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PROSPECTIVE SOCIAL REFORMS. By MABON, M.P. A most significant Statement was maf e by Mr Philip Snowden, M.P., recently, breaking with the usual Utopianism of the ordinary Socialist propaganda, when he said that the only practical method of dealing With unemployment was by a system of State Insurance." Every practical Labour leader Welcomes this declaration, of Mr Snowden at once and it has long been known to some of Us that the Government intended a bold project of this kind, involving like the German model, combined contributions from the Workers, employers, and the State in its Programme of social reform. Mr Lloyd George foreshadowed the probabil- ity of such a scheme being introduced next year he also indicated that it was involved in the large sweep of the present democratic Budget. He moreover declared that as an introductory step there would be an immediate Bill for the institution of labour exchanges. Last week Mr Churchill, in a speech full of Social ardour, outlined more fully the plan of the Government, the details of which are Sufficient to indicate that Labour is to receive charter which will stand as one of the great- est Acts of remedial statesmanship in the history of this nation. The main points of
Mr Churchill's Scheme are :-A system which will he uniform and national in character. There will be ten divisions, each in charge of a responsible official co-ordinated with the central authority in London first class labour exchanges in big cities; second class exchanges in smaller towns, and waiting rooms in still smaller centres. The whole system will he under the control of the Board of Trade with a joint Advi- sory Committee consisting of representatives of Workers and employers in equal numbers under the chairmanship of an impartial permanent official.
If the Bill Passes. Should the Bill pass this Session it is hoped that the system will be brought into operation early next year. Temporary premises will be engaged and permanent buildings will be erected on a plan eXtending over ten years. The ordinary cost if working the system is estimated to be £ 170.000 a year. During the ten years that building is proceeding the cost \1vil1 be £ 200,000 a year. The meeting of the Trade Boards for sweated industries will be held at the labour ex- changes. Rooms will be let to Trade Unions for their Meetings, and every encouragement will be Eiven to Trade Unions to co-operate. Travelling expenses on loan will be given to Workmen for whom situations have been Stained at a distance. It is contemplated that these labour ex- changes will fit in and workin conjunction with
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE. insurance scheme will, as I have alreadv from workpeople, employed, and the State and to these contri- butions from the State will be added a Substantial subvention from the State as well. The insurance will be by trades, and will be compulsory in those trades for Unionists and non-Unionists, skilled and unskilled workmen and employers alike. The trades to which the scheme will be aPplied are house building, works of construc- tion, engineering, machine and tool-making, 8hip and boat building, vehicular, sawyers and general labour connected with those trades. This will include 2! millions of workers, or one-third of the total population engaged in Purely industrial work-including commercial, agricultural and domestic service.
Weekly Payments. A substantial weekly payment will he pro- dded for covering the greater part of the Average period of unemployment. Such a will require a revenue something between 5d and 6d per man per week, divided between workmen, employers and the State. There will be insurance cards or books with a Weekly stamp which the unemployed man will Present at the exchange and get a job or his benefit. The insurance scheme will not be put •ttto operation this year. It is clearly to be seen that the proposed labour exchanges, which are to be established *U every town, will form the basis for the great super-structure which the Government J*f the day intend to build. They are evidently t° be something more than labour exchanges, *or beyond providing a central office for the 8Upply of information and the registration of the workless, they will be to all intents and Purposes the home of Trade Unionism where forking men may associate under the sanction '•nd subsidy of the State, for all the purposes ot their organised life. Not least among the minor benefits of the Bill will be for example the Provision for meetings of the Unions now driven frdm lack of other means to the public-houses, j, As showing the social scope of these institu- tions, they will be without a doubt in some Measure, at least, reform public-houses. Again, Mr Churchill's elaboration of the Insurance scheme projected for next year 8hows that in its first operation it will bring ^ithin its benefits nearly 3,000,000 workers, and In trades peculiarly liable to fluctuating eUaployment, there may be some discussion and e\?en dissatisfaction with the limitation of the Particular selection of the trades but the Principle that the most urgent end of the problem should be approached first unimpeachable. But it is not necessary to discuss just yet what can only be regarded fcs Provisional detail. The fact that should ltQpress labour in particular, and the nation a whole, is the thoroughness and the bold- ness of the Government's programme. Personally I feel greatly satisfied with, and grateful for what I consider to be, a most heroic campaign for mitigating one of the g;eat.est evils of the day. I regard it a3 impos- sible for the Government to promise work for but it is possible, as one feels that thia Government intends to prove, to bring men to 1Vark and work to men in a more scientific and Satisfactory manner than it is at present done.
£ 70,000.000. The conference held in London last week, *nd which ivis condemned by the British Insti- tute of Social Service, was of a kind I would J*jsh to see repeated throughout the country, foe reports issued by the Poor Law Commis- Sioners have attracted a great deal of attention Steady, but it is evident that it is necessary, if •he greatest possible results are to be derived ?°na these in the future administration of the J^oor Law, that their attention should be 'oilowed by systematic study and investigation the reports, as well as of the conditions in Jarious localities, and that by persons who are desirous of bringing about reforms where it is kluch needed. At one of the conferences in JpQegtion there were present signatories of both *he majority and minority reports, and many -ell-known social workers took part; and deferring to the present extraordinary admi- nistrative overlapping duplication and confu- sion of service, Mr Sydney Webb pointed out jhat in 1834 the nation was spending on educa- tioil and poor law seven millions a year. To-day, Mth only a population of that amount, we are c pending 70 millions a year, and it Is quite Possible that; a large part of this sum is lost ^hrough the defects in the machinery, as was that meeting pointed out. And yet one of speakers at the Tory meeting held in "ontypridd last week said the Old Age Pension scheme of the Government should have been attached to Poor Law administrative bodies. If .t,his is not wishing that the money collected for old age should be divided among the rich Administrators of it, what is the idea There ? one thing certain, if the result would be Unilar to that already under the Poor Law f^triinistration—the distributors of the funds Jould receive more from it than those to whom 1 Was meant to be given.
EARTHQUAKE IN WALES. Th, western portion of Anglesey was visited a slight earthquake on Tuesday. Both at ryndu and lthosneign the vibration was le't "nd many people were much alarmed.
NARROW ESCAPE OF STEAMERS. New York, Monday.—Two British steamers arrived here yesterday, bringing accounts of extraordinary adventures in an icepack to the north-east of Cape Race. The ice is drift- ing southwards towards the route of the Atlantic liners, and the Vaderland reports by wireless telegraphy that she passed five ice- berccs on Thursday. The Madura, from Newcastle, became com- pletely surrounded by ice on May 17 to, and only escaped next day owing to the shifting of the wind, which opened up a channel behind the vessel and enabled her to get clear. During the whole night the noise ot icebergs crashing into one another and of great masses of ice fall- ing into the water was heard. The ship narrowly avoided destruction between two huge 90ft. walls of ice. The captain took the measure- ments of one iceberg, which was found to be 3 300ft. long and 400ft. high. The steamer Bisley, from Glasgow, arn red with loss of three out of four of her propeller blades and also had some of her plates below the water-line badly twisted. The fcrew saw a number of seals and polar bears on the ice. They attributed their escape to the vessels round bow. which slid into the ice floes. Times," per Press Association.
Race of Armaments. ANGLO-GERMAN SITUATION. New York, Sunday .-Mr Alfred Mosely deli- vered a speech at the final session of the Lake Mohouk Peace Conference on Friday evening, which, we are told, considerably disturbed the audience, including Mr Bryce. The latter had often expressed his belief that there was no ground for a difference between any of the freat States which would justify hostilities and urged better mutual knowledge in order to dispel international suspicions. Mr then rose and referred to the proposal that Mr Taft should take the initiative m saying something to England and Germany. He thatTir Taft would care to undertake the task, but if he does, may I suggest that he should turn his attention to Germany 1 This brought out a burst of laughter but Mr Moselv, undismayed, proceeded to explain whv. Because," he said, Germany has reiected British overtures for an understanding regarding armaments. That point has not been sufficiently impressed on the American people. I believe it is fully recognised by those in authority." Representative Bartholdt declared that if Mr Taft offered to intervene and the offer were accepted it would signify the end of war., The idea of American media- tion undoubtedly gains ground.—" Times," per Press Association.
The North Sea Scare. WHAT SIR G. DOUGHTY KNOWS. East Coast Defencelessness. Sir George Doughty, M.P., speaking at a Navy League meeting held at Grimsby on Monday night to demand the immediate build- ing of eight Dreadnoughts, said his question at to the presence near the Humber of merchant ships specially commissioned for the purpose of experimenting with regard to the transport of soldiers from Germany to the East Coast of England had produced volumin- ous correspondence. Those who lived on the East Coast must realise the possibility of their being attacked by foreign Powers along the whole of that coast, which was absolutely neglected and unprotected. Not only did the manoeuvre to which he had referred take place, but he happened to know that during the past 12 months various experiments had been made from the German coast with re- gard to transport of soldiers in thequickestgiven time. He did not blame Germany, but he did plead that Britons on the East Coast should be placed in a position for defending themselves from their enemies whenever an attack might be made. He pleaded also for the Government to raise a fishermen's naval reserve.
ANTI-CHRIST TRAGEDY. Callous Murder of a Baby. St. Petersburg, Thursday.—As already tele- graphed, the.Mohileff circuit court sitting at Gorki has. acquitted all 26 peasants of Sysvevo Village charged with the murder of a two year old child, who had been denounced as "Anti- Christ." The instigator of the crime, a religi- ous fanatic, and father of the child, were re- leased on thegpounds that they had acted in an access lof mental exaltation. The self- styled "Prophet" seems to have hypnotised the degenerate peasants into a state of brutal frenzy. After he had named the Anti-Christ who had appeared in their midst, and had ascribed all the woes of Russia^,and more par- ticularly the bad harvests of Sysveyo, to his arrival, the peasants marched in procession to the hut of the child's parents. Midnight was the hour chosen for the sacrifice. The peasants carried lighted candles and ikons, and sang prayers. They found the child asleep in its cradle. The Prophet seized it in his hands and dashed it to the ground, then jumped on it and trampled it to death. He then ordered the peasants to lift the body and pull it asunder. They obeyed his injunctions. Afterwards hatchets were fetched and the body was chopped to pieces. The remains were then wrapped in a clcth which was tied to the tail of a white "horse and dragged to a neighbouring bog, into which it was thrown. The Prophet had assured the peasants that the child would immcdiatey ruse from the dead, and when the promise w&s not fullfilled they began to realise the enormity of their crime and fear the consequences. They were arrested the following day. During the trial they all admitted their guilt, although 11 of them declared that they had taken no actual part in the butchery. The village priest testified to the remarkable influence exercised over the peasants by the prophet," who was thoroughly versed in holy writ,and with diabolical speciousness distorted sacred writings to support his fanatical theories. When the verdict of acquittal was announced all the peasants fell on their knees, thanking God and blessing the judges.—Renter.
EARTHQUAKE SEQUEL. Rome, Monday.—Sinopoli which is situated a few miles from Reggio, and which was one of the towns destroyed by the earthquake in Calabria last December, was to-day the scene of a grave conflict: between the people and the' troops. A mob consisting of over a thousand of the inhabitants made a violent attack on the municipal barracks, demanding the immediate distribution of the money subscribed for their relief in consequence of the earthquake. So menacing did the attitude of the crowd become that the soldiers were ordered to open fire on the crowd, with the result that four persons were killed and four wounded. Three soldiers were wounded by stones, thrown by the rioters.— Central News.
Messina Shaken Again. Ro., Monday.—A violent earthquake shock, lasting fully ten seconds, was ex- perienced at Messina to-day, and caused the collapse of the walls of many buildings ruined by the great earthquake of last December. The actual shock was preceded by alarming sub- terranean rumblings, which cauted a panic amongst the inhabitants, but, happily, no loss of life is reported.—Central News.
NO PLACE FOR USURERS. Hamburg, Tuesday.—Hamburg Criminal Court to-day delivered judgment in a usury case brought against five moneylenders who had extorted exorbitant interest from 190 Army officers. Three of the accused were found guilty, one, named Mohr, being sen- tenced to one year's imprisonment and a fine of 100 marks, another, named Bein, to nine months' imprisonment and 400 marks fine, and the third, Kruschwitz, to six months' imprisonment and 900 marks fine. All three are deprived of their civil rights for two years after serving their terms. The two other men money-lenders were acquitted.—Reuter.
CHEMICAL WORKS BLAZE. A fire which did damage to the extent of about £15,000 occurred in the early hours of Tuesday at the works of Messrs Newall, chemical manufacturers, Washington, near Sunderland. The local fire brigade, though quickly in attendance, were powerless to check the spread of .the flames, inasmuch as no water could be obtained for some time from the one hydrint at the spot. The extra police on duty owing to a colliery strike in the neighbourhood rendered valuable assistance.
AM ERICA'S DREADNOUGHTS. Washington, Saturday. — Mr Meyer, Secre- tary for the Navy, announces that the United States Navy will be increased during the fiscal year 1911 by two Dreadnoughts and five torpedo boats, notwithstanding the decrease of 10,000,000 dollars in the naval estimates de- cided on by President Taft.—Reuter.
b OYSTERMOUTH GASTLE FROM lISE SOUTH.-Photo by VaJentine.
Historic Monuments. OYSTERMOUTH CASTLE. The happy land of Gower has but little history since the final .subjugation of Wales, and as the castles seem to have been erected after that epoch, but little respecting them ia known." This is the story of many of the inter- esting castles of Wales which are not in the Gower Peninsula, but history is more select than usual when we approach the Gower. We saw. in the history of Swansea Castle, how, according to Carodog of Llancarvan, a castle was built in Swansea by Henry de New- burgh, a Beaumont, who accompanied the Conquerer and was by him created Earl of Warwick. Fitzhamon's conquest did not extend into Gower. and it was left to Henry Beaumont to subjugate that district, which was then ruled by Caradog ab Iestyn. Beaumont was successful in wresting Gower from the Welsh and to render his acquisition secure he created castles at Oystermouth, Penrice, Loughor and Swansea. Beaumont brought in his train a host of Normans, and from this time began the settlement of the Colony of Flemings in the district, with the offshoot in South Pembroke- shire. In 1113 Gruffydd ab Rhys made a raid into Gowerland, the story of which and the strug- gle for the Seignory of Gower was told in the article on Swansea Castle. The Castle of Gower has no history. Mr Freeman is of opinion that the place names in the south-eastern portion of Gowerland are either wholly Teutonic or largely Teutonised, while in the north-west we find the region of Llandewis and Llanmadocs. It i3 considered that Oystermouth Castlifeakes its name from Ostred Edulis. Mr fyjRnan compares Kid- welly with OystermouthKastlc, and concludes that Oystermouth was rmt a fortress, as Kid- welly undoubtedly was, |jid hence the silence of history on this castle of the Gower. Oyster- mouth was a mixture of ^castle and mansion, as evidenced by the chapel, "which is so weakened by windows as to have been a source of danger to the defenders, in case they had been beleaguered by a determined foe." This, so far as can be traced, was never the case. Oystermouth was called by the Welsh Caer Tawy, and a castle of some kind is said to have been erected here by Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Warwick, who conquered Carodwg ap Iestyn about 1031. By others, Richard de Granville, a follower of Fitr-IIamon, is re- ported to have founded the castle be this as it may, the edifice we see is certainly of the decorated period, and go idust be ascribed to the Edwardian time." With the exception ot Penrice it is the most extensive and beautiful ruin in Gower. The castle is built on a rounded hillock, and com- mands a view of the bay and village. It takes the form of a large pcjygon, and has no pro- jecting towers, except on the South-West, where the chief gateway comes. There being no documents of any kind to throw a light on its peaceful history, very little is kno .vn of it, as already said, except that about 1.300 William, the last of the De Breosas, Lords of Gower, being a. little short of funds, thought of the happy expedient of imprisoning innocent men in the castle until they had paid black- mail, or signed decojnents in his favour. Some years after, the Chancery of the Seignory of Gower was held there. a.nd the tenure being a Lordship Marches, the Baron had powers almost equal to those of the king. In the chapel, which is at the North-East corner of the building, the window traceries were restored, and at the same time a Piscine and the faded remains of some frescoes in the recesses were brought to light. The sentries' path, which runs around the top of the ram- parts, is still in a good state of preservation, and may with care be walked upon. The roof of the guard house, which is about the only one re- maining, rests on a single central pilla: The hearth in the kitchen is very large, and would almost permit a whole bullock to be roasted at once. The Castle, of course, has the usual traditions about knights encased in shin- ing steel, mounted on prancing chargers, leav- ing its frowning gateway to join in the Cru- sades, and of the ahockh behaviour of Oliver Cromwell, who is suppose1, to have kept up a fierce and destructive cannonade from Colt's Hill, which is immediately opposite. Oystermouth is the property of the Duke of Beaufort, and proper care is taken of the ruin. A writer refers with pride to this beautiful peninsula of Gower, where objects of natural beauty and archaeological interest meet the traveller at every turn, for here in a tiny dis- trict we have a wild coast, lovely wooded glades (reminding one of South Devon) pre- historic remains, early English castles, and curious churches. The people who inhabit this peninsula are an interesting study, for in their veins run a strange mixture of Gaelic, Kymric, Scandinavian and Teutonic blood. Taken all in all, there are few districts in Great Britain that will better repay careful study than tha region known as Gowerland." Next week Kenfig Castle. INSIDE THE WALLS OYSTERMOUTH CASTLE.-Photo by Valentine.
THE BANNED PLAY. Once again one of Mr Bernard Shaw's plays has come under the ban of the Censor of Plays. The Showing Up of Blanco Posnet was to have been produced at the Afternoon Theatre (His Majesty's; on June 4th, but has been withdrawn from the bill, having been refused a licence by Mr G. A. Redford, the censor. Rehearsals were already far advanced, and the Mr Bernard Shaw. eagerness with which the public have looked forward to the prospective feast of reason is sufficiently shown by the heavy advance booking. As already stated, this is not Mr Shaw's first experience of the Censor's ban, Mrs Warren's Profession having received similar treatment some time ago.
CARDIFF ROBBERY STORY. At Cardiff on Wednerdav a Swede named J. Johansen (23) was charged with feloniously breaking and entering the house of Elizabeth Nelson, of Patrick-street, and stealing a quan- tity of money and other things'; with using personal violence towards Mrs Nelson, and also with assaulting Elizabeth Throle. Mrs Nelson said on Tuesday afternoon she returned to the house to find the prisoner—who had formerly lodged with her—upstairs with his hand in a drawer. She asked him what he was doing, and he replied, 1, I'm looking for a little Swede," meaning a little man. She then threatened to send for the police, and defen- dant rushed at her and nearly throttled her. Defendant then ran awav. Elizabeth Throle, a neighbour, said she heard last witness screaming for help, and went to her assistance. She found complainant and defen- dant struggling together. Defendant struck her in the face and pushed her down some steps. When charged at the police station defendant replied in broken English, I no stolen nothing." Defendant was committed for trial at the next Quarter Sessions.
SAD LIFE AND VIOLENT^ DEATH. An inquest was held at Cardiff on Wednesday on Esther Hancock, wife'of a 'bus inspector, who,however,had not lived with her for the past eight years. John Donovan, 19, Mary Ann- street, said that he was a labourer and de- ceased had lodged with him for the past three weeks. She was a heavy drinker. She was very drunk on Saturdav night when sLe was going to bed. He heard a fall a,nd found de- ceased at the foot of the stairs unconscious. "Dr. Ernest Price said that deceased was admitted to the workhouse infirmary at 2 o'clock on Sunday morning. She had various injuries on the head, and never regained consciousness. A verdict of Accidendal death was returned.
A WORLD-FAMOUS PRIMA DONNA., Itjf announced that Madame Nordica is shortly to retire from professional work, and many friends will be glad to learn that in addition to the recital she will give on Friday evening at the Queen's Hall, she will sing in. the same building on June 10th at an orchestra concert. On her recent t6ur in America, Mmel Madame Nordica. iN ordica made a profit of £ 80,000. A few weeks ago she married a New York banker. He is her second husband. Her first was Mr Gower, of the Gower-Bell telephone, who-ascended in a balloon in 1885. and was never heard of aga.in. It was in 1878 that Mme. Nordica origi- nally sang in this country. She came over with Gilmore's band, and was known as Lilian Norton.
APPEAL DISMISSED. JUDGE OWEN'S DECISION UPHELD. The Master of the Rolls and Lords Justices Buckley and Kennedy in the Court of Appeal on Wednesday had under consideration the appeal of Mrs Barrow, the widow of a workman who was killed while endeavouring to get on board the ship Derwent at Portmadoc. The County Court judge at Cardiff had decided that the accident did not arise out of, and in the course of, the man's employment, and had declined to grant compensation. This decision was now appealed from. The appellant's case was that the accident arose in the course of the man's employment, as he had been on shore to pur- chase provisions, and was returning to the skip when he fell in the water and was drowned. Without calling upon counsel for the re- spondents, the appeal was dismissed.
THEFT CHARGES AT SWANSEA. At Swansea County Police Court on Wed- nesday three labourers, of no fixed abode, named J. Ward, J. John, and W. Unwin, were sent to prison for six weeks for stealing from Sketty Farm some potatoes, a sack, and a boiler. The charge had been reduced from one, of breaking and entering. Two rag and bone collectors named W. James and David John Banfield were sent to prison for a month for stealing three cast-iron railway chairs from the Broad Oak Colliery. Daniel Foy, labourer, of Gorseinon, was summoned for stealing a bowler hat and an overcoat, belonging to Mrs Evan Jones, of Gorseinon. Defendant said he only took the clothes to draw the attention of complainant's daughter, whom he wanted to come out. The case was dismissed, the magistrates telling Foy not to do such a stupid thing again.
BERLIN CITY FATHERS' VISIT. Overflowing with friendliness and good spirits, their faces wreathed in smiles, the 32 members of the municipality of Berlin received a cordial welcome on their arrival in London. They were headed by the Ober-Burgomeister, Dr. Kirschner, K.C.V.O. Dr. Kirschner and his colleagues have not come to study muni- Dr. Kirschner. cipal problems, but are here to return the visit which the City Corporation paid to Berlin sdme time ago. Their visit will last till Satur- day, and during the week they have been entertained by the City Corporation with their traditional hospitality. The party was received by the King at Buckingham Palace on Monday afternoon.
COUNT TOLSTOY'S CHALLENGE. St. Petersburg,* Tue<?dayV-The trial of M. Selden on the charge of having published some of Count Tolstoy's pamphlets was held here to-day. Accused was defended bv the eminent barrister and politician M. Maklakoff, who sub. mitted the following letter written by Count Tolstoy himself to the examining magistrate •' Gentlemen,—Nicolai Eugenievitch Selden is being prosecuted for publishing and distri- buting my pamphlets Thou shalt not kill,' A letter to Liberals,' and Christianity and patriotism.' As these pamphlets were written by me and published by one of my friends, not only with my consent, but at my desire. M. Selden taking a purely passive part in the affair, all measures which are being taken against M. Selden should logically and equitably be directed against me, especially because I have repeatedly declared—and now declare again— that I consider it my duty to my conscience to disseminate, so far as lies in my power, the pamphlets in question, as well as my other works, and shall continue doing so as long as I am able. I feel constrained to inform you of this, and ask you to take whatever measures may devolve from my present statement.- (Sicned) Leo Tolstoy." M. Selden was sentenced to six months' im- prisonment in a fortress. The examining magistrates declined to institute proceedings against Count Tolst,y.-Reuter. I
MONSTER TOWER. Washington, Monday.—The Navy Depart- ment authorities have invited tenders for the construction of a great, tower, to be used as a wireless telegraphy station. The principal con- ditions attached to the contract are that the tower shall be 600 feet in height, and that its guaranteed wiretess radius shall be 3,000 miles. —Central News.
Glasgow Murder. REPRIEVE OF SLATER. The Press Association representative was officially informed at the Scottish Office on Tuesday night that a reprieve had been granted in the case of the man Slater condemned to death for the murder of Miss Gilchrist at Glasgow. The announcement of the respite was despatched to Glasgow last evening by tele- graph. The following was the telegram received from the Under-Secretary for Scotland :— To the Lord Provost of Glasgow—case of Oscar Slater.—Execution of sentence of death is respited until further signification of his Majesty's pleasure." Our London correspondent says :—I under- stand that Lord Pentland, in view of the special difficulties attending the Slater case, placed the whole evidence before the Lord Chancellor and Mr Haldane. They with the assistance of Lord Guthrie, carefully examined the evidence, and came to the conclusion that there was such an element of doubt with regard to the evidence of identification that it would have been inexpedient to carry out the extreme penalty of the law. Great surprise was created in Glasgow by the receipt of the news. Earlier in the day it was understood that the death sentence was to he carried out. The magistrates met during the forenoon and completed their arrange- ments, engaging Pierpont and appointing a magistrate to attend the execution in place of another, who had asked to be excused. Slater was informed of the respite by the governor, and was greatly affected. The sentence has been commuted to one of penal servitude for life. The telegraphed message from the Secretary for Scotland was addressed to the Lord Pro- vost at the City Chamber. The Governor of Duke-street Prison received a similar com- munication, and shortly afterwards he in com- pany with the prison doctor, entered the con- demned ceil. When informed by the governor that he had been respited Slater collapsed. On recovering, the prisoner in broken English endeavoured to express his thanks.
Stricken Crew's Plight. EIGHTEEN POISONED BY MOSQUITOS. Captain Frederick Weeks, of West Hartle- pool, of the British steamer Veraston, arrived at New York on Monday last week (says the Plymouth correspondent of the Dailv Chronicle "), and reported that his crew had been all poisoned by mosquitos with the ex- ception of Second Officer George Nash, Third Engineer Taylorson, and George Hyde, steward. The others of the crew were infected by mosquito bites, with the result that three died, and fifteen had to be left in hospital at Trinidad and Jamaica. There were 22 of the Veraaton's crew when she left New York at the end of January, and after a 1,700 milo trip up Madeira River, a tributory of the Amazon, from Para, the men began to suffer from malignant maleria. The crew, though their quarters were screened, could not escape the onslaught of the mosquitos. As the sailors were stricken one by one the skipper and officers were forced to work night and day to get the vessel to Kingston. At times even the sick men had to take their turn. We sailed from there middle of February and arrived at Porto Velho on March 5th, said Captain Weeks, describing the terrible experience. We moored alongside the jungle and within striking distance of myriads of white mosquitos. They descended on us in clouds. Before we were moored George Dray- ton, a sailor, was taken ill. Others were soon complaining. By the, time we left there on March 25th, Drayton was in bad shape, and finally died. As we went down river towards Para we swung in along bank, and at a little village called Borba we buried him. Once clear of the Amazon a fireman got so bad that I had to stop at Trinidad and land him. From there we headed for Kingston, and after that the crew began to go all to pieces. Many were too ill to work, but I had to spur them to their tasks, for work meant reaching port and medical attention. There were times when I had to leave the wheel to tend the sick, and then only the second mate was left on deck, and below was only the third engineer. The next man to die was P. Haoehey. Next night Andrew Briggs, fireman, died. Eventually the Veraston reached Kingston. There 15 of her crew were taken to hospital, some being in a serious plight."
SWISS HOTEL ROBBERY. Lausanne, Monday.—Madame E. J. Bonne- maison, the wife of a well-known Peruvian engineer living in Paris, has been robbed of jewellery worth more than £2,000, which was left in her room at the Hotel Beausejour, Lausanne, where she has been staying for some time with her husband. The discovery was made by Madame Bonnemaison herself, who on going to her room found that the bag con- taining her jewellery had been cut open and that everything had been taken. Among the stolen articles are two large drop pearls sur- rounded by twelve diamonds, valued at JE500 at least, and many other articles of jewellery have also been taken, as well as a portfolio containing some valuable papers. It is believed that the robbery was committed by the mem- bers of a gang of expert international hotel thieves for whom the police of several countries have been searching for some time, but have no clue.—Central News.
FRENCH SHIPPING STRIKE. Marseilles, Monday.—The naval reservists met this morning at the Labour Exchange to decide whether they should declare a general strike or not, After a lively discussion a general strike was resolved upon. It is to last until the shipping companies accept the men's demands regarding the application of the law dealing with work on board ship. The crews of the steamers Isly and Bugeaud, which are due to start this afternoon, have declared that they will not go on board. A permanent strike committee has been formed at the Labour Exchange.—Reuter.
CZAR IN A PAGEANT. The Czar (a St. Petersburg correspondent writes) has adopted the pageant idea on a grand scale. His visit to Poltava, in Southern Russia, next month, for the celebration of the bi-centenary of Peter the Great's victory over Charles XII. of Sweden, will see Nicholas II. in the unexpected role of Peter, ship carpen- ter, genius, and conqueror. Mr Mazorovsky, Russia's leading battle painter, and Count Mouravieff, the military historian, have been entrusted with the preparation of the Poltava pageant, which will display the scene and movements of the battle as fought 200 years ago.
PANIC IN A CHURCH. Lisbon, Sunday.—According to telegrams to the Lisbon papers, a terrible thunderstorm burst over the cathedral at Avila during the progress of a special mass for the offering of prayers for rain in consequence of the pro- longed drought. The cathedral was struck by lightning, the officiating priest and three ladies being killed and the altar set on fire. A fearful panic ensued, the crowded congregation mak- ing a mad rush for the doors. In the crush many persons were injured, 27 being taken to the hospital by the civil guards.—Central News.
GOODWIN SANDS WRECK. At Liverpool on Tuesday the Board of Trade judgment was delivered in the case of the wreck on the Goodwin Sands, on April 9th, of the Brocklebank liner Mahratta while bound from Calcutta to London. The master was exonerated, but the seeond officer was held in default in not calling the master from his room when the Gull light was first observed, and his certificate was suspended for three months. The pilot was also held in default in not recog- nising it and acting promptly when the Gull lightship was first seen.
DESPERATE CONVICT. As the convicts of a party known as the Incorrigibles were being searched at Dart- moor Prison op Tuesday morning previous to having their usual midday bath, Convict W. Gillet, who in January last assaulted an assistant warder, sprang on the back of another assistant warder named Fartner, who was in charge and was searching the next convict. Gillet struck a severe blow. blacking the warder's eye, and also caused the latters nose to bleed before Farmer could free himself and overpower Gillet.
VICTIMS OF THE MAFIA. Rome, Sunday.—At Favara, in Sicily, yes- terday, a rich family, consisting of Signor Bugea, and his wife and sister, were assassina- ted by members of the Mafia Secret Society, all three being shot as they were returnipg to the farm which they occupied. A few years ago two brothers ot Signor Bugea-were assassi- nated in a similar roinner.—(Vntrnl News.
News and Views in Lighter Vein. Lady Llangadock possesses Queen Eliza- beth's work-box. It is embroidered by Eliza- beth's own hands. Sir W. B. Griffith, Chief Justice of the Gold Coast since 189o, has arrived home on leave of absence. Mr George Elliot, the well-known barrister, has been retained by Sir George Lewis to defend Mr J. Jay Williams at Tuesday's hear- ing at the Mansion House Police Court. There is a Cymmrodorion Society in far Vancouver, and they lately passed a resolution congratulating Willie Trew and the Welsh team upon winning the Quadruple Crown. The only authentic bust of Die Aberdaron, the noted Welsh linguist, adorns the parlour of a farmhouse in Flintshire. It was executed within a few days after Die's death from a cast taken while the body lay awaiting interment at St. Asaph. The Gwent Eisteddfod is becoming more popular every year. There are over 300 entries this year, and among the choirs will be found some of the finest combinations in South Wales. The authorities of the University College, Aberystwyth, in addition to the usual instruc- tors for their short course in music next August, have secured the services of Mr J. C. Venables, principal of the South London Insti- tute of Music, to deliver a course of lectures on The Art of Teaching Music and The Art of Conducting." A West Wales minister of the Gospel, in appealing for funds for the renovation of a church, said to his congregation the other Sun* day, Don't hoard your money. It is bettor to give it towards a good cause than to let the Chancellor of the Exchequer have it later on." Sir John Rhys, when speaking at Tonys- guboriau upset many a local interpretation of the meaning of Pont-y-clun. According to Si. John, clun" is ancient British for a meadow, and sure enough Pontyclun is built largely upon meadow land, and thus, the meadow bridge is a fitting name for the town. At the forthcoming Church Pageant in Londod Wales will be represented not only by a number of Church dignitaries, but also by the poetry of one of its sons. The chaired bard Berw has composed several verses expressly for the occasion, and these have been clothed in English by the Vicar of Carnarvon (the Rev. J. W. Wynne Jones). The History of Pembrokeshire," by the Rev. James Phillips, is announced for imme- diate publication by Mr Elliot Stock. Although Pembrokeshire has been fortunate in having a considerable published literature, yet no his- tory in moderate compass at a popular price has been issued. The present work is designed to meet the need that has been so long felt. The same firm will also publish a volume of stories by the Rev. Zachary Mather descriptive of Welsh life and character, entitled, Tales From the Welsh Hills." It does not speak much for the national character of the coming Cardiff Pageant when the notices of it that appear in the vernacular press are merely translations from English originals. This mistake is common in connec- tion with other movements in Wales, and is not complimentary to Welsh readers. The Welsh language is quite equal to any language in existence for descriptive writing, to say the least of it. Although the late Sir Lewis Morris, the poet of Penbryn, is known far and wide, still it seems very strange that no steps have so far been taken to commemorate his connection with Carmarthen. Not even a street or road is named after him The path up which he so often climbed., and which he once called the hill which seems to grow steeper year by year," is known by the unmeaning name of Sticle- bach." The Folly," as the tower on the mountain top to the east of Pontypool is called, is said to be associated with the history of the Romans and their march against Monmouth. The remains of the old Roman road from The Folly to Mamhilad, about a mile in length, are still worthy of a visit. It is carefully laid in stone pitching." From The Folly a grand view may be had on a clear day reaching right across the Channel to Weston-super-Mare. A quaint tract entitled "Woe to Drunkards," being a sermon by Samuel Waid, preacher, of Ipswich, was printed in London in 1627. The preacher based his remarks upon Proverbs xxiii. verses 29-32 ("Look thou not upon the wine when it is red," See.), and illustrated his argu- ments by examples from various parts of the kingdom of God's judgments on drunkards. Among other instances he quotes the following one from Tenby :—" At Tenby in Pembroke- shire a Drunkard being exceedingly drunke broke himself all to pieces off an high and steep rock in most fearefull manner, and yet the occasion and circumstances of his fall so ridicu- lous as I thinke not fit to relate, lest in so serious a judgement I should move laughter of the Reader." The Rev. J. D. Jones, M.A., B.D., Bourne- mouth, chairman of the Congregational TJnion of England and Wales, is not the only Welsh- man to occupy that position. It was occupied by the Rev. D. Thomas, B.A., Bristol (a brother of the late Mr Samuel Thomas. Ysgu- borwen, the founder of the Cambrian Colliery), in 1865 Rev. Thomas Jones, Swansea (father of Sir D. Brynmor Jones, M.P.), 1871 Mr Henry Richard (M.P. for Merthyr), 1877 Rev. Thomas Rees, D.D., Swansea, who died after his election in 1885, and whose place at the May meetings and the autumnal meeting that year was occupied by the Rev. J ohn ThomaA, D.D., Liverpool Rev. E. Herber Evans. D.D.r Carnarvon, 1892 Rev. J. Morlais Jones, London, 1896 Rev. H. Arnold Thomas. M.A., Bristol (a son of the Rev. Dr. Thomas), 1899. Morien writes:—It will interest many readers" to learn that Mr Lleufer Thomas, the new stipendiary magistrate for the Pontypridd Division, is on the maternal side the grandson of the late Mr Rhys Evans, who during many years was the lessee of Tonyrefail Woollen factory, and employed many weavers. The late Mr Thomas Morgan, J.P., in his Remin- iscences of Tonyrefail," refers with admiration and affection to Mr Rhys Evans as a most cultured gentleman and most genial in man- ners. All the folks of the verdant countryside went to him for advice on all perplexing matters, and when anyone happened to be taken suddenly ill the sufferer's friends imme- diately went for Mr Rhys Evans. One of the amusing things I heard when a child," writes Morien, was that one morning a near relative of Mr Thomas Morgan had the misfortune while gaping to unhook his jaw bone. A messenger was sent galloping to fetch Dr. Evan Davies, Ysguborycoed, Dinas. but when the medico arrived Mr Rhys Evans had already, to the admiration of all, reset the dislocation satisfactorily. Mr Morgan used to say that the house of Mr Evans was the centre of intellectual activity where the philosophy of Dr. Priestley, &c., was discussed. A great friend of the head of the family was the late Mr David James, Bettws, Garw, who was a Socinian in religion, and there Mr Rhys Evans travelled to worship at the small Unitarian Chapel. Mr Evans was a logician, and he often puzzled the orthodox by asking How can a son be as old as his father ?' A correspondent came across an old History of the Kings of England from William the Conqueror to Queen Elizabeth printed in London in 1638. Among other things it con- tained the following interesting account of the landing of Henry Earl of Richmond in Wales, which may prove of interest to the promoterS of the Welsh National Pageant:— ,With this little (but resolved) company he arrived and landed at Milford Haven in Wales, when he was least thought on • where he saw no great appearance of such succours as he hoped for. But when the Welshmen were put in mind that (being the son of Owen Tutlikr) he was of their own blood, and would be an especiall favourer of them all, and that his marriage with the Lady Elisabeth would settle the whole estate of this kingdome in perfect unity and in peace, they flocked unto him, and thronged about him with resolved minds and willing hearts, under their skilfull and hardy captaines, among which John Savage, Arnold Butler, Richard Griffith, John Morgan, and Rice Ap Thomas were the chiefe."
WHAT POST-MORTEM SHOWED. Mr R. J. Rhys held an inquest at Abercanaid on Monday on Evan Bevan, a haulier, who was employed at the Cwm Pit, and who died sud- denly on Friday. The deceased was supposed to have strained himself while pushing a tram. but a post-mortem examination revealed that death was due to pneumonia, pleurisy, and alcoholic poisoning. A verdict in accordance with the medical evidence was returned.
LUNATIC'S SUICIDE. A Colchester telegram reports that Emanuel Frusher, a patient at the Eastern Counties Asylum, escaped from the Infirmary on Mon- day afternoon whilst the Lunacy Commis- sioners were viatting the institution, and half an hour later was found drowned in the river Colne, which is on the boundary of the asylum grounds. His home is in Cambridgeshire.