onght to be carried on for use and not for profit, that what a man is is infinitely more important than what he has, that the sons and daughters of mankind have a right to live simply because they are alive, and our ignor- ance covers us with bewilderment when we meet the smooth-tongued enemy and our beliefs sink to mere aspirations and often fail to find utterance. There never was a time when it was more necessary to plead for education and yet more education. Not only the education that will help us to make the best of the circumstances of to-day, but the education that will enable us to place things in their correct perspective, to see men and methods as they really are, and help us to acquire the co-operative character that will give strength and vitality to all we try to do. (Cheers.) Co-operative University. It was not enough, he went on, to plead for a free passage from the elementary school to the University. What they wanted, and sought to obtain was a co-operative journey that would end in a co-operative University, (Cheers.) They must do the best they could to provide it for themselves, so long as the State did not provide it. They needed for the future closer union. At present they were a very heterogeneous army. Immediate gain, devotion to financial success, and the folly of reckoning progress in profit had bred some- thing like rivalry and even competition among battalions. To be effective, they must become a real army with one flag, one password, one purpose. There was growing a very consider- able opinion of the folly of their divisions, their overlapping and competition, and the wisdom and necessity of a more real union. The consti- tution and rules of the Union ought to go into melting-pot wholly if it was to be and to do what was necessary it should be completely overhauled. Representation required recon- struction, the districts more careful definition, and subscriptions a more satisfactory basis. Membership of the Union to have a coherence worthy of such a federation should give a claim each on all and all on each for mutual assist- ance. There ought to be something more than censure for the backslider and expulsion for the unregenerate. Many details would require to be hammered out on the anvil of experience, but he was convinced that a new constitution and new rules could be and ought to be under- taken as a new and pressing duty. When they made up their minds to move he believed that the wholesale societies would easily fall into line, and that the independent productive works would feel neither
Enginemen and Stokers. It 1 Conference at Cardiff. Mr T. Watson (Lancashire) presided at the annual conference of the National Federation of Enginemen, Stokers, and Kindred Trade Societies, held at the Railway Hotel, Cardiff, on Tuesday. The representation was as fol- lows: National Amalgamated Union of Enginemen, Firemen, Mechanics, and Electrical Workers (7.000 members), Messrs C. E. Ross, George Cowlwell, and J. Bairstow Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (20,000), Messrs C. Shipley, G. Bride, and Robotham Lancashire, Cheshire, and North Wales Enginemen and Boilermen (3,000), Messrs W. Robinson and F. Moss Engine- drivers and Firemen, Land and Marine Asso- ciation (1,850), Mr F. Thurston Grimsby Steam Fishing Vessels' Engineers and Fire- men's Union (1,000), Messrs R. Staniforth and C. Sutton Monmouthshire and South Wales Colliery Engineers', Stokers', and Surface Craftsmen's Association (8,000), Messrs W. Bosley, T. Warburton, and W. Hopkins South Wales and Monmouthshire Colliery Winding Enginemen's Association (560) Messrs J. Moc.n and G. Thomas. Others pre- sent were Messrs G. Parker (secretary), Rother- liam, W. Woosnam (treasurer), and the follow- ing members of the Executive Committee :— Messrs H. Parker, W. Forshaw, J. Collins, J. Jones, and Murphy. MrW. Hopkins, of the South Wales and Mon- mouth Engineers 'and Firemen's Society, offered a hearty welcome to the delegates in the name of the Enginemen's Societies of Cardiff. He spoke of the Useful and I practical work accomplished by the Federation in the past, and of their securing direct representation on the Parliamentary Comnúttet of the Trade Union Congress. He emphasised the necessity for uniting their forces. President's Address. Mr T. Watson, in the course of his presiden- tial address, referred to the remarkable growth of Cardiff and the proportionate growth of the Trade Urjion movement. Seven years ago the old National Federation held its conference in the city, and at that time represented 16,510 members. Now the Federation included several other associations of enginemen and stokers, one comprising over 20,000 locomotive men- who had been designated as the aristocracy of railway Trade Unionists—making the total number represented about 40,000, whose aims and aspirations must be more or less closely related to each other. Their claims were for better remuneration, a legal eight hours day, Government inspection of machinery and boilers, the question of men having to prove their qualification either by a period of ser- vice or an examination by law for those in charge of engines and boilers, other amend- ments to Mines, Factory, Shipping, and Rail- way Acts, the right of practical representation at coroners' and Board of Trade inquiries, also practical Labour representatives to look after their interest in Parliament. Those were all objects which every man was equally interested in, and on those grounds they claimed to be a truly national representative organisation. A national movement founded upon their lines was the only reliable and effective method by which they could achieve their national objects, Combination and toleration in their own ranks must be their watchwords if they were to succeed. They could not afford to play tHe part ot croaking ravens on a withered branch. They must work together on broad, practical common-sense lines. The cost in connection with their national movement was a matter of 70 per cent, less than any previous national Federation of enginemen and stokers. The fact of their being able for the first time to get a representative on the Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union Congress, was another illustration of their present organisa- tion. Their Certificates' Bill had been accepted by the congress, but unfortunately, it had failed to secure a favourable place in the House of Commons ballot this Session. Mining Mechanics and Eight Hours. Reference was also made to the Mines Eight Hours Act, and its probable effect upon colliery enginemen and stokers. He regretted that a distinction had been made between pumpmen, fanmen, and mechanics engaged below ground as compared with others, be- cause it. was just essential for them to have eight hours, and it was deplorable to find the law was untouched concerning the hours of enginemen and stokers generally. Speaking of the winding enginemen, Mr WTatson said it was absurd that they should be permitted to be on duty from eight to 36 hours at a stretch. Parliament had displayed the most callous indifference to them. Fancy an army of miners of from seven to eight hundred thousand being lowered into, and wound out of the mines every morning and nigh$ by enginemen who had been on duty 12 hours, and when shifts were being changed at week ends 24 hours. The speaker then dealt with general indus-' trial labour legislation, and said they were bound to appreciate the improvement. This was due to the fact that the working classes had opened their eyes to the necessity for taking a more direct interest in Parliamentary affairs. The question of unemployment had been taken seriously in hand, and the speaker referred t3o the Bill recently ixLtvtodfAced for pro- viding national labour exchanges and to the measure for creating a general system, under State control, of insurance to provide for the unemployed. As regards the latter, the presi- dent gave details of it as outlined by Mr Win- ston Churchill, and said they must ask them- selves whether the measure would have the effect of causing men to neglect contributing ,in, to their Unions, and whether compulsory con- tribution towards unemployment was the right system to adopt. They appreciated the attempt of those who honestly tried to grapple with such schemes, and Mr Watson said m his opinion the President, of the Board of Trade had done so, and bad expressed a keen desire to co-operate in the closest and frankest terms with Trade Unions. A vote of thanks was passed to the presi- dent on the motion of Mr J. Bairstow, seconded by Mr J. Collins. Mr G. Parker (National Union of Enginemen and Stokers) presented a satisfactory financial statement for the past year and the report, which set forth the useful and valuable work which had been done. He complimented the societies upon the splendid way in whicn they had responded to the call for financial support for the Federation and outlined the subjects to be discussed at that meeting. insurance and Unemployment. The conference was resumed on Wednesday morning under the chairmanship of Mr T. Watson. Mr Wm. Hopkins (Pontypridd) moved that the Federation pledges itself to do everything possible to secure by legal enactment an eight hours day for all colliery engineers and stokers, and the motion was carried. Mr W. Forshaw proposed a, resolution in favour of the institution of a system of State insurance for unemployment and for the forma- tion of labour exchanges under conditions which will protect the interests of Trade Unions, and this was adopted, associations affiliated to the Federation being asked to give the matter serious consideration. It was also resolved that the question should be discussed by the dele- gates and decisions arrived at before the dele- gates attend the next Trade Union Congress. Mr Rowbotham (South Wales) submitted a motion in favour of triennial conferences, but it was rejected. Mr Wride (Cheltenham) proposed that efforts should be made to secure the amendment of the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1905, so as to apply to certain cases of disease prevalent among locomotive drivers and stokers, and this was carried unanimously. Loyalty of A.S.R.S. Agents. The following resolution, moved by Mr C. Shipley (Leeds) was unanimously adopted;— That the Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union Congress be called upon to receive a deputation from the Federation in order that they might demonstrate the fact that the agents of the A.S.R.S. are not loyally abiding by the definite understanding that was arrived at and the pledge given by Mr Bell's society at the Nottingham Trade Union Congress." Messrs G. Parker, H. Parker, and C. Shipley were appointed to meet the Parliamentary Committee. A resolution in favour of a Bill being intro- duced into Parliament, empowering Trade Union officials to attend coroners' and Board of Trade inquiries and cross-examine witnesses was adopted on the motion of Mr Shipley (Leeds), and it was further agreed that the standing orders of the Trade Union Congress should be so amended as to provide for all enginemen and firemen's societies being formed into one group for elective purposes. into one group for elective purposes. On the proposition of Mr Ross (Manchester) it was rcsol ved that steps should be taken to bring about a conference of trade societies in order to prevent overlapping in Trade Unions. Three resolutions were ordered to be sent on for the Trade Union Congress agenda, relating to the Engines and Boilers Certificates Bill. the amendment of the Mines Act, 1908, and the amendment of the standing orders of the Trade Union Congress affecting the grouping of societies for elective purposes. The proceedings were private, and the above report is officially supplied. With reference to Tuesday's proceedings, a report of which H not sent us, Mr George Parker, the secretary' writes I am instructed by my confercn, to express to you their sincere regret tb80 owing to an oversight on our part we omitted ask you to be kind enough to insert a report our proceedings in your valuable PaPerV to we trust you will not allow this oversight prevent you giving as a report to-day."
Smaller School Classes I WELCOMED BY TEACHERS. Headmasters at Sheffield. The twelfth annual conference of the Nationaj 1 Association of Head Teachers was on Wednesday in Leicester. Mr J. W. Iliffe, Sheffield, the president, he had recently had occasion to compare w* curricula of some French and Swiss primary schools systems with the curricula of some Eng lish primary schools. He found that subjects were attempted in English than in those on the Continent. Classs fOr class the English teachers did not suffer by comparison with Continental teachers. It VV20 unfortunately true, however, that the average had of late been lowered by the re cognition of some thousands of supplementary teachers of low attainments and by theloweriJJe of the standard for certificates gained by maw acting teachers. It was refreshing to find thst by circular 709 Mr Runciman was trylxkgto, (heck this deterioration. (Hear, hear.) IfM Runciman stood firm, and the circular part of the code, he would have taken the step in the reform which was necessary if primary school was to do all that was c*- pect.ed of it. Mr Flavell (Birmingham) moved a resolution That owing to the growing demands Mae upon education authorities by primary aad secondary education, a larger from the central Exchequer was necessary.' Miss E. P. Camp (Cardiff) supported the resolution. Mr Feasey (Sheffield) pointed out that tbL" result of the resolution would be that where ? local authority levied a low rate and in,glectei education they would obtain small GdvetP ment grant, inproportion. Did the Birminghf110, people mean that ? (Crieg of Yes.") Tho Birmingham resolution was adopted "7 a large majority. 0 Mr Roberts, of the Half-time Council, R<?« £ dale, moved on behalf of the Halifax Asso»*, tion a resolution declaring the time arrived for the abolition of the half-tid, system, and that the age of exemption shoOf* be raised to 14 years. Child work, he sajfj was a clog on the wheels of Labour. The peoW^ in Lancashire, who turned out the last Gcrveip^ ment on the question of Chinese labour, v?e~Tj the people who still kept the children eng in sweated labour in the cotton mills, and tb" abolition of the half-time system would rn a large increase of Parliamentary grants. To fear of political disaster was the reason wW the Government did not move in this matte** It was one of our greatest social needs tb» the children should have an Emancipating AC5* The resolution was unanimously adopted. Mr H. E. Storey (Manchester) moved v; behalf of the Council a resolution stron^^ deprecating the repeated utterances in public Press and elsewhere casting serious flections upon the education given in the .1? mary schools of the country, many of WDJ<- had little foundation in fact, and are based OP very scanty information, and stating fUl"WA;jf that though the curriculum was yet capable improvement the children of the present are better behaved, more intelligent, resoaT^T. ful, and observant than in the days of dual examination. The resolution was £ Other resolutions were agreed to, among8" others one welcoming Circular 709.
CHEMISTRY CONGRESS. Next Meeting to be Held in America, The closing meeting of the seventh national Congress of Applied Chemistry WO held at the Imperial Institute, South KensiQo ral ton, on Wednesday morning. Sir William Ramsay, who presided, said bo had received a message from the King, throng Lord Knollys, saying he would be glad if men\ bers of the congress would visit Windsor tWj^ afternoon in spite of the bad weather. (AP\ plause.) Proceeding, Sir William said tbey would be glad to hear that the number of bers attending the congress had been a large one. There had been over 3,000 actalm members, and over 650 ladies. (Applause.) Biief reports were then received as to tB proceedings of the 17 sections and sub-secti<>«* during the week. The hygiene section asked the congress ,try impress upon the Governments of each county iepresented at the congress the importance adopting a uniform law throughout tn respective territories regarding the emission^ noxious fumes from chemical and metauu^ gical works and factories; The tion in its report stated: ifShat ft Wliwod tbfj the abatement of atmosheric pollution wow% be most rapidly secured by placing the con& of all such gaseous emanations in the hands*' fully qualified inspectors, capable of giving tD* necessary technical advice to manufacture-t-6 It also recorded its conviction that the persal of the pall of smoke covering ce industrial districts in England and cis would be accompanied by enormous bcJ1 to the inhabitantand would prove an uJ$1" mate gfein to the manufacturer. Dr. von Bollinger pointed out that in ent countries the law would be enforced varying degrees of rigour, with the result th^J the industries of some might be given an vantage over others. He therefore that the consideration of the motion be ferred to the next congress for further cO sideration. The amendment was agreed to- < The American Ambassador (the Hon- White aw Reid) said that at the request of American delegates he was there to present their behalf and on behalf of the country be had the honour to represent, an official m tion from the United States Government the next meeting of the congress, in should be held in the United States. (Ar plause.) gtf The invitation was accepted, with much eØ thusiasm. -g. On the motion of the chairman, Professor. W. Morlev, U.S.A., was elected hon. and Dr. W. H Nicholls president of tho ne>" congress.
MERTHYR OSTLER'S PARTY. At the Merthyr Police Court on TUc6 Arthur Price, ostler, Troedyrhiw, was S moned for being unlawfully on licensed P mises, namely, the Railway Inn, Troed vr. Police-sergeant Lewis said that about a qua^j^ to 12 on Sunday morning, the 23rd ultim°« saw the detendant, who was carryrnSy^ bucket of water, coming out of the Pu?^, house by a side door and going into a £ Witness followed him and found in a chaff five bottles of beer. The bottles were wet, the chaff in the box was dry, and an era bottle also found in the box was dry. defendant, who was represented by Mr I* Charles, said that he bought the bottles Saturday night and took them then to the sta^ # where he entertained friends occasionally Sunday. We arc- men of the world," Marchant Williams, in announcing that magistrates had decided to impose a fine ° and costs. # 4 James Evans, landlord of the Railway ow charged With keeping his house open fat 8 sale of drink on Sunday, was mulcted W similar penalty. ijj Mr Charles asked if the magistrates "&0 make an order that the bottles should be turned te Price. I do not think," he amid laughter, that they would cOine the police station in the same state as went there." The Chief Constable resented Mr ChaX^ji remark, and said that the Merthyr boron# police were all teetotalers. MF An orclc-P was made for the return oI > bottles to Price.
WOKE UP EX-MAYOR. S.W. Borderer Charged at Brecon. At Brecon on Wednesday Jas. Hunt, 3rd Battalion South Wales Borderers, wh° Fj £ T come up to join the battalion for tra £ 0^*j„ \ras charged with loitering with intent to mit a felony in the street at Brecon at o'clock this morning. P.C.William L posed to seeing prisoner in the doorwa £ ^j Mr Powell's grocery shop. Prisoner bolted.^ witness afterwards arrested him. In him to the police station prisoner witness, who closed with him, and both gp the ground. Councillor John WilliamS, bØd Mayor, who lives in High-street, got out Of and assisted the constable to take prisonef the police station. Prisoner was remans the police tation. Prisoner was remanded-
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