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.-Alliance for Mutual Defence.

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Alliance for Mutual Defence. "OTECTION OF THE INDIAN FRONTIER .i THE OPEN DOOR IN THE' FAR EAST. Japan's Supremacy in Korea. BRITISH MESSAGE TO RUSSIA. The Foreign Office issued an Tuesday night the text of the new Anglo-Japanese Treaty. 1 It is as follows Agreefhent between the United Kingdom and Japan, signed at London, Auguat i2.a, 1905. PREAMBLE. I The Governments of Great Britain and Japan being desirous of replacing the agreement con- cluded between them on the 13th January, 19C2, by fresh stipulations, have agreed apon the following articles, which have for their object :— (a) The consolidation and maintenance of the general peace in the regions of Eastern Asia and 1)f India. (b) The preservation of the common interests of all the Powers in China by insuring the inde- peadance and integrity of the Chinese Empire, and the principle of equal opportunities for the ,commerce and industry of ail nations in China. (c) The maintenance of the territorial rights of the high contracting parties in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India, and the defence of 'their special interests in the said~regions. ARTICLE ONE. It is agreed that whenever, in the opinion of either Great Britain or Japan, any of the rightaand interests referred to in the preamble of this agreement are in jeopardy, the two Governments will communicate with one another fully and frankly, and will consider in coramon the messares which shoald be taken to safeguard those menaced rights or interests. ARTICLE TWO. If by a reason of unprovoked attack of aggressive action, wherever arising, on the part of any other Power or Powers either con- tracting party should be involved in war in defencoofits territorial rights or special interests mentioned in the preamble of this agreement the other contracting Power will at once come to the aaaistaoca of its ally and will > conduct the war in coaamon and make peace in mutual agreement with it. ARTICLE THREE. Japan possessing paramount political, mili- tary and economic interests In Korea, Great Britain recognises the right of Japau to take much measures of gadsnce. control, and pro- tection in Korea as she may deem proper and necessary to safeguard and advance those interests, provided always that each measnres are not contrary to the principle of eqnal oppor- tunities for commirfce and icdcstry of all nations. ARTICLE FOUR. Great Britain hating a special interest in all that coucerns the security of the Indian fron- tier, Japan recog mines her right to take Buch measures in the proximity of that frontier as .be may find oecesury for safeguarding her Indian posaewi ons. ARTICLE FIVE. The bigh contracting parties agree that inei-ther oft herd will, without consulting the amer, enter into separate arrangements with ..another Power to the prejudice of the objects described in the preamble of this agreement. ARTICLE SIX. An regards the present war between Japan and Russia, Jreat Britain will continue to maintain strict neutrality unless some other v Power or Powers should join in hostilities agains&Japan,in which case Great Britain will come to the assistance of Japan, and will wnduct the war in common, and make peace in matoal agreement with Japan. ARTICLE SEVEN. Bwccnditions under which armed resist- ance shall be afforded by either Power to the other in the circumstances mentioned in the present agreement, and the means by which such assistance is to, be made available, will be arranged by the naval and military authori- ties of the contracting parties, vvho "111, hom time to time, console one another fully and freely upon a'l.qaestions of mntual interest. ARTICLE EIGHT. The present agreement shall, subject to the provisions of Article VI., come into effect immediately after the d!\ta of its signature, and remain in foice for ten yeara from that date. In case neither of the high contracting parties ^lioald have notiifed 12 months before the axpi- .Xfttion of the said tea years the intention of ter- 'xuBatingit, it shall remain binding until the -ytXfiiiatioa of one year frota the day on "bjcb either of the high contracting parties shall have denounced it but if when the date fixed, for its 'expiration arrives either allay in actually engaged. in war the'alliancesball ipso facto continue until peace is concluded. In faith whereof the undsrsigaed, daly authorised by their respective Governments, have signed tbia agreement and have affixed thereto tbeir seals. Done in duplicate at London, the 12th day of jaugues, 1905. LANSDOWNE. Bia Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary 01 State for Foreign Affairs t, -TADASU HAYASHI, [ Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- tiary of his Majesty the Emperor of Japan at the Court of St. James's British Message to Russia. Accompanying the treaty the Foreign Office Aitaacd the following d espa te b, forwarded by Lord jpjansdowne to Sir C. Hardinge, the British 'Ambassador at St. Petersburg — I I Foreign Office, September 6,1905. ",8ir,-I enclose for vaar Excellency's infor- caution a copy of a new agreement concluded be. tween ELM. Government and that of Japan in substitution for that of the 30th Jannary. 1902. .You will take an early opportunity of eom- imunicating the new agreement to the Russian Government, It was signed on the 12th August, and you will explain that it wonld have been immedi- ately made public bat for the fact that negotia- tions bad at that time already commenced be. tween Russia and Japan) and that the publica- tion of such a document whilst those negotia- tions ware atillin progress would obviously have been improper and inopportune. The Russian Government will, I trust, jMcosnise that the new agreement is 801) inter- national instrument to which no exception can retaken by any of the Powers interested in the affairs of the Far East. "Yoa should call special attentioo to the 1bject. mentioned in the preamble as those by "Wbich the policy of the contracting parties is inspired. 4. His Majesty's Government believe that they i may connt upon the goodwill and support of all ,the Powers in endeavouring to maintain peace-in 'Eastern Asia, and in seeking to uphold the in- tegrity and independence of the Chinese Empira, and the principle ot equal opportunities for the icommerce and industry of all nations in that -country. On the other hand, the special interests of *he contracting parties are of a L-ind-npon which they are fully entitled to insist, and the f-,announcernent that those interests must be sale- guarded is one which can create no surprise, and used give rise to no misgivings. I call your especial attention to the wording Of Article II., which lays down distinctly that it Is only ia the ease of an unprovoked attack made pen one of the contracting parties by itnothor Power or Powers, and when that party is de- fending its territorial rights and special inter- ests from aggressive action, that the other party Is boand to corns to its assistance. Article III., dealing with the question of- .Korea, is dsserving of especial attention. It 'recognises in the clearest terms tha paramount "postiion which Japan at this moment occupies, and must henceforth occupy, in Korea, and her > right to take any measures which she may find 'necessary for the protection of her political, mili- itary, and economic interests in that country. It .38, however, expressly provided that such Vneasures must not be contrary to the principle ,Iof eqnsi opportunities for the commerce and Hndaltry of other nations. yi The new treaty DO doabt differs at this point (conllpicaollsJy from that of 1902. It has, how- ever, become evident that Korea, owing to its (cJose proximity to the Japanese Empire and its Inability to stand alone, mast fall under the con- f trol and tutelage of Japan. His Majesty's f Government observe with satisfaction that this part was readily conceded by Russia in the ,ILreaty of vaaee recently concluded with Japan, fieud they have every reason to believe that "similar views are held b7 other Powers with |xegas4 -he relations which should subsist (between Japan and Korea. Jlii Majesty's Government ventures to ^anticipate that the alliance just concluded, f designed as it is with objects which are purely VOICeful and for the protection of rights and interelt. tbs validity of which cannot be con- f cuted, will be regarded with approval by the 5Government to which yon are accredited. They are justified in believing that its cen- jtelnsion may not have been without effect in /facilitating tha settlement by which the war nas f been so happily brought to an end, and they earnestly trust that it may for many years to come be instrumental in securing the peace of the world in thcae regions which come within fitiacope. I am, Ac., (Signed) LANSDOWNE." (Signed) LANSDOWNE." •^RitilWHar 3aspatch was addressed to his Ambassador in Paris.

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