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MUSICAND MUSICIANS OUR GREAT MASTERS FOR SEPTEMBER. BY DR JOSEPH PARRY, University College, Cardiff. Meyerbeer. —September the 5th, 1794, waa born the gifted and prolific Jacob Meyerbeer. He died on May the 2nd, 1864, in Paris. He wrote operas. Jephtha's Daughter, The Two Caliphs, Jtomilda, Semiramide, Margherita. These matured his powers for his Robert le Didble, 1831; Lts Huguenots, 1836 EEtoile du Nord, 1854 Le Prophete, 1849 Dinorah, 1659 L' .4.fricaine, 1864. Rossini was his strongest rival. Most of these operas were written for the Parisian stage. Being a man of means,hespent most his of money in the thorough mounting of his operas. Louis Kohlcr, the eminent critic and educa- tional composer, was also born on this date in the year 1820. He is the modern Czerny; and all our young students and teaohers would do well to become thoroughly conversant with his numerous and excellent pianoforte studies. September 6th was born DiabeUi in 1781 (died April 7th 1838); he was a fine composer; also Pokl. Haydn's great biographer, in 1819, at Darmstadt. September 8th, 1841, was born in Bohemia, one of the world's greatest composers, Anton Dvorak. Ho was very poor, yet his genius has brought him to fame and wealth. His Stabat Mater and his latest works have secured him a seat among the greatest living composers. Sept. 10th, 1714, died August 28th, 1774, are the dates of the birth and death of Nicolo Tomelli, a celebrated composer of dramatic and sacred works, his Requiem and Miserere being, perhaps, his best. Mozart said of him, He had a path of his own in which he shines." Sept. 11th, 1785, died 12th March, 1832, were the dates of HvZUih, a meritorious-composer. Hrvnslick, Germany's greatest critic and author, was also born on Sept lith, 1825, at Prague. Michael Haydn, Joseph Haydn's brother, was born on Sept. 14th, 1735 died 10th August, 1808. The great Gherubini was born also on Sept. 14th, 1760; died 13th March, 1842, at Paris. He was truly a great scholar, and a oomposer of most beautiful music, both opera and masses. His Lodoiski, 1791, The Water Carrier, 1800, Medea, Anacreon, &c., are fine works. His Masses in D minor, Requiem in C minor, 1810, are also most dignified and impressive. Born September 17th, 1767, died 1844, Mer- cadante, another fine composer. Many of his operas were highly successful. Born September 25th, 1683, died September 12th, 1764, the great French theorist and dramatic composer, J. P. llaJmeatt. The profound Bach thought highly of this master. His suites led Bach and Handel to theirs. We would strongly recommend our young students to become familiar with his works. On September 30th, 1840, was bom the talented national Norwegian composer, J. Svensden. His mind is highly coloured in nationalism. It is warm, fiory, and very beautiful. JPr Stanford was also born on September 30, 1852, at Dublin. He is an able Professor at the Royal College of Music, London, is a learned composer of operas, also of sacred and orchestral music. To all you young musicians of our country, study, hear. and become conversant with the history, works, and styles of the past and present masters of our art; the chief aim and desire of these brief sketches are to stimulate you in that direction. THK CARDIFF MUSICAL FESTIVAL. Words are feeble to express my joy over the many letters which have appeared in the Echo and Daily News during the past days only, and which convey the general feeling in favour of ft grand festival for South Wales. For years have we shown that this is the present growing want of Wales to unita and raise the tone of art. Cardiff ia beyond doubt the place to hold such a festival. Even Leeds get. voices and instruments from Huddersfield and other Yorkshire centres. So do our three choir festivals. This year 80 voices came from Leeds. So the policy of our festival should be more than the purely and simply local. If Cardiff had superior voiees to those among our hills and valleys, then argument and eloquence would indeed be needless and fruitless. However, the festival must be held, and whatever the best and surest means may be to secure it, those only should be adopted. Whatever the best may be, our desire and aim shall be that way only. Before these lines will have appeared, our first meeting, fixed for laat Wednesday, the 30th ult., will have been held and let us hope that all those present will have found the way, and that way harmoniously and unanimously adopted, so as to get a festival next year, say about October, 1892. So mote it be is the wish of all true musicians. r-ir
She Sealskins are becoming, they ? He (fervently): Yes, they are becoming rarer, thank heaven The late lamented Lady Dover was one of the wittiest of her sex. One day the conversation happened to turn on Scotland and the Scotch people. Lady E told her ladyship that she never knew a Scotchman who was not wedded to his country. They make very fashionable hus- bands, then," said Lady Dover, "for I never knew one that did not run away from his wife." JVfaid "You got home early, Mr Binks. Shall I call Mrs Binks f—Mr Binks (who loves a joke): Don't tell her I am here. Just say a gentleaptn wishes to see her in the parlour." | I'mirwid you'd gwt tired." Tired 4rt''Yee, sir. She'd spend 'bout two hours, mahin' hereelf pretty."
Current Notes on Agriculture. By a Practical Farmer. SHARP PRACTICE IN LAND. It would be rather inconsistent with honesty, and would not be tolerated in any business tran- saction, for one party in any transaction to de- mand and to forcibly take from the other more than was originally agreed upon without an equivalent being given. I said this would not be tolerated in any business. I am wrong. An exception must be made, for in one business, how- ever dishonest the practice may be, it is one of common occurrence. It is, indeed, more often the rule than the exception. In land taking many if not the majority of tenant farmers have unhappily experienced this. When taking a farm the farmer on his part agrees to pay for the use of such land a certain amount yearly to the owner, also to pay other amounts, which are also rent, in the shape of tithe, rates, and taxes. For this he has the exclusive right to the land in conformity with good farming. This is the general original verbal agreement between landlord and tenant. By the time the tenant has taken possession, and gone too far to retreat, a written agreement is produced which he is requested to sign, and which upon perusal he finds out to differ materially from the original one. In the written bond he has to do a lot of other things besides paying the rent, &c. This onetipulates that the landlord can stock the land also, and that the tenant must not, upon any account, disturb or interfere with his landlord's stock, even though they feed off corn sown by the tenant, and to see that there be no transgression of this stipulation, a man or men are paid to watch and report, and woe betide the tenant who falls under the displeasure of these spies. In this agreement there are stipulations which greatly increase the tenant's liabilities to his landlord, as well as decreasing the value of the holding. It will be said that any man would be foolish to sign such an agreement. On the face of it this appears plausible enough, but when the state of the facts are considered, it will be seen that two evils face the man placed in such position. On refusal to sign he is threatened with notice to quit. He has then the choice of two evils, signing or leaving. Ordinary householders find it both expensive and troublesome to remove from one house to another, but this is not to be compared to the worry and loss entailed on a farmer in leaving his holding, and it requires stern stuff in the man to withstand the unprin- cipled imposition to which I have referred. The majority give in before going to extremities. Yet there are some who, rather than put up with the injustice of singing these one-sided agreements, prefer to face the alternative that is allowing their landlords to oust them out of the farms. One such instance has just Cume under my notice. The tenant had taken his farm about three years ago, the verbal and original agreement being sub- stantially similar to the above. In about 18 months afterwards some reference was made to him about signing an agreement, and soon after- wards it was produced, with the result that the tenant flatly refused to sign on seeing the contents. The refusal resulted in his being served with notice to quit. After this notice was served the landlord appeared more affable than he had been for some time, and before half the term of the notice had expired the relations between them had become quite pleasant, till the tenant had been deluded into the belief that there would have been no further allusion to either the notice or the agreement, and consequently made no preparations for the future in case his landlord adhered to what he had threatened. But a month or six weeks ago the matter was brought forward again, and the tenant was given his choice to sign or to leave at the termination of the notice. The latter alternative was chosen, although a great deal of sacrifice had to be made, be having no other farm in view. The farmer bad to sell all his stock and crops, which in a year like the present, when stock are selling so low, meant much loss. If this agreement bad been shown when the tenant treated about the holding, he would never have taken the farm, and in common honesty it should have been shown then. This sharp practice on the part of the landlords is discreditable in the extreme to them. If a written agreement is required between the parties, it should be drawn out and signed before the tenant has taken possession. It should be done within, say, 14 days after the verbal agreement had been made, and then a tenant would have the option of signing it or not, without being put to great pecuniary loss through refusal. A Remarkable Cow. The Jersey Bulletin gives the following account of the feeding of the American Jersey cow, Bisson's Belle, which has lately eclipsed all past records. She made in one year 1,028 Ibs 15 5-8ozs of butter. Bisson's Belle 31,144 was on light feed just after calving in May, 1890, and gave as high as 441b of milk per day, only 21b 4oz of butter. This feed was gradually increased, and she was kept on a feed of three gallons of grain a day for about five weeks, and then fed strong imme- diately in front of starting her test, so that when the test started she had four gallons of corn meal and two gallons of bran a day divided in two feeds. The week following five gallons of corn meal and two of bran, then reduced to four gallons of corn meal and two of bran, divided in two feeds, or two gallons of corn meal. one of bran at a feed. Sometimes this was increased and decreased according to judgment, sometimes instead of bran she had oats. When she had oats it was ground with corn. Sometimes oats and corn ground half and half, and fed four gallons of this with one-half gallon extra of corn meal. Sometimes she waa cooled out, in fact very generally once in ten days, when she got a Ballon of wet bran at a feed and nothing else. This was to sustain the appetite and prevent her from getting stale. Sometimes she missed several feeds; this would allow her to decrease, but she was so generally under feed that she responded rapidly to a change of food. The Weather and the Crops. The Marh-lane Express of Monday says The weather of the past week in London has been unsettled, but in the main seasonable. English wheat on Saturday was on good offer, and presented a great variety. Both quality and condition were poor at the chief western and north-western markets, but some improvement in condition was reported from the districts lying on the eastern seaboard. From Alnwick to the mouth of the Thames, Norwich, Newcastle, Northampton, and Wisbech were Is dearer on the week. At Canterbury some good new wheat made 40s to 42s per qr., but the bulk of offerings commanded only 34s to 36s. Foreign wheat has become steadier. The spring corn trade shows that at two dozen leading markets, from the 18th to the 25th, barley was strong at six, oats at nine, and maize at two. On the 26th barley was quiet at Canterbury, firm at Norwich, and unchanged elsewhere. Oats made up to 25s at Newcastle for old crop, and some new crop, weighing 3361bs., ym On th$pther band, ut Cork there were plenty of oats at 15s. Maize was 6d cheaper at Winchester and Is lower at Newcastle.
FOR THE HOUSEWIFE. Sellers complain of a languid trade in poultry, Th8 supplies are large and excellent. Plover, widgeon, and teal are cheap. Young grouse fetch good prices. Wild ducks and woodcocks are by no means expensive. Hares are verygood.and venison excellent. Cod, mackerel, and whiting are the cheapest kinds offish just now; soles, brill, andtur- bot continuing to be expensive. The vegetable mar- ket is running over with richness and variety, English tomatoesarecheap and delicious, especially when obtainable freshly gathered. Cucumber and salads are also cheap. Peas, scarlet beans, Frecb beans, marrows, cabbages, broccoli, turnips, carrots, celery, and horseradish are all obtamable. Fruit continues to be very plentiful and cheap, though prices will probably rise next week. Plums, damsons, apples, and William pears are all very abundant. Grapes are cheap. Greengages are getting scarce, and their price has risen, The French cobnuts are excellent. The English are not in yet. English melons fetch double the pnce of those from Guernsey. English Victona plums are now at their best.
Loving Wife You have no idea how well Mrs Spenditall looks in her new bonnet, dear.— Thoughtful Husband: She does not look as well m it as you do in your old one.—By this simple but neat remark the "Thoughtful Hus- band was enabled to go to the races and lose thirty dollars with the comfortable belief that he had quit even. AN OLD CHILD.—Habitual drunkard (at the police-court): "1 trust your honour will excuse me thiatome. It is my misfortune. I anl a child of genius." Magistrate: "And what is your age r H. D. Forty-two years." Magistrate; Then is time you were weaned. Youll have dD do fourteen daw away from the bottle."
Musical and Eisteddvod Notes. BY MAELGWYN. TO CHICAGO. The Dowlais Harmonic Society seem defter mined to take part in the chief choral competi- tion at the great International Eisteddvod at Chicago in 1893. The fact that an exDenses fund of something like £5,000 will have to be raised does not by any means act as a deterrent to them. It is the intention, I learn, to call a meeting of the choir for some early date, at which a number of outsiders will be asked to co-operate with the choir in all financial and general matters. Up to the present only a skeleton programme has been drawn out. It is almost certain that the choir, as a whole, will be engaged to give one or more concerts at a populous Welsh centre at Christmas, after which the rehearsal of Mr Jenkins' oratorio, David and Saul, will be commenced in real earnest. This work has only once been per- formed in its entirety, and its representation by such a celebrated choir as the Dowlais Harmonie Society is sure to be attended with great success. As soon as this work has been got out of the way, Dr Joseph Parry is to be approached on the subject of his new oratorio, The Travels of St. Paul. This work, which the doctor pronounces his best composition, will be performed for the first time at Rhyl during the National Eisteddvod week. The Dowlais Choir will ask the composer for permission to give the first representation of the oratorio in South Wales. Other works by Welsh composers will also be learned, but, so far, no arrangements have been made. Meanwhile eisteddvodic competitions are not to be neglected. Wherever a prize of £100 or up- wards is offered the ohoir will compete, provided that when an English adjudicator is selected he must be a choir leader. I hear on good authority that there will be a big eisteddvod neld on Boxing Day either in Merthyr or the Rhondda, but a.t present I am not allowed to say more. Later on thers will be eisteddvodau with chief prizes of JS100 each at Neath, Caerphilly, Aberdare, and Bridgend, to be followed by the National gather- ing at Rhyl. It is also likely that the big eistedd- vod about which I gave a few hints some months ago will be held in the Rhondda on the August Bank Holiday, or possibly earlier. The Dowlais choir will compete for every one of these prizes. In brief, the choir mean to work like the pro- verbial "new ones" from now until the summer of 1893, and then heigho for Chicago The Welsh in Wales will be worthily represented, and old Gwalia need not despair of securing that £1,000. Of course there are many who will laugh at the idea of 250 Cymric lads and lasses going to America and spending £5,000 in order to get £1,000, but there is something else besides £ s. d. in an eisteddvod competition. With most choirs it is as with Harry of Monmouth—" By Jove, I am not covetous for gold but if it be a sin to covet honour, I am the most offending soul alive." And the Dowlais people do most certainly covet the honour of winning the chief prize at the greatest eisteddvod ever held. Tremendous energy will be displayed on every hand to carry out the gigantic undertaking— business qualifications in the committee df management and that dogged perseverance for which the Cymry are celebratoo that same perseverance in a peaceful cause, which, when aroused in war, enabled Caradoc ap Bran to keep back the legions of Imperial Rome for nine long years—that same perseverance, I say. will carry the Chicago project through to a successful igsuq Then, whatever else the Cymry may forget, they will remember Chicago a.nd (once more in the words of Harry of Monmouth)" stand a tip-toe when this day is named." This undertaking of the Dowlais Harmonic Society—the invinciblee as they were erstwhile styled-is, without doubt, the most important musical event of the present time, and this must be my excuse for dwelling upon it at such length THE MUSICAL FESTIVAL. These notes are being written before the meet- ing at Cardiff on Wednesday has taken place. I take it that everybody is glad that at last a strenuous effort is being made to hold a festival in Wales similar to those already held at Bir. mingham, Leeds, Chester, Norwich, Bristol, and other places. But personally I do not approve of the suggestion that the festival should be held regularly at Cardiff. Cardiff, although it is the outlet of the great iron and coal industriee of Wales, cannot be seriously regarded as anything like a centre for the people of Wales, and to hold the festival there regularly would to a great extent rob it of its usefulness to the majority of our countrymen. The festival, if it is to be a South Wales meeting; and not a purely local one. must be held in other towns besides Cardiff. Swansea is certainly more Welsh in every respect than Cardiff. Why, then, slight Swansea ? The Rhondda teome with thousands of hard-working sons of Cambria, who look upon Cardiff as as English town. Why, then, fly in the face of the well grounded prejudices of the Rhondda men ? Mertbyr, too. should not be ignored, nor should Dowlais with its renowned choir; nor Llanelly, with its equally famous body of choristers. If the festival is to be a South Wales one, it cannot hope to be a representative one unless its choir contains a goodly number of singers from Dowlais, Llanelly, Swansea, and the Rhondda, and it certainly would not be right to ask the singers from these places to go to Cardiff regularly when there would be no hope of having their own towns honoured by the holding of the festival. I am well aware that there would be many difficulties in the way of holding the festival in different centres, but surely a properly constituted committee of busi- ness men would know how to overcome or at least to minimise them. NEW MUSIC. Messrs Metzler and Co., Great Marlborongh- street, W., have anticipated the approach of the festive season by publishing their Christmas Album for 1891." The book contains 10 copy. right dances by such well known com- posers as Bucalossi, Smallwood, Coote, C. H. R. Marriott, and others, and in addition there are a number of country dances, reels, jigs, &c. (piano solos, Is violin part, 6d.). From the same firm come several characteristic vocal pieces by Marion Stephen, entitled respectively "Sici- lian," "Dutch," "Japanese," and "Norse" lullabies. Lovers of quaint melodies will do well to secure these works. "One Wordis a simple but effective little love song, the grace- ful melody of which is sure to make it a favourite. Somwhat more ambi- tious is "The Way of Life," which is announced as having been expressly composed for Madame Belle Cole. "Osmunda" is a very pretty little intermezzo, innocent of any difficult passages. Another piano piece, Stmt bois is more difficult than it appears; it would make an excellent eiateddvod test piece. Among the new danees I may mention "Indian Sum- mer," waltz by Caroline Lowthian Beauty,' waltz by Bucalossi; and Beauty and the Beast,' lancers by the same composers. All three are ex- cellent, and are certain to be in great demand this season. The whole of Messrs Metzler's works are capitally printed, MISS CEINWKN JONES. The good people of the Mountain Ash district appear to be determined to give Miss Ceinwen Jones that musical education which can alOllf make her a star vocalist, notwithstanding the marvellous voice she possesses. A fund hae dJeady been opened for the purpose of sending Miss Jones to the Royal Academy. Among the contributors are Lord Aberdare, who sends fivf. guineas, and Messrs Pritchard Morgan and D. A. Thomas, the borough members of Parity- ment, who each send a guinea. Two grand miscellaneous concerts will be given this month, the first at Penrhiwceiber on the 19th, and tb. second at Mountain Ash on the following even- ing. Tickets are selling splendidly, and then seems every prospect of a crowded house on each occasion. Since her last and crowning victory at the National Eisteddvod, the brilliant contralto has been offered a practically unlimited number of engagements for oratorio, cantata, and miscel- laneous concerts. HIBWAIN EISTEDDVOD. The Hirwain Eisteddvod, which is to be held next Monday, promises to be a brilliant success. Com- petitors have entered in great numbers, and Mr R. C. Jenkins, the selected adjudicator, is likely to have a very hard day's work. The entries had not closed at the time of writing, but I learn that six or eight choirs will take part in the chief choral competition. Of these two will hail from Dowlais. The committee of the Eisteddvod have worked hard, and their efforts are, I teal MNfc about to be crowned with nnrmw. •
i WORKMEN'S TOPICS. BY MABON, M.P. I' 7 THE TRADES UNION CONGRESS. Q Jhe twenty-fourth annual Trades Union i is past and gone. We can now a comprehensive view of its proceedings of heI probable results. The significance '0 s like all other congresses, is that the rt .18 now ruled by public opinion. And H 8 the annual occasion on which the 'tfoig ,nfluential amongst working people of lab °°Untry n°t only give their views on Mi"11 ^uesti°ns, but also as to when the be framed with regard to them is ^Pini ^d" -^n<i this is done that the iurt 80 formulated may influence the Qete 1'al arrangements of the country and the kind of legislation to be asked Corf 18 very encouraging to find that the des,gres.s was so unanimous upon the to promote the interests of q! J^r,' this being the main object \P nnging the Congress into existence, gry trades unionist naturally would be the bere it more unanimous with regard to alfch means of effecting its ends; practically it was more unanimous jPoa this than the enemies thereof would » adnf-fUs believe. However, it must be saSili ^bat its chances of immediately **ying its objects would be better were th18 tnebers thereof more unanimous upon TVJ Point also. For influential as the *he 68 ^n*on Congress is,its decisions, even *t 10^ Unan^ous, are not carried out. And Und necessary therefore to pass the eg .solutions at congress after congress, "t>or2 y sucb questions as are very im- p Qt and requiring radical changes. As lUNClPLES UNANIMOUSLY ENDORSED. u ru^e' wben these great questions have titj.11 beiore the working people for some fcbe resolution thereon passed by one ^j ^ess is simply affirmed by another. lll0 a's a rule also they are carried unani- Ih with but little, or any discussion. Co118 lfc became a matter of course that this t^es* should unanimously pass a resolu- te tn ^avour paying members of Parlia- the an<^ fcbe returning officers' fees urging of the Employers' Liability act°ry Acts, the increase in labour tio T^tatives, the appointment of addi- inspectors, and that those should be *H(JCteC^ from among practical working men women, the reform of the jury system, ^he eligibility of workmen as jurors, that the Union rates of wages be paid for all work done for the bod.emment and subordinate governing g^les- that the law should be altered so as (lre the protection of seamen and fisher- 8lien'and that the qualification of enginemen fclWk be properly tested and certified. On oj j 68,6 resolutions,former resolutions, more ess modified were passed unanimously, P. THE EIGHT HOURS' QUESTION. Ve Wever' there are other questions—and 'mPortant ones, too—on which there '111 sted various opinions the foremost jj- °n8 these being the eight hours' question. J*rly one half of the time of the Congress *8 taken up with the discussion of this ter, which proved conclusively that it i the most important as well the most question before the Congress. The H^ds of the movement would have liked the course pursued respecting it had been 1^ttJewhat less tortuous and the conclusions j^ved at somewhat less contradictory. The 1 resolution, in harmony with what has < ^ei* passed at some of our international •^greases, expressed the opinion that the had arrived when the Government ."°ttld endeavour to bring about, in con- ation with all foreign Governments, an i ^national reduction in the hours of ur to eight per day. This was met another affirming that it was of pOsluble to establish a uniformity j*. hours without inflicting very serious J^lry upon those districts and countries f the national conditions were least J? durable for the procuring of subsistence. J0 a division the amendment was defeated •y a large majority. This was again fended by the addition of the words that n*8 Congress re-aflirms the decision of last 'S&r's Congress relative to the eight hours' jty-" So far, this last addition re-adjusted 11 e COnsistent equilibrium of the Congress ?ip°a the point. But when on the next day e Congress adopted, by 242 to 156, the ^•ndment That any Bill for the reduc- of the hours of labour should be of a remissive character, and should not be put reoperation without the consent of at least po-thirds of the organised members of any fade," it practically rescinded the resolu- '0l1 of the previous day, which re-affirmed of last year's Congress. But, this was not j V Our friend Mr Keir Hardie so altered the of the former resolution, which canned "thatthe Eight Hours' Bill should at be put in operation without the consent at least two-thirds of the organised mem- of any trade," that it was afterwards ^^ried upside down. He moved that it ^°uld be enforced, save when the majority the organised members shall protest by against its enforcement, and this was in carried by 041 to 73 and it was in jTla position that the general question of i) compulsory reduction of the hours of ^bour was left. This evidently shows that 6 ourselves have not yet arrived at a clear definite view on the subject. However, U? voting at the Congress clearly proves much, that there is among the workers ? the country a strong feeling that the of labour should be reduced, and that conviction is growing among them that be done by the action of the State. ?^ll the chances will and must be against paving it done until the men themselves "ball have agreed among themselves as to be manner in which it ought to be done. As might have been expected, the divi- -on. on the general question foretold what y?ok place on the miners' eight hours' ques- 7^' The number of members that voted on is resolution were much smaller, though effect of the voting was much the same, for and NO against. THE FACTORY ACTS. Another question on which 4here were 1ne division of opinion was that relating to be amendment of the Factory Acts of last Still I am exceedingly glad to find !jb*t the Congress, by a majority of nearly two ^one decided not to cease agitating till the Perations of this Act are extending to laun- dresses, domestic workshops, and all trades "tere womeu and children are employe4 to ee. the enforcement of proper medical ei- aRUnations, and to give the inspectors full PoWer to enforce ample air space for the porkers, and the cleanliness of the places Inspected. CHILD LABOUR—AGE LIMIT. But above all, it is exceedingly encour- aSing to those of us that fought hard the re- 5 Ptesentatives of the present Government in the House of Commons, respecting Raising the age of factory children. "t will be remembered that the Govern- tnent in the last session, even at the pense of discarding the instruction given by the Premier himself to our pleni- Potentaries at the Berlin Conference.and be- Pooling our representatives there, and dis- cing the nations before all Europe, struggled hard to keep down the age of children before they are allowed to com- mence work at ten years, and it was only ter a very prolonged struggle that they gave in and compromised the matter by flowing it to be raised to eleven years. The Government pretended to know the minds at the workmen upon the point better than ourselves and others that had year after har been discussing the question at the annual parliament of labour. We wanted the age to be raised to 12 years they insisted uPon fixing it at ten, and ultimately it was Compromised by being raised to 11 years. The Conference, however, as a mild protest Against the action of the Government and jta supporters, has declared in unmistakable language that, in its opinion, the age of tbese children should be raited to 13 years before they are allowed to enter the factories. I Is it not surprising that even now, at this time of day, men, yea, working men, can be found to support the old rotten doctrine that the earnings of children are essentially necessary to the proper support and maintenance of workmen's families ? Such was the case, I find, in this very last conference, where my old friend,D. Holmes, of Burnley, moved to delete from the reso- lution the words relating to the age limit, on the ground that the raising of the age to 13 would inflict serious hardship on thousands of families in Lanca- shire. It is very suggestive, also, that it is only in Conservative Lancashire, where the workmen, or rather too many of them, are found to support Tory M.P.'s, such a state of things can exist. It was distinctly stated in the Congress that the weaving industry is the only industry in the country that had asked for and that had children working to keep families alive because of the wages of the parent being inadequate to do so. How long shall we have men, ye leaders of work- ing men willing to sacrifice the right of their own offspring in this way ? CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES. The only other contentious matter dealt with related to co-operation, or, rather, the manner in which Co-operative Societies treat their employees. A deputation from the Co- operative Union of Great Britain attended the Congress. A resolution of welcome was proposed, which also recommended the delegates to associate themselves with the societies in their respective districts, and expressed the belief that co-operation and trades union hand-in-hand can procure for the workers a better share of the produce of their labour and generally improve their condition. A strong objection was raised to the latter part of this resolu- tion on the ground that co-operative Societies were often no less stingy towards those that worked for them than the most unscrupulous among other employers. And, what is bad, the fact was not denied. Although several amendments were moved upon it, all of them were rejected, and the original resolution was carried with only two dissentients. The discussion and action on this question, I am afraid, will not tend to increase the influence of the Con- grees. It only proves, after all, that working men are only made of about the sime stuff as other men, and that working men's con- gresses, like other congresses, fail at times to act in the most magnanimous way. However, after making all allowances, it cannot be denied that the Trades Union Congress has had its business conducted with ability and dignity, not inferior to any other of the numerous congresses that have been held this year.
ROYAL RESIDENCES. j J ST. JAMES'S PALACE. St James's Palace—the best known by name of all the English Royal Residences—was built on the site of a hospital dating from before the Con- quest, and dedicated to St. James. Henry VIII. obtained possession of the hospital, turned out the inmates, pulled down the buildings, and bought the surrounding meadows, and there built what was called the Manor House," said to have been planned by Holbein—" a faire man- sion and a parke for his greater commoditie and pleasure." Holbein's Gate-house still faces St James's-street. King Edward and Queen Eliza- beth seldom came to St James's; but Mary re- tired hither during the absence of her hua- band in Spain, and died here, as also did Henry, eldest son of James I. Charles I. enlarged the palace and lived in it hit son, Charles II., was born here, as also his other childrep. From St. James's Palace, where he slept the night before his execution, Charles I. walked, guarded by soldiers, through St. James's Park to Whitehall. where he was beheaded. James IL escaped hence on his abdication, and in female disguise reached Gravesend. Here Monk stopped while planning the Restoration and in the old bed- chamber next the levee-room was born (the old Pretender) James, the son of James II., by Mary of Modena; the baby having been, as was alleged by the Whigs of the period, conveyed in a warm- ing-pan into the Queen's bed. The Court of St. James's dates from the time of William III., for it was not till the burning of Whitehall that this palace became the place for State ceremonies. William and Mary did not reside in it, but at Kensington Palace. The fourth plate of Hogarth's "Rake's Progress" shows the palace gateway in 1735. George III. celebrated his marriage, and George IV. was born here, and as Prince of Wales he was married in St. James's Chapel Royal; so was also Queen Victoria. William IV. and Queen Adelaide resided at St. James's. In the outer or east court the guard is relieved every morning at a quarter to eleven, and the band plays for a quarter of an hour. The formal proclamation of Queen Victoria was made in front of St. James's Palace. Contem- porary accounts state that every avenue to the palace and every balotmy and window were crowded to excess. Amongst the dense mass of loyal people assembled, Daniel O'Connell was a prominent figure, and the Irish agitator con- tinually waved his hot and cheered lustily. The guns in the parjc fired a salute at ten o'clock, and then the Queeu appeared at one of the windows of the palace, being received with deafening cheers. Her Majesty stood between Lords Melbourne and Lansdowne, with her mother in close proximity. There were also present at other windows the King of Hanover, the Dukes of Sussex, Wellington, and Argyll, and Lorda_Hill, Combennero, and Albemarle. The Queeu looked extremely fatigued and pale, but rettirned the repeated cheers with which she was greeted with remarkable ease and dignity. She was dressed in deep mourning, with a white tippet, white cuffs, and a border of white lace under a small black bonnet, which was placed far back on her head, exhibiting her light hair in front simply parted over the forehead. She viewed the proceedings with evident interest. As soon as her Majesty had shown herself at her presence-chamber window, Garter Principal King-at-Arms having taken his station in the courtyard—accompanied by the Duke of Norfolk as Earl Marshal of England-read the proclama- tion, containing the formal and official announce- ment of the demise of King William VL, and of the consequent accession of Queen Alexandrina Victoria to the throne of these realms. The proclamation concluded with the declaration that to this only lawful and rightful liege lady we acknowledge all faith and humble obedience, with all humble and hearty affection, beseeching God, by whom kings and queens do reign, to bless the Royal Princess Alexandrina Victoria with long and happy years to reign. God save the Queen." The band then struck up the National Anthem, and a salvo followed from the Tower and park guns. [NEXT WEEK THE DUKE: OF CNAEFVCR'S HOUSE. 1
z;- THE NATIONAL EISTEDDVOD. DAFYDD MORGANWG REPLIES. Replying to the letter which we published last week Dafydd Morganwg writes Who would have thought that the general sec- retary would condescend to take notice, and even to make such capital of the few remarks I made on the National Eisteddvod ? I think I ought to be proud that he considered my remarks of such importance. The fact that I was a paid official is of very little, if of any importance in connection with the subject. Mr James himself is only a gwas cyflog to serve the eisteddvod for this year's meetings only, and, as far as I know, he has done his work to the satisfaction of all. However, it has fallen to the lot of some of us for many years to try to suggest and introduce some improve- ments in connection with the holding of the National Eisteddvod, and we are at present hold- ing correspondence with each other as to the best and most effective way to hold future eisteddvodau. You may ask who we and us are ? My answer is—those who take interest in and a part in the management of the I National Eisteddvod wherever it is held. I am not aware that Mr James is a member of either the National Eisteddvod Association or the Gor- sedd Association. If he is not he took upon him- self unnecessary trouble to criticise mysuggestions to my fellow members respecting the desirability of getting a portable iron pavilion to hold future National Eisteddvodau. I quite agree with Mr James that it is a national disgrace that our National Institution has not a house of its own. As for the figures, I acknowledge I did not go to the manylion, but this is not the first time for me to call the attention of my fellow-eisteddvodwyr to the subject. The figures are based on sound common sense, or arithmetical awen, if you like to give it that name. Good business men you know always look ahead, and can see a little to the future. A thorough practical business man would never think of taking down the pavilion and store it as soon as the meetings of one year are over, but would utilize it for other purposes-such as concerts, lectures, and the Welsh Musical Festival, as soon as that is fully established and in order to make it pay a good bonus, arrangements could be made with some auctioneer, carrying on an extensive business, to convert it into an auction- room occasionally So much for the possibility of making such a pavilion a paying concern with proper management. Mr James seems to be extremely anxious to know who was the official who gave me the infor- mation respecting the selling of Thursday tickets on Wednesday afternoon, &c. My ready answer is—the general secretary himself. A wado hyn, aed a hi. A gwaded i'r haul godi." I met him outside the pavilion, when he was coming bareheaded from the direction of the en- trance gates to the park, when people were refused admittance, and I called his attention to the multitude outside,remarking it es apity torefuse them admittance, inasmuch as they came there for that purpose from differentparts oftheoountry. His quick answer, with a brignt smile, was this —" It is all right now, I have been arranging matters myself to-day's tickets having been all sold was the cause of the stoppage, and we are obliged to use to-morrow's tickets-so it is all right now," and off he went to the Pavilion. I have no doubt that Mr James himself did as much as he could to please all, but he was not everybody neither could he see that his instruc- tions were carried out at the gates when he was not present. If I understand his letter rightly, it is obvious that the plan he told me was not followed. I do not know how others understand a particular portion of Mr James's letter, where he says that the ticket officials, and a great number of the committee men assisting them, did nothing for two or three hours but receive payment for admission to the park, and that hundreds at pound* ««» received from that source alone. I take the meaning to be that no tickets were used, only receiving payment, &c. If that was the case, it was a fine way of doing business, if there was no check kept. Mr James may console himself in the hope that some of your readers will take his statements as correct; but I am afraid it will take a long time for him to convince those who were refused admission to receive them as such.
SOMETHING LIKE A LAND TAX. From New Zealand comes news that the labour party there are putting on the taxes pretty heavily, starting with an income-tax of Is in the j3, to be paid by public com- panies. Then there is the land tax, shown by the following table. Taking the initial tax at Id in the jS, the following table shows the ascending scale by Ys d in the £ until 2%d is reachecl Rate of GraduatM When the value And is less Tax in addition is than to the Initial Tax. £ £ d. 5,000 10,000 ys el 10,000 20,000 V*. 20,000 30,000 Vs 30,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 50,000 70,000 70.000 90,000 90,000 110,000 1 110,000 130,000 1% 130,000 150.000 1% 150,000 170,000 1% 170,000 190,000 1% 190,000 210,000 1% 210,000 Further, absentees are to pay 20 per oenb. additional. This rate of taxation is on the assessed capital value of the estate—not on income, and it is easy to calculate what the equivalent on income amounts to. Taking the highest rate of taxation (for estates valued at £ 210,000 and upwards) a land tax of 2%d means The income-tax per £ will be If the estate retnrn. 4 per cent 5s 61/d „ .5 f, 4s 7d •• »» 6 3s 9 5-6d t« I* 7 3s 3 2-7d
I UNDER ANOTHER NAME. MBS Joliet (on their first trip across): Feel sea-eick, Eliot?—MB Joliet: Not a mite; but I'm cufferin' terrible with that old dispepsy of tmjne. It's jest took me.
WELSH GLEANINGS. By Lloffwr. J Election songs used at one time to be very popular in the country, and no where more so than in Wales. Here is a specimen of nearly a hundred years old A SONG written during the general election of 1807, addressed to the burgesses of Flint and its contributory boroughs. Ye men of Moelvamtne, now D-o-ward descend, The first of your blessings with spirit defend, Proclaim it aloud, and in Freedom's shrill voice, That Cambria's own son shall be crown'd by your choice. Derry Down, &c. See Lloyd, from a race that's unmixed, and your own, That, ere Saxons were seen, sat on Britain's high Throne; The prowess of Marchudd your foemen have felt, And your bards on Sir Tudor delighted have dwelt. Young Glynne, too, comes forward your suffrage to claim— Alas he's a Saxon in all but his name. 'Tis time he should learn, as he runs he may read, That his fathers were proud to be Britons indeed. The Colonel, aspiring, revives a known theme, Claims kindred with Cymru, through Conway's bright stream His claims we admit—the dear name we adore, But must prefer Lloyd, as a Briton all o'er. To one point, my compatriots, let concord now guide, In honor's bright bosom your welfare confide Let Lloyd be your leader-your triumph be seen. And the bard of your country shall hail him Eich Dyn. RICHARD LLWYD, the Bard of Snowdon. Chester, 1807. In acknowledging the receipt of a copy of this song, taken from a MS. found in Liver- pool, the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone has sent the Rev C. Tawelfryn Thomas, Con- gregational Minister, Groeswen, the follow- ing note Dear Sir,—I thank you for the interesting poetry you have kindly sent me. My wife will, I can assure you, be extremely pleased to possess it.—Yours very faithfullv, &c., W. E. GLAD- STONE. Sept. 21, 1891. C. T. Thomas, Esq., Groeswen, Pontypridd, South Wales. ■* The appointment of Professor Witfcon Davies to the Principalship of the Midland Baptist College will be regarded as a timely and well-deserved tribute to worth. The amalgamation of the Baptist Colleges of South Wales having been resolved upon, Haverfordwest College will soon, in the ordinary course of things, be removed to Cardiff, and the loss which the institution will suffer by the removal of Professor Witton Davies will probably hasten the com- pletion of the necessary arrangements for the change. Professor Davies is well-known as a brilliant Oriental scholar, an important con- sideration in view of the fact that at Not- tingham he will occupy the chair of Biblical Languages. The Midland Baptist College, under its better known title of Nottingham College, is a historical institution which will in a few years hence celebrate its centenary. It has played an important part in the history of the denomination in England, and I feel assured that under the supervision of so well qualified a man as Principal Davies, it will have a future fully worthy of its best days in the past. X. The following paragraph is going the round of the papers Among the readers at the British Museum at os) present is a curiosity in the shape of a literary policeman. Mr Ash ton, who still holds his posi- tion as a county constable, is spending his holi- days in town in preparing a work on The Bibliography of Wales during the Present Cen- tury." Some years ago he matriculated at the University of London, and he is well known in Wales as a successful competitor at Eisteddvodau, The policeman referred to in the above paragraph is Mr Charles Ashton, who is stationed at Dinas Mawddwy, in Merioneth- shire. He carried off the j250 prize for a history of Welsh literature at Swansea National Eisteddvod, and was the second best in the B100 'competition for the best essay on the life and times of Bishop Morgan. The latter work he has just pub- lished in a handsome volume at 5s, and I am glad to learn it has already commanded—as it deserved—an extensive sale. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists have suffered a severe and unexpected loss in the death of the Rev D. Charles Davies, Principal of Trevecca College. It is only two years since he resigned his pastorate in Bangor to undertake his duties at Trevecca in response to the unanimous request of the South Wales Association. During the period he proved how admirable had been the choice of the connexional authorities, and he threw himself into his new sphere of duties with that devotion and earnestness which had marked his previous career, and which served to impress upon the minds of his students the importance of the duties upon which they wtfre about to enter. It is a somewhat remarkable coincidence tli.t within a few days of the time when his friend and colleague. Dr Edwards, was about to commence his work as Principal of the New College in North Wales, Trevecca, the sole institution of the kind in South Wales, should be deprived of its head. It will be remembered that there was some time ago a movement in favour of amalgamating the two institutions, but the time was not then considered ripe for so great a change. It remains to be seen what effect the dual event, the death of the Principal of Trevecca, and the starting afresh of Bala College, will have upon that movement. + Following so soon after the decease of Dr Owen Thomas, the death of the Rev David Charles Davies has come upon the Calvinistic Methodists as a measureless calamity. The late Principal of Trevecca College was a man in a thousand, and in his case the conventional phrase that his loss is irreparable will bear a literal interpretation. His was a gentle, placid life. As a preacher the meditative cast of his mind, and his pronounced metaphysical bent probably retarded his popularity. He scorned the artifices of the rhetorician he never declaimed or gesticulated, but was always calm and serene. Into his sermons was compressed an amount of mental and spiritual pabulum which told of profound meditation and earnest quest of truth. In dealing with a theme he opened up a whole continent of thought, and loved to explore its regions, to shed the light of his intellect on its darkest recesses, and to penetrate into its most intricate mazes. Someone has described Walter Savage Landor as a poet for poets. In the same way David Charles Davies may not inaptly be described as a preacher for preachers. Not many months ago it was my good fortune, writes a correspondent, to hear Mr Davies preach at Cardiff. His subject was diversity of gift and type, and the sermon was a masterpiece of reasoning. "If you want dull, depressing uniformity," he declared, go to the neighbouring cemetery; you will find it there. But where there is life there is variety and diversity." The inspired voice is now for ever hushed, but we have still left the recollection of his brave and tender spirit, and his serene and unconquerable faith. Professor Henry Jones, of Bangor Uni- versity, has I am informed, scored a great success, and I heartily congratulate him on his A.nnoj:nbn¡r;mt to the chair of Philosophy and Literature at St. Andrew's. It speaks volumes for the quality of the professors at the Welsh University Colleges when one of their number is, in competition with so many candidates from all quarters, raised to high position in a Scotch University. A correspondent, signing himself Chwareu Teg i'r Cymro," writes Srr4-During the hearing of an important case at a local police-court, a tew days ago, in which there were several witnesses who gave their evidence in Welsh, I was struck at the way their evidence was interpreted. Two interpreters were tried, and I must say one was no better than the other, both being constantly corrected by the solicitors engaged in the case. Now, is it possible for a witness to give his evidence correctly when he is humbugged by an interpreter who is not equal to the task ? The ordeal of cross- examination is severe enough in itself, but much more so when the questions are given in two or three different ways, and then, probably, not the same as given by the solicitor. It is no less than a scandal that in our own country, and when giving evidence in our own language, we should be subject to such gross injustice, and those who are called to interpret ought not to do so if not thoroughly efficient in both languages. It is time we should move in the matter, and see that Welsh-speaking witnesses should have the same fair-play as those who get their evidence direct from the solicitor. Hoping someone will take the matter up at once.
Samuel's Sentiments. -0 SAMUEL ON "COMPANY." In country districts where the "polite letter writer" is unknown, and where books on etiquette are still unstudied, it is usual when a youth and a maiden walk out in the evenings together, and are seen at church in the same pew on Sundays, to say that they are keeping com- pany, ftwhich is another wfiy of stating that they are investigating each other's characters with a view to the tying of a matrimonial knot which shall make them both intoone. But there are other kinds of company than that sought after by residents in the country with views amourous and matrimonial. Company is, in reality, only another name for companionship, and, though there are, even in this nineteenth century, men and women of lonely dispositions who live GOOD COMPANY. hermit's lives, the world generally would be a dull and insipid place without it. It is to his boy companions that the schoolboy tells his little confidences, and as he grows up he tells them to his new and larger-minded one, When a man is in company he tries to show himself at his best, and many a man, who with his company manners on is voted a real good fellow may in private be the quintessence of a cad. In company all eyes are upon his action, speech, and manners are open to the criticism of all present, and therefore he avoids such small slips as would point to the absence of the hall- mark of the genuine article. "Good company" is the name frequently bestowed upon men of points, men who can keep a conversation going and who can tell a good story. KEEPING COMPANY. I recently talked to a friend abont a mart who was generally known to bis friends and acquaint- ances as an outsider." Well, said my friend, he has his good points. You know he's capital company." This virtue m the eyes of the kindly critic waa supposed to tt>ver a multitude of vices, and there is no doubt the world takes many men's vices and virtues much in the same way. The habitual diner-out, always well-dressed but of no known address, is simply fed and asked out because he is good company and can keep the table in a roar with a good joke, or take away the character of a friend by the repeti- tion of the latest piece of scandal. But this latter attainment is not looked upon as objectionable by those who think it provides good company. It is part and parcel of his stock- in trade, de- prived of which he would sink to the dull level of mediocrity and become one of the crowd. Bad company is of various kinds, from the man who is dull to the man who is in- nately vicious. Once let a youth get into such company and he is doomed. Paradoxi- A COMPAXY PROMOTER. cal as it may apply, bad company is not unfre- quently close on to the track of good company in many of its component parts. The men whom T0 ^|ass bad company are often the best company, so far as joviality provision of fun and amusement go, but they are fatal when they make up their minds to J00'1 aud pluck the poor and foolish pigeons who have fallen into their unrelentless hands. They have no mercy, and laugh to scorn the victim, who finding he has fallen into evil hands pleads for mercy or a chance to recover himself. There is something insidious about the ways of bad company, and yountr men are lured intn ;t. BAD COMPAAT. almost before they are aware of it. It looks so much like good company, and the mark on its plate is so close an imitation of genuine silver that the un- suspecting victim is snared with ease. It is easier to preach than to practise; but if the victims of bad company looked further be- fore they leaped there would be fewer wrecks in the world than there are at present. A kind of company to be studiously avoided is that floated by persons with a view to their own gains, and not with a view to anyone else's. Bogus companies are to be found on all sides, and those who desire to enter a newly-formed company should make every inquiry ere they do so. SAMUEL: His SENTIMENTS. —
-1 DI-SAPPOINTED. LITTLE WILIJB Br-r-rh-wow-ow-wow ? ANXIOUS MOTHER What is it, my precious ? LITTLE WILLIE Sister p-promised me her old b-bustle to make a football of, an' now she's went an' m-made that old measly hangin' basket for the conservatory out of it—wo-o-o-o-wow.
Country Visitor I suppose you ring a bell, a gong, or something for dinner t Clerk Oh, no, sir. We have breakfast from seven till twelve, lunch from twelve till four, and dinner from five till half-past nine. Country Visitor (aghast): Jehosophat! Then when am I going to have any time for sight-seeing I
Members for Cardiff. Past and Present. CHAP. VI.—FROM RUSSELL TO GLADSTONE. The last period which we have to traverse in our accounts of the members for Cardiff extends from the adoption of Lord John Russell's Reform Bill to the introduction of Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill —an eventful period to the nation, and for Cardiff one of advancement and development —beyond the dreams of the most enthusiastic optimist. It is remarkable that during that period, covering 59 years, Cardiff has only had four members—Dr Nichol, from 1832 till 1852 Mr Walter Coffin, from that date till 1857 CoL Stuart from 1857 till 1880 and Sir Edward Reed from then till now. The constituency of Cardiff was much changed by the Reform Act. Previ- ously the parliamentary district contained but 382 voters, but on the first register issued after the extension of the franchise there were 687 electors. This additional element decidedly changed the tone of the electorate. The former member, Lord James Stuart, a Whig, and Dr Nicholl, a Free Trade Conservative, place their rival claims before the newly empanelled electoral jury, the result being a decided verdict for the Conservative, the exact figures being Nichol, 342 Stuart, 191. This new member for Cardiff, commenc- ing his career at this memorable period, was the son of Sir John Nicholl, Kt., an old Parliamentary hand, who in the year 1802 first entered Parlia- ment as member for Penryn. He was elected for Hastings in 1806, being the Judge Advocate- General, and in 1807 he was returned for the Cmque Port town of Rye, and for the decayed borough of Great Bedwin. Wilts, and electing to retain the safer Wiltshire seat, he continued to sit in the House of Commons for Great Bedwin until the borough was disfranchised by the Reform Bill. For some time after vacating his seat in Parliament he was Judge of the Court of Arches. It was when the father finished his quarter of a century in the House of Commons that the son commenced his twenty years' term as member for Cardiff. John Iltyd Nicholl was born in 1792, and having been educated at Westminster School, completed his studies at Christ Church, Oxford, was called to the Bar atLincoln's-Inn in 1824, and obtained the degree D.C.L. in 1826. Previous to obtaining that distinction he had, in 1821, formed a connection with the county of G]amorgan by a marriage with the second daughter of the late T. Rioe Mansell Talbot, Esq., of Margam, and granddaughter of the second Earl of Ilchester. Dr Nichol, in his first term as member for Cardiff, was a private member, but soon after his re-election on the appeal to the country in 1835 he was appointed a Lord of the Treasury, and on his vacating his seat on taking office he went back without opposition. At the general election following the Queen's accession he was re-elected, and again at the dissolution of 1841. Soon after the meeting of the new Parliament he entered Sir Robert Peel's Administration in the office previously held by his father, Judge Advocate-General. That, of course, necessitated re-election, and although there was on that occa- sion no opposition, there was an incident which caused some suspense and a little flutter of ex- citement. Naturally the Ministers were anxious I to get themselves rehabilitated to return to their duties, but on the day that the writ was to be proclaimed at Cardiff the municipal functionaries waited in vain for the arrival of the official document. In these days of quick com- munication the suspense would have been soon ended, but two days elapsed before it was ascertained where the stray writ had gone, when it was then found that the Sheriff had blundered and had sent it tGChepstow instead of to Cardiff and, in consequence, the election, which was an unopposed one, was delayed from the 15th to the 17th of September. This little incident got wind in the House, and when the Judge Advocate-General was introduced to the Speaker on the following Monday he was loudly greeted with an admixture of friendly and ironical cheers. Dr Nicholl continued to hold office till the break up of Sir Robert Peel's adminiatratian in 1846, after which he was a private member. He was re-elected for Cardiff in 1847, and in 1852 he again came forward as a candidate, but was defeated. Thus ended the connection of Dr Nicholl with Cardiff. He was elected for the borough seven times during a period of twenty years, and he did not subsequently enter Parliament. Mr Walter Coffin, of Llandaff, was the next member for Cardiff. He came forward in the Liberal interest, and during the contest with Dr Nicholl the borough was in a state of great ex- citement, On leaving a political meeting on the 6th of July, 1852, Dr Nichcli was very roughly handled on the Town Hall steps, and the police, who came to rescue him from the mob, made several arrests. At the nomination the show of hands was in favour of Mr Coffin, and the poll produced a similar result, the figures being Coffin 399, Nicholl 202. After being defeated in the borough, Dr Nicholl was put up by his friends as a Free-trader in the county, but he de- clined to go to the poll. Mr Walter Coffin, who won back Cardiff for the Liberal party, was a West Country man, whose family had taken a pretty active share in public life in the previous generation. His ancestor Sir Isaac Coffin, was Admiral of the Red. Mr Coffin retired at the dissolution of 1857. The member for Cardiff who next came on the scene was Lieutenant-Colonel James Frederick Dudley Crichton Stuart. His election in 1857 once more restored the representation of Cardiff to the traditional lines. This new member was the son of Lord Patrick James Stuart, whom we have already said was elected for Cardiff in 1818, and he continued to be a member of the House of Commons for various constituencies till 1865; therefore he was still a member wben his son was elected for Cardiff. The latter was a lieutenant- colonel in the Grenadier Guards, and at the time of his first election was residing at Whitehall- place, Westminster. He retired from the Guards in 1862.. During the seventeen years that he represented Cardiff he was elected five times, the dates of his re-elections being 1859, 1865, 1868, and 1874. On the last occasion he had a very sharp contest with Mr Hardinge Giffard, Q.C. (the present Lord Chancellor), who had also been his unsuccessful opponent in 1868. On this last occasion the polling was very close, the Q.C. being but nine votes in the rear of his Liberal rival. Neither of those politicians ap- peared again on their old battle ground of Cardiff. Sir Hardinge Giffard a few weeks later tried his fortune at a bye-election at Launceston, securing but one vote. Three years later his successful rival, a man of great influence in Launceston, retired, and Sir Giffard, by his interest, secured the seat and entered Parliament for the first time, meeting his Cardiff opponent in the House of Commons. Colonel Stuart finally retired in 1880, thus terminating a line of the Stuarts who had successfully held seats in the House of Commons for nearly 200 years. The next member for Cardiff was the hon. gentleman who still occupies the seat, Sir Edward James Reed, K.C.B., who was Chief Constructor of the Navy from 1863 till 1870. Sir Edward is a native of Kent, a son of the late Mr John Reed, of Sheerness, the proximity of the place of his nativity to the great dockyards and naval station, no doubt, being the original cause of his mind being turned to naval architecture. He was educated at the School of Mathe- matics and Naval Construction at Portsmouth. Although a native of Kent, Sir Edward had wooed and won a Welsh borough, having satin the House ot Commons for Pembroke, it the Liberal interest, since 1874. For that seat he had to fight hard, beating Mr T. C. Meyrick by but 29 votes. On coming forward for Cardiff in 1880 he again had to fight, Mr Guest being his opponent, but on this occasion he secured the more decided majority of 343. Sir Edward Reed wal re-elected for Cardiff in 1885 and in 1836, having to fight for his seat on both occasions, and it is a curious fact that the majority by which he won the last time was the same within one vote as in his first contest for Cardiff. The number of votes which Sir Edward Reed polled in his various contests incidentally illustrates the fncrmous growth of Cardiff. When Dr Nicholl won his seat in 1832 he polled but 342 votes, while in 1885 Sir Edward Reed, after polling 5,569 votes, had only a majority of 140. Accord- ing to Sir Somers Vine's statistics in his book on the growth of municipalities, the registered electors of the Cardiff district before the Reform Act of 1832 only numbered 687; and, in striking contrast with that insignificant total, a Parlia- mentary return in July this year gives the electors of the Cardiff Parliamentary District as 15,804. While these figures show the growth of the constituency, its member reminds us of the latter-day develop- ment of the naval power of Great Britain. No one can read Sir Edward Reed's books on Our Iron-clad Ships," Our Naval Coast Defences," and on Ship-bnilding in Iron and Steel," with- out acknowledging his great ability; but he has done more than write books. He was the designer of our first great ironclads, and as such he holds a unique place in the annals of our time and although he some years since handed over to another the responsibility jf directing the construction of Great Britain's bulwarks, he has already built his own monument, a.nd the history of this country will have to be wiped out before the work done by the member for Cardiff in the construction of England's first line of de- fence can be efifaoed. [TnnrD.1