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WORKMEN'S TOPICS. LABOUR LEGISLATION OF LAST YEAR. BY MABON, M.P. When I said crinifi four weeks ago that at the fOnd of our farl.amentary Session, the country, tnd especially tl1. workmen of the country, wouldrea-li.e that- the present Government, Notwithstanding the time lost with tbe Educa- tion Bill, would have passed a considerable aumber of beneficial measures—more than any other Government had done in the same time- 1 then scarcely realised myself that the svidence would be overwhelming- We have at Wast some j4 Bills, and severa I of them of first- ilass importance, added to the Statute Book. An excellent record, even though the House of Lords had. wrecked the principal measure of the Session, and also threw out the Abolition of Plural Voting Bill—both of which had been thoroughly discussed and passed in the House of Ccmmons, A number of Bills passed, ts I have hinted, were of vast importance to ivorkingmen. The first shall name is the Trades Disputes Bill, This Act of Parliament has settled a contro- versy to which the working classes have rightly ittachcd very great importance. In this inter- esting matter the reversal of the Taff Vale decision was the principal plank in our Labour platform, and it, was only natural that tbe workmen's representatives in the House were hot content with the Attorney-General's original Bill, and it was ultimately agreed to that Trade Union funds. both of workmen and Employers, should bn immuned so long as the liability provided by the Trades Union Act;, t871. was not, affected. Then comes the im ended Workmen's Compensation Act, ;rhich met with the approval of all- Labour men in the House of Commons. aBillthat includes at least 6.000.000 workers that have hitherto been included from compensation for injuries recpivnd !n the past. It has also gone out into a new iirection-all important from the worker's point of view, and includes in its schedule Several industrial diseases. The Bill as it now: -tds on the country's Statute Book is the greatest charter that the injured soldiers of '.ndubtry have over received, in this country or any other. Another very useful Bill which will shortly become ;aw is the,, Merchant Shipping Bill, moved and carried through by our friend Mr D. Lloyd George. This measure establishes for the first time the much needed compulsory food seal- on board ship, secures on board of all foreign ships; a certificated cook. It increases in the case of new vessels the space that must be given to" the accommodation of tbe crew, end imposes on foreign ships in British ports the same regulations as to load line and other matters as are applicable to British ships. It Also prohibits the granting of fresh pilotage r;»rtificate3 to aliens, and deals with numerous Ltefects and unfair disabilities, in the shipping Kjwfe that were against the interests pi British Owners, and called for remedy for some time. The Census ef Production Act. Somehow or other this Act r, eems not to have demanded the attention nor the admiration it deserves. Personally I think that the Act is worthy of being counted among the most beneficial to our various industries gener- ally of all the Government measures. For the census when complete will provide the most valuable data as to the volume, nature, and condition of British industries. It will, in my opinion, create one of the most quiet and bene- ficial revolutions that this country has yet experienced. It will by and bye be an inestimable fountain of the most necessary and reliable information for the use of boards of all kinds that have anything to do with the peaceful arrangements of industrial misunder- standings and disputes. In the past no statistics of the kind indicated have been available in this country. We have had, so often, to draw our own deductions as to the state of our home trade from statistics of employment and paaperism, and it took us a long time to arrive even at that. Oftentimes in order to get at anything like accuracy we had to have recourse to the earnings of banks, and the traffic on railways, from the amount of profits assessable, to the income tax, and the balance sheets of various concerns. These arc valuable as far as they go, but in this country, where the tendency to arranee all kinds of commercial and indus- trial disputes on an equitable basis to all con. cerned is rapidly developing, we want a. much more direct, and, if possible, reliable method nf ascertaining all the conditions necessary for the securing of the end in view. In fact, we want for our home trade the same information, copious and accurate, that recently has been available from the Board of Trade returns showing our commerce with nber countries. The Board of Trade wili take all necessa ry pre- cautions to preserve the secrecy of the informa- tion imported by manufacturers, mine owners, and others. In fact, the Act provides for this in a verv stringent way, and it, is only fair that it should be -.o-moreover a provision is made, in order to secure the information necessary, ;n the Ac to penalise any person Who wilfully refuses," or, without lawful excuse, neglects to fill up a form to the besb of his knowledge and belief. The first census will be taken in 1908. We also have a Bi.1 for the Feeding of School Children. This measure will henceforth secure the feed. ing of the children of thepoor without pauperis- ing the parents, and will also secure repayment from parents that were able to provide properly for their offsprings but have ueg'ected to do so. This is a measure that was really needed in more places than one.and will afford a most valu- able experiment. nowithstanding that a. certain school of social reformers view it with misgiv. ings. Seeing that it was impossible to deal in a practically efficient manner with the problem of the unemployed," the Government simply made a grant of 1200,000 to help tiding over the difficulty, while the President of the Local Government Board i3 preparing his scheme towards permanently ::etthng the question. Several other very important measures have been dealt with that are of peculiar interest to the workers of the country-such as the new law that wili consolidate the law with regard to .open spaces. Then comes the Dean Forest Bill, which enables the Commissioners of Wcods and Forests to provide gardens fop the cottagers in the forest and amends The Dean Forest Mines Act. Then the miners and quarry men all over the country will receive hpnefitr, from the extra responsibility that is now imposed on ownel sand managers for re- porting accidents that were not reported previously, and arising out of the provisions of tho new Notice of Accidents Act of last year. Hitherto accidents causing loss of life' or serious personal injury to persons in or about the mines only were re- ported. But under the new Act and the new order arising from the Home Office called for by the new Act, the following classes of occurrences, whether personal injury is caused or not, are to be reported :—All cases of ignition of dust or gas below ground other than by ignition in a safety lamp, all cases of fire below ground, all cases of breakage of ropes, C-hains, or other gear by which men are low^ed or raised, all cases of overwinding cages while men are being taken up or down, loll cses of inrush of water from old workings. On t; ae other hand, accidents by the explosion of ar .1y steam boiler are now omitted from the list. and will only be required to be reported whe n causing loss of life or serious personal iniu try. This order came into force on January Let,, 1907. There were two or three other De affuxm like Ireland's Labourers Act, the Land r. enure Act. and though they may not be I '^signaled measures directly affecting Labour, they st ill are measures that have a tendency to ease Labour conditions and amelioriate the lotof the workers in the country. And without boast or egotism I think it is only fair to say that Labour as a whole, and especially Trale Union Labour. has got more legislation passed in its favour during the last year than it has has had during the last two decades. And this to a considerable extent is due to the tact that during that time there were in that House of Commons some SO Labour members, who were also assisted by a much greater band of willing helpers.
Welsh Tit-Bits. ♦ Neil WreichionOddiar yr Eingion By CADRAWD. GLAMORGANSHIRE'S FIRST PRINTING PRESS.-(Continued). In spite of his sorrow, in spite of advancing age with its attendant evils, ditv to his sub- scribers bids him resume and conclude the work which he has set before him. So the heart- broken and weary old man once more takes up his task. and in May. 1793, he has the supreme satisfaction of writing to his friend in Upper Thames-street that the (last touch had been put to the MS., and to beg his advice regarding the printing and publishing of the remaining numbers. Counsel was indeed necessary, for poor Bees Thomas, the Cowbridge printer, had passed away from a world where lawsuits and bailiffs had so Ions plagued him. and had been laid to rest in Llandough Churchyard. Would it not be advisable," he asks, "to have the printing done.in London 1" His friend agrees that it would be, and a printer having been engaged, the MS. is sent up on August 2nd, 1793. But. even in London, printers may be found dilatory, and the poor lexicographer's trials are not, yet at an end. Ma.y, 1794; arrives, and the subscribers arc still waiting for the concluding numbers. In a strain of utter sadness, Mr Walters addresses his correspondent on the subject. There is in this Jetter a deeper and more pathetic wail than even that cry of the heart. wrung from Samuel Jobason when he completed his Dictionary, and wrote his cele- brated letter to Lord Chesterfield. Success, or in this ca3e completion of labour with the plea- sure or satisfaction arising therefrom, had been delayed until poor Walters could not enjoy till he was (in one sad aspect) solitary,and could not impart it; and here the parallel between the two lexicographers ends. Not for him could the lettered ease which attended Dr Johnson's later years, with the homage paid him by the whole world of learning, be hoped for, even if it had been relatively attainable. Imagination did not picture, neither did the wearied mind and body of this bereaved father desire a calm season of rest to follow the completion of his labours, when the fame so painfully and patiently earned nught. be enjoyed. No, he writes as one for whom the cares and joys of the world are over his sole desire is that the Dictionary may be completed." I had hoped," he says. I should have had an account of the Dictionary being out of the press by this. Upon sending the MS. up to London, I acquainted my friends with the arrangements which had been made, coupled with the assurance that the work would now be completed without further delay. I am quite hurt at the disappointment. I have been con- fined to my room forthree weeks with a. severe attack of the old complaint, and was afraid I should not have the satisfaction of seeing the issue the work though seemingly so near its completion. Thank Gad I am recovering. completion. Thank frod I am recovering. The work, however, is now in the strong hands of Owen Jones and its completion, although so long delayed, is assured. No doubt the proofs had the benefit of his revision. By September, 1794, the correspondence over the publication comes to a close; the work has been delivered to the subscribers, and the printer has been paid. Whether Mr Walters derived any pecuniary benefit from the publi- cation is doubtful—indeed, there is more than a suspicion that he was out of pocket. Thus the Standard Welsh and English Dic- tionary was brought to its completion. Upon the English lexicographer there attended at the close of his labour s sundry rewards and a. great access of social consideration. His University hastened to confer upon him the honorary degree of D.C.L. the Government of the day granted him a (well-merited) pension and the learned world elevated him to a kind of Liter ary Dictator. Poor Mr Walters was the object of no such attention or adulation. Ten months before his death he was elected to a Prebendal Stall in the Cathedral Church of his diocese and with that modest acknowledgment of his labours the flood of honour reached its highest mark. Before concluding this notice one more letter deserves attention. It is dated Cow- bridge, May 12th. 1797. The poor old gentle- man is very ill he has been suffering from fever for three months. He is seventy-six years old, he says, and feels the weakness of old age. The handwriting of this last letter shows indeed traces of feebleness, but there are still touches of the old stateliness which had. been marked and so uniform a characteristic in all the earlier otters. It was a hand that never seemed to vary; and if handwriting affords any key to character, then there may assuredly be read in this of Mr Walters' the evidence of a. mind large, grand, and calm. It shows us a man whose life was regulated by fixed principles; and who, having decided upon a course to be followed, would pursue that course evenly to the end. In liis diction, there is, perhaps, too much of that rounding of periods," common to the scholarly writers of that time which has, to the year of this our time, a tinge of formality and deprives it of what we are pleased to call "naturalness" of expres- sion. This, however, was the language and style of 1790 and there can be no doubt but that it flowed as freely and easily from bis lip and pen and with as little premeditation as the slipshod English of to-day falls from the lips of so many of our free talkers. Mr Walters died on the twentieth day after he had penned the letter just referred to, namely, on the 1st of June, 1797. He was buried at Llandough on the 4th of June. His grave is probably in the chancel, but no stone marks the spot where he has been laid. This disre- gard of the memory of those who have deserved well of their country is but too common in Wales. The grave of a. distinguished person is bedewed with tenrs at his burial, and is strewed with perishable flowers and with this transient expression of sentiment the public conscience is satisfied. Any warmer patriotism finds an outlet in the vapourings that take place at Eisteddfodau—and so quickly <- vanishes into thin air. A few of his brother bards laid the tribute of the Welsh Muse (figuratively speak ing) upon Mr Walters' tomb—and then the mortuary honours rendered to him by his coAritrymen ceased,
Closely Guarded. It is a well-worn belief that a. woman can never keep a secret. This only applies, hb wever, to the less important events in her life. The secrets the average woman reveals are harmless ones, such as any man would reveal. A married man one day refused to tell his wüe the olltcome of a busmess transaction in which, naturally, she took a deep interest. No," he said, with a sneer, I won't ten you. If I did, you'd repeat it. You women can never keep a secret." John," said the lady, quietly, have I ever told the secret about the, diamond engagement ring you gave me eighteen years ago being paste t" Mutual. Mr Knagge was putting on his coat, pre- paratory to going to business, when there came a ring at the front door bell. He opened the door. A canvasser stood outside. ''I beg your pardon," said the canvasser, but I'd like to show you a sample of our im- proved talking-machine." I don't think I care to see it," replied Mr Knagge. You are not interested in talking-machines. perhaps ?" ventured the other. 1 can't say that, either. But I have one already. Talks all day. Never needs winding up, and never runs down." At this moment a high-pitched voice came floating downstairs. It isn't so exclaimed the person with the high-pitched voice. But I've got a growling- machine that runs whenever it's in this house P'
MUSIC IN WALES. By D. EMLYN EVANS. FAMOUS FLUTE PLAYERS. An esteemed correspondent has forwarded us an interesting if somewhat belated number of the Musical World," containing, amongst other things, a very readable article on Famous Flautists of to-day," withpboto- graphs, the artistes receiving notice in the number being Mr John Radcliff, Mr De Jong. Mr I. F. Brossa, Mr V. L. Needham. Mr W. L. Barrett. and Mr D. S. Wood. Naturally, the one that would first attract the attention of the Welsh reader would be Mr W. L. Barrett, who hails from Dinas Mawddwv, that neglected village called a city lying in a picturesque valley sheltering under the pine-clad hills of Merioneth, but close to the borders of Mont- gomery. Dinas is one of the ancient homes of the crwth, the harp. and pennillion singing, keeping up its reputation for the latter, at least, up to the present day Mr Barrett himself being a direct descendant, on the maternal side, of one of the most noted musical families of the place. But we cannot do better than quote what the Musical World says of our eminent Welsh flautist. Mr William Lewis Barrett," so it reads, "succeeded Mr Radcliff —the doyen of English (or British) flautists— on tour with the English Opera Company under Meyer Lutz. He comes of a musical stock, his father being a violinist of (l'stinction and on the mother's aide he is Welsh, which language he spoke to perfection. In 1888, on the death of Svensden, he became principal flute in many leading orchestras, including that of the Philharmonic Society, the Bach choir, Richter's arid Henschell's concerts, the Birmingham festival, the Three Choirs, the Norwich, the Cardiff, and other festivals. At the opening of the Royal College of Music, Mr Barrett was- appointed professor of the flute in that institution. He has frequently played at Windsor and Balmoral, and was more than once personally complimented, more especially on h.s exquisite tone, by her late Majesty Queen Victoria.. About 1891 he toured with Madame Albani in Canada and the United States. Mr Barrett has introduced a modification of the key mechanfem whereby one may do away with the open D at will, and turn it into C sharp." Those who have heard Air Barrett's solo work, whether in opera or at festivals, or playing obbligato to one of the queens of sang on the concert platform, can well understand and endorse Queen Victoria's appreciation of his quality of tone the flute tone proper, soft tender, velvetty, and which the writer, at least, has not heard to more complete satisfaction from any other player. The Tune Caersalem Once More. A kindly West Wales reader writes to us as follows apropos the abova tune, reference to which was made in this column a fortnight since r—•' J have read with interest your notes on the tune Caersalem-' It is satisfactory to be able to trace the author. And now as refer- ence is made to the tune, I am wondering you are aware of the Dew reading of the closing bars." (The musical illustrations given by our correspondent represent the final strain sung throughout with equal notes, and not with the penultimate and antepenultimate notes elongated into semibreves—instead of minims—as ts the authenticated version.} Hew the alteration came about I am unable to say, but it is & great pity, as the massive effect of the eloging cadences is entirely lost; apart from the hullabaloo that occurs where some try to sing the correct way and others the new at a public meeting. That experience occurred to me lately when splaying the tune at the closte (of a very impressive service. The choiike-ptwith the.orgap, bat you can imagine my intense disgust when some of the congrega- tion shot forward, and finished a bar in advance. I need not describe the result. I observed that a correspondent in the South Wales Daily News during the revival called attention to this matter, and appealed to all musicians to stand by the correct reading. I think you would be doing a real service to psalmody if you were to point out this piece of gross tinkering of a standard,tone. If the evil is not corrected it will lie impossible to keep the tune going where there is a risk of people rendering it both ways." We comply with the writer's request by giving publicity to his protest. Possibly the reversed version crept in to the print which our correspondent mentions, but which it is not necessary to publish here, through error, or ignorance of the correct form or it may be it was deliberately edited anew by an adherens of the dum- dum method of hymn-tune writing. In any event the alteration is only calculated to eause very needless confusion, and the old wav is not only the one which is familiar to the people generally, but is also the more correct theoretically as well as more effective. Brass Band Adjudicators. The secretary of a brisss band contest in Wales having written to the editor of the Brass Band News," an able, well-conducted, and long established musical journal, asking him for his opinion of the qualifications of their appointed adjudicator, receives his answer in a recen issue of the above-mentioned journal. Why the secretary should have sought an outside opinion at all, especially if done after the appointment had been made, we do not know. but here is the editor's reply, couched as usual in pretty straight language can scarcely fail to be understood. Mr A wishes us to gire an opinion as to the qualifications of Mr X as adjudicator of their coni^M- We are ashamed to do so. Mr X is one of the foremostcomposers, not only of Wales, but of the United Kingdom, and as a musician we would much rather be judged by him than by 75 per cent, of the ordinary brass band judges. Only the other day Mr Will Halliwell said We brass band people are getting hide-bound. We teachers dare not give free rein to our fancy, because the judge will not stand anything unusual. Give me a musician, a man who can name every chord, and to whom the music is as clear B daylight. There are many conductors of choral societies who can see great defects in our b-est brass bands but we would not listen to them-they: are only musicians. We prefer 8, brass, band player, and as a matter of fact, some of our brass bandf judges never could either teach Dr play.' Welsh musicians are not in any wav anxious to revert back to the rule that obtained some years ago, and add brass band adjudicating to their already other heavy work but rather, are glad to be relieved to that extent.. There are various matters, how- ever, in connection with br&ss band competi. tions that would be none the worse for a little airing. Probably a good many will agree that the one touched upon above is amongst them, and that none can speak with better authority on it than the journal quoted from.
By Degrees. What's the price of that watch ?" asked Mr Mene, pointing to the one in the show-case. Two pounds," replied the jeweller. I'll take ifc" said the eustomar, and after paying for it he went out. Next day he came again- "This watch doesn't exactly stirfe me,~ he said- What's that one ?" pointing to another. "Three pounds." I'll take that instead of this one, if you don't mind." "Certainty." A day or two later he came again. How good a watch have got.fofofive pounds ?" WelL fi ve pounds will get you a good time- piece," said the jeweller, handing one out. Here's one with a gold-filled case, and fully jewelled. The movement is warranted." I'll take it." He paid the difference, took the watch, and went away. After a lapse of a few days he made his appearance once more. Have you got a first-class watoh with a solid gold case that you can sell for ten pouuds ?" he asked. "Yes. Here it is." Well. I'll take it." said Mr Mene. Here's the other watch and five pounds. That's the one I really wanted at first, but couldn't face naying out all that money at once." The old housekeeper met the master at the door on his arrival home. If you please, sir," she said, the cat has had chickens." Non- sense. Mary." laughed he;" you meap kittens. Cats don't have chickens." Was them chickens or kittens as you brought home last night ?" Why, they were chickens, of course." Just so, sir," replied Mary, with a twinkle fcha cot'a Had W'
Illustrated Humour. A Test of Ability. Employer (to clerk with a good opinion of himself) Mr Jupior Phipps, I have long ob- served with approval yonr devotion to business, and am now about to test your abilities in a new capacity, in which I feel sure you will acquit yourself with credit to the house, and- er Junior Clerk (highly delighted): I—I—I shall do my best, sir. Embployer: As I was about to say. Mr Phipps, the cleaner is ill this morning, and I shall have to ask yoi to sweep out the office. Inexplicable. Baidad It's certainly a mystery to me Pripperly What's that ? Bald ad How Van Daub can get his pictures bung and escape himself, Would Soon Oblige. "Ma,v I inquire, sir, if you iiave a marriage- able daughter ?" asked the loudly-dressed visitor. I have not- But I shall shortly have a marriageable wife—if you don't mind waiting," replied the henpecked one. Still Unemployed. Employer: So you. want a situation, do yon ? What can you do ? Young Applicant: Nothing in particulai-- but. then. work is not so much an object as good wages. Proof p, No Jitnson '1 wonder n It's reaily-ferad thai ifeh is a brain food t f Mrs Toled Well, Pm pure they have some effect, for every time my husband goes fishing he comes home too dizzy to stand up. An Unequal Division. T see, Mary, that in qtlr city there is to he one policeman for every 5!21 inhabitants," said the lady of the house. Don't know and doet care," was the maid's reply, 11 rve got mine already." From the Latin. Showman (at a fair in the North) Walk up, ladies and gentlemen. and. hear the phonograph, which takes its name from the Latin phono, I speak graphum, through a tin tube. Possibly- Stranger (at. Polecat Point; Boy, can you tell me where old Farmer Cornshack lives ? Boy He's dead Stranger Dead! Why, I've come all the way from Boston to visit him Boy: He must have been expectin' yer, [ guess. A Literary Family- Short cut paths to knowledge fill his soul with gies Baby's in the schoolroorinvriting k-a-t. Close to desperation, anguiqh in her look. Mother's in the kitchen writing for a k-u-k. Smiles upon her visage while the phrases flow, Sister's in the parlour writing to her b.o. Father finds the system nothing very new ) He is in the office writing 1.0-U. Fq IND OtJt. I Mr" Washington J&ckson Wharabouts did yo' git dat fine hat ? Mr 'Rastus Johnson At de sto\ Mr Washington JacKs°n How much wnr it ? Mr 'Rastus Johnson 'Deed, Ah dont know, De sto-keepah wasn't dar Charity-Bega.ft Near Home. Jones Brown's daughter has gone abroad to 3tudy music. Smith Oh, how did 'be manage that ? Jones: The neight *o*irs subscribed the money. The ancients thought the world was flat." Well," I don't blamf ) 'em. They had no chorus girls, nocigarettos, no bridge, no society journals. It must have been in those days." I suppose your me ,)tto is,: Be sure you're right, and then go at«acL' Not in the financial game," answ>5red Mr Dustin Stax. My motto is.. Be mgle you're ahead; then- Von," all ritrht.. 1
TALKS ON HEALTH. By DR. ANDREW WILSON. I About the Liver. The liver is the largest organ or gland in the human body. It is situated towards the right side of the stomach, and lies under the shelter of the lower ribs on that side. Its normal weight is between three and four pounds, and it performs an important duty in the work of digestion in respect that it not only provides bile as a digestive fluid, but also deals in an elaborate fashion with certain of our food products. The liver would require to be in one sense along-suffering organ inmuch as a very large amount of the suffering repre- sented in the ordinary ills of humanity is laid upon its back. Indeed, it seems to be a very general rule that when people are at a loss to account for any special disturbance of their health the liver is regarded as lying at the root of the affliction. No doubt a good many of our ills are intimately connected with the and its work, but at the same time we may have regard to the fact that very many of the ailments in question are really of our own making, and are due to the carelessness with which we regulate certain phases of our lives, and, above all, those relating to the foods we eat. !The Liver's Duties. A very considerable amount of dubiety exists- in the public mind regarding liver troubles," about which they speak so freely. In the first place we should note that the liver has very important relations to the blood supply of the body. To understand the liver's place and power in our economy, we have to consider that a very large blood supply passes through the liver, this blood consisting of that which is on its way back to the heart and lungs for the purpose of purification. The greater part of this blood has been returned from tho diges- tive system, and the chief point for us to bear in remembrance here is, that it carries into the liver with it certain of the food products which have been digested. These food products largely consist of sugar, which represent not only the sugar we have taken as such, but also the starchy foods which require to be converted into sngar before they can be used in the economy of the body The liver converts the sugar thus conveyed to it into starch, storing this starch in the cells which represent the workmen of the liver- It then re-converts this stored starch into sugar, and in this form pays it out to the blood so that the sugar, a. valuable energy-producing food, is thus capable of being utilised by the body. Other Functions. Another function the liver has to discharge is that of receiving from the stomach certain food principles which are conveyed to it in the blood vessels- These food principles represent our nitrogenous foods which have been so far digested in the stomach. The duty of the liver in dealing with them is so to change them that they can be rendered suitable for being passed out of the liver onwards to the blood, and thus to reach the tissues thev are intended to nourish. The third duty of the liver is represented by its bile-making work. Bile represents waste matter which has been separa ted from the blood, but we must remember at the same time that it is waste matter for which a use has been found. When not required for digestion, the bile is stored in a receptacle on the under side of the called the gall bladder- This gall bladder opens into the bowel or intestine justjafter its commencement, so that bile is poured upon the food as soon as the nutriment leaves the stomach. There is also another tube leading directly from the liver, and which joins that of the gall bladder so that bile can pass directly from the liver into the intestine. The chief use of the bile, it is to be noted, is that of assisting to digest the fatty foods. These are broken down and emu!- sionised by the bile, and thus made specially for being absorbed into the blood. Some of its Troubles. Probahly the most common ailments in which the liver certainly participates are those which are summed up under the name biliousness." Here there seems to be represented an increased flow of bile, or, on the other hand, the bile secre- tion may be lessened in amount; in either case some disturbance of the digestive functions be'Pg .represented. It ig probably more fre- quently cafe the duties of the Itvwc. are interfered with in the direction of the I production of a lessened flow of bile than in the reverse direction. It can be understood that when the requisite quantity of bile is not I allowed to gain access to the food, digestion is interfered with, and it is more than probable a ^certain quantity of bile is absorbed into thEl blooq, giving rise thereby to further bodily disturbance. In cases in which the bile is deficient, the undigested matters of tljp intes- tine are of light colour, or at least much lighter than is normal and usual, whilst the skin is apt to exhibit a dry appearance constipation will be present, and the tongue very much coated. Treatment. Where a deficiency of bile exists as indicated by the symptoms just noted, no better remedy can be found than the old-fashioned plan of gi ving a dose for an adult of two or three grains of calomel. This should be taken at night, being placed on the tongue and swal- lowed with a gulp of water and in the morning should be followed by the taking of a strong seidlitz powder or other form of saline aperient. Other remedies of use are found m enoymin and iridin. These substances are cohtained in the useful form of tabloids, such as can be procured from any chemis.t the average dose being two taken at night, the saline aperient being taken in the morning. The diet in liver troubles should be of a farinaceous kind, and butcher's meat should be avoided. It is a safe rule to assume that in the vast majority of liver troubles the diet which will be found most suitable is that most closely represented by one, the elements of which are largely drawn from the vegetable kingdom. In a future article I will return to the consideration of liver troubles and discuss amongst them that common symp. torn we term jaundice. Goitre. This week I have been asked a question regarding the disease known as goitre. This disease is represented by a swelling of a gland in the neck known as the thyroid gland. The disease is commonly believed to be caused by the patient drinking water of too hard a des- cription, and, as the di."Iea8e is common in hard water districts, the removal from such a dis- trict is necessary for the cure of goitre, whilst physicians are accustomed to administer iodide of potash in a dose varying from five to ten grains three times per day as a remedy. Where bloodlessness exists, iron is also given in large doses. The local application most in favour is aliniment formed of equal parts of the liniment of iodine and the tincture of iodine. This is applied daily to the swelling. A disease of this kind, it need hardly be remarked, is one which can only be perfectly treated under the super- vision of the medical man.
f Andrew Fletcher, of Saltoan, in a letter to the Marquia of Montrose wrote ;1 know a very wiM man that believed that if a man wer permitted ti make all the ballads be need not care who should make the lawa of the nation."
THE BACHELOR'S CHILD. He tosses her above his bead. He romps until his face is red, He hold's her arm's length just to see The wonder of her witchery He talks in language soft and slow That only little babies know. He pauses now and then to gaze Far off as if 'twere in a maze, And then with sudden sigh and start He presses her unto his heaii. He sfts her highness on his knees And hums her nursery melodies. He shakes her rattle, jingles bells. And, 0, such wondrous stories telbr; Hcliftrher little face to lay Its softness in his own, and play Her dimples,were the deeps wherein A thousand drops of dewhad been. And with his lips upon the brink He.d lean to them to kiss and drink. He lets her sink upon his breast, He sings her little lays of rest. And when her little eyes are closed And all her baby grace reposed, He sits beside her little cot Thinking of things so long forgot, So far adown the long ago Where from the tender echoes flow Of songs he heard, of gay love-rhyme, On lips whose roses fade betime. Be still-the shadows fill his room A wrinkled lonely bachelor's doom To yearn for things that passed him by, To hold the memory of a sigh, To glimpse the shadow of a face Once sunbright with its girlish grace. To toss in play and sing to sleep. When all the lonely shadows creep And o'er bis heart a figure gleams— The little baby of his dreams —Baltimore-Sun,
Mamma: What makes you so late from school, dear 7-Maudie (aged six): Why, mamma, Toysell's window, chuck full of Christmas things, is built out clear across the sidewalk. I couldn't get past. Do you know," said a clerk in the Post Office. that we handle hundreds of letters every day at this time of the year addressed to St. Nicholas and Santa Claus ? It is true, and some of the letters would make your heart go straight oat to the little ones who write thesou."
Fashion and Things Feminine. By MISS IDA MELLER. A Pelisse Costume. One of the sartorial successes of the winter is the pelisse, which tailors have unanimously adopted for their clients. It is charming in face-cloth, in frieze or velvet, and is a pretty change from the more ordinary coat. In the case of a velvet pelisse costume, the upper part of the skirt is sometimes of sateen, concealed, of course, beneath the skirt of the pelisse, which reaches to within a few inches of the ground, and falls upon a deep hem of velvet. Costumes so made are naturally suitable for outdoor wear solely the skirts cannot be used without the pelisses, and the latter must be securely fas- tened from the waist downwards, to avoid all risk of a display of sateen. The simple but smart pelisse costume sketched is of dark green and blue tartan, with a round collar and up- turned cuffs faced with plain green cloth, bordered with black silk braid. The belt is also of green cloth, and to this both the bodice and skirt of the pelisse are attached. The same design carried out in violet Jrieze is very smart- and becoming. The tailor made coat and skirt costumes are apparently very simple this season, but simple effects are often deceptive. and really the utmost skill is required to bring about success to the plain untrimmed gown. In Paris, princess dresses are still beloved, and these in cloth, with perfect fitting-bodices, slightly draped, are charming. The drapery starts at the bust, and. by the skill of the cutter, swathes the waist in the form of a corselet, and finally merges into the skirt, which flows out in graceful folds at the back. Empire effects are much encouraged in Paris, chiefly on evening dresses, but also on cloth eoats. The Empire wreath and garland are favourite designs for garnitures of various sorts, and Empire head-dresses consisting of bandeaux of black twisted tulle with paradise plumes or of gold tissue and ostrich feathers, are much seen in Paris theatres and ball-rooms A glint of gold tissue or braid on hats and waistcoats is significant of a favourite vogue and a new note has been struck this winter by the introduction of platinum braids and other fabrics, and platinum buttons and belts. Millinery of the Moment. Eccentricity is the keynote of modern mil- linery, some of the daintiest little hats of the moment being those of draped felt, inclined to boat-shaped, but posed on the head in a-dirèct slant, so that the point takes its place, not in the centre-front, but in a line with the right or left eye-brow. The hat iff then built out wife draperies of ribbon, velvet, or tulle, to yield the requisite width, and, of course, the hair is ade- quately fluffed out to form a becoming frame to the face, and support the hat prettily. So ab- surdly diminutive are some of the more exag- gerated hats that nothing more than a big bird or a full-blown flower is perceptible at a short distance for the hat, such as it is, becomes submerged by the coiffure and is scarcely as large as its trimming. There is much art in posing a hat on the head in these days of bouf- fantc coiffure and tilted millinery. Unless the bat is adjusted at exactly the right &ngle, it misses the mark of smartness. One of the most popular pieces of millinery is the mushroom hat, the brim of which is now closer to the head than formerly. The pretty mushroom hat sketched is a simple, charming style for a young girl. It 1 is carried out in black velvet, fwith 'forget-me- not ribbon bows at each side and a band of similar ribbon running round the base of the crown. The addition of strings tied under the chin is sometimes preferred with mushroom hats and others whereof the brim turns downwards. It is a fashion, by the way, constantly followed by the Duchess of Westminster. Another popu- lar hat is the low-crowned sailor, or soft felt or velvet with a bunch of quills at the left side. The grape mania still holds on, the crowns of picture hats being smothered beneath bunches of grapes of various colours, and toques of fashion also bear the fruits of the vine for their decoration. Happily, there seems to be a falling off in the adoption of ospreys. their place being effectively taken by pheasants' feathers and marabout plumes. Coque feathers are also very much to the fore. and are dyed, like phea- sants' feathers, to all sorts of deep,rich colours. They are inexpensive and capital substitutes for ostrich feathers. Cold Weather Hints in the Nursery. Little children spend a good deal of time on too floor; therefore, great care should be taken by those in charge to shut out, as much as possible, draughts from between the boards and under the door of the nursery. A curtain hung over the door and of length sufficient to rest upon the ground for an inch is a great protec- tion. The nursery windows should fit well, for the delights of looking out are great. Draughts, therefore, from the sash must be rigidly excluded if children are to be saved from cold-catching. The vest is really the most important garment that a child wears. It should be long and pro- tective. When a vest shrinks in washing, or is outgrown, it should be lengthened at. once if the child is still to wear it, for a change of length might very likety cause a chill. Soothing for Coughs. A simple toffee that is soothing for coughs and delicious to the palate is made in the fol- lowing way. Take half a pound of Demerara sugar, one ounce of butter, one tablespoonful of treacle, and one teaspoonful of ipecacuanha wine. Mix the sugar, butter, and treacle to. gether, and boil them slowly for half an hour. Then add the wine, and pour the mixture on to a greased plate to cooL A Substitute for creaml- An excellent substitute for cream in tea is a new-laid egg. Beat up the egar in a basin, and then gradually pour over it boiling tea, taking care that the egg does not curdle. It is difficult, from the taste of the beverage, to distinguish the composition from tea and cream. Baked Macaroni and Cheese. One of the most popular savouries is macaroni cheese, and a good recipe is as follows :—Fill a small pie-dish with macaroni, cover the latter with cold water, and pour this off after the macaroni has soaked for an hour. Then boil it in milk for an hour, after which drain it Grate some good cheese very fine, butter a baking dish and sprinkle in some of the cheese, add some small pieces of butter, a little pepper and salt, macaroni, and so oil, jmtil the dish is full, putting cheese on last, flrifn bits of butter. Then put the baking dish into a fairly hot oven till the macaroni is brown. From twenty minutes to half-an-hour will probably be the time required for baking. This delicious dish is nice for high teas.
I do not wish you to see him any more." rm glad of that, papa, for I could not pos siblv do it; hecomcs l seven nighta a week now."
I WELSH GLEANINGS. I News and Views in Lighter Vein. Principal Roberts, of Aberystwyth, has boon spending Christmas with Lord Rendel at his villa in the south of France. There are in Wales at least two lady-poeta who are the proud possessors of bardic chain won in open competition at Eisteddfodao. One is Cranogwen, who captured the chair offered at the Aberayron Eisteddfod in 1833, the sub' ject being the Wreck of the North Fleet." The other lady is Catrin o Fon, who last week won the chair at the PenrhivrceiJber Eisteddfod# the subject being Beginning.at Jerusalem" A Welsh Society has been formed at Aber- ystwyth. One argument adduced in favour of its formation was that the Welsh element had been of great benefit to Cardiff, and their privi- lege (at Aberystwyth) ought to be to give Welshmen more backbone." Among the speakers was the Rev. R. J. Sees, formerly of Cardiff, who spoke of his experience while residing in the Welsh capital. Cardiff," he said, was English to a large extent, but it was surprising how it had benefited by the efforts of a few waj-m-beartei- enthusiastic Welshmen doting the past twenty years." About 96 per cent, of the successful candi- dates from the Tregaron County School, at the examination for the senior certificate of the Central Welsh Board (matriculation stage) passed in Welsh. At the annual school concert this month, a drama was played composed by a member of the staff descriptive of WeIeh national life 150 years ago. The concluding words of the headmaster's report were: I have no hesitation in saying that I cannot be- lieve any pupil will leave this school, as long aa I am Head, who will fail to be an ardent Welsh patriot." A novel innovation in instrumental urasie was initiated by Mr Haydn Gunter, the Welsh violinist, at a concert held at Porth on Boxing Day. Pianoforte accomraniment to soli on the violin we are all acquainted with, but Mr Ganger rendered several difficult pieces his favourite instrument with full brass hand ac- companiment, his selections including the" Air Vare by Vieuxtemps, and a nocturne by Chopin. Tae experiment was a decided success from the point of view both of player and audience, both pieces being enthusiastically encored. The band parts were arranged by Mr G. F. Martyn, the bandmaster; and experts who beard the performance believe that this idea of brass accompaniment to string solo will catch on. A Second George Borrow. Probably Lafcadlo Hearn, the great writer of books, dealing with Japan, will come to rank with George Borrow as one of the famous vaga- bonds of Hteratare-ita wanderings scholars* Hip Life and Letters," two volumes, 24s net. which Messrs Constable announce for this month, will make towards this. He was born in the Ionian Islands, of Irish and Greek parentage, he lived for years in Wales, and ha died a subject of the Mikado, Lord Dunraven as Author. Glamorganshire politicians will be to know that Lord Dunraven's book on Ireland will probably be ready during the current month, the publisher being John Murrav. It is entitled The Outlook in Ireland," and in the words of the sub-title, gives the case for de- volution and conciliation." Lord Dunraven's views on the Irish question are well enOQgh known, but here he sets them out in detail* MIll naturally importance attaches to the book. Too Good to be True. Y Genedl suggests the name cf Land Stanley of Alderiey the successor of Mr Birrell, M.P., as Minister of Ed tic. ior in the event of the latter being moved up in coming re-arrangement of the Cabinet. Lord Stanley is certainly one of the most clear- headed and popular educationists of the day. and as chairman of the London School Board had an excellent training in educational ad- ministration. •• If the rumour proves true, adds Y Genedl," the clergy of Anglesey wiU be delighted." Lord Stanley is the chairman the Anglesey Education Authority. The Ups and Downs of Life. No sadder case," writes a correspondent, has come under my notice daring the merri- ments and rejoicings of Christmas time than that of the illness, and almost sudden death, of Mr Davies, one of the employees of Messrs R. T. Jones and Co., of Merthyr. A few years ago he was one of the leading tradesmen of New- port, Pembrokeshire, and so much respected that he was chosen for the position of Mayor of that ancient borough, a post he held with honour. Then his fortunes changed; from no fault of his own, but due principally to increased rivalry in trade, and possibly, the opposition Of younger and more energetic men his own business declined, and he sought em- ployment in the greater population of the iron works. There eventually his health failed, and after a brief illness he has passed away a» unobtrusively as he had lived. With aU whr came in contact with him, he was much 1" for his gentleness and his courtesy- Onlv <:c few ware aware of his former position, for seemed to have accepted the reverses as he had generally enjoyed the favours of life." The Church Commission. The "Liberator" in its January issaft remarks that it is not surprising that peonle in Wales are expressing their discontent at the manner In which the inquiry of tlie Welshk Church Commission is proceeding. At the present rate of progress," it continues, the report seems relegated to the dim and distant future but we are confident that this was not the intention of the Prime Minister when the Commission was appointed. The Commission may go on for years examining witnesses on both sides from various towns and parishes. Its proper business is to ascertain whether or no the Anglican Church in; Wales is the Church of the majority of the Welsh people. The answer to that inquiry is a foregone con- elusion, seeing that the Anglican Church in Wales is too weak to secure a single represen- tative from the Principality in the House of Commons. The results of predominant Non- conformity in Wales are to be found in the official criminal statistics, which show that the counties in-which Nonconformity is strongest are the most free from crime. An hoar's study of the criminal statistics by the Commission is worth the evidence of a hundred local wit- nesses. The relations of the Anglican clergy and Nonconformist ministers in Wales are really irrelevant to the issue. As to the nature and value M the en. dowments sufficient evidence was in exist- ence before the Commission was appointed. We cannot waste our space upon peddler evidence on one side or the other which does not affect the broad issues at stake. the only apparent result of which is to fritter away time." ————
Too Smart. When does the next train that stops at Petcrton leave here asked the resolute widow at the booking-office window. "You'll have to wait four hours." ropMeJ the clerk. I think not." Well. perhaps you know "better than I do, ma'am ?" Yes, and perhaps you knovr better than I do whether I am going to travel in that train myself or whether I am inquiring for a relative that's visiting me at my house, and wanted me to call here and ask ^bout it and save her the trouble, because she's packing up her things and expects to take that train herself and not me, and she'll have to do the waiting and not me and perhaps you think it's your business to stand there and try to instruct peop e about things they know as weL1 as you do. if not better and, perhaps, you 11 Jearn some day t<r give people civil answers when they ask you civil questions but my opinion is you won't." And she swept away, foaving the clerk in a state of eollapse. Jenkins I am told that the happiest mar- riages are between people who are exactly opposite in every respect to each other so I am looking for a young lady of that sort. don't you know.—Miss Smart: Then you have come to the right place. Come to the other side of the room and I'Jl introduce yen to a brfgbtr intelligent, well-ed "ated girl."