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WORKMEN'S TOPICS. BY MABON, M.P, MINERS CONFERENCE IN LON- DON AND THE NEW FISCAL POLICY. "bB discussion at the Miners' National Con- ^eQce, held in London, demonstrated the in- ^fcble effect of the doubling and twisting of j by Mr Chamberlain. If he goes on in the "to way for a very little while workmen will **86 to believe anything that he says. And he justly complain of the almost complete *Mici8m with which his benevolent proposals e\'en now regarded. He has instanced Ger- as an example of the blessings of Protec- and he mast not grumble if the British assume that he desires to reduce their Rage! to the level of those of the German work. tl. It was this that Mr Pickard, the preai- t of the Federation, ably did at the above Inference, when he said that Mr Chamberlain £ people to believe that foreigners undei f^tection were better off than we were bete, if working men went to Germany, Belgium, France they wonld get better wages Mid e work than in England. This was the ral sequence of his sayings. In the ehair- :'11'8 opinion they (the workers) did not want much trore work as more wages. Working r6" Would rather have a little more leisure to be always grabbing for money, Mr Y^ttibarlain's statement, said Mr Pickard, was ^together incorrect. The working man of Ger- worked longer hours, and as to wages they ged from Is 8d to 3s 4d, and in some places to i. Per day, and that was the extreme limit of earnings. He advised working men never think about Going Back to Protection, Qt rather to bear the ills they had than By to that ttitey knew not of. But Mr Smillie, of ^°tland, thought that that would not be the exactly that history would certainly re- itself that going back to Protection would lkIean going back to times when bread was dear 7^ flesh and blood were cheap that his people ^"ght that it was time to deal with land ^bbers and royalty-renters who took the pur- power and made it impossible to develop ovim markets. Mr Wilson, of Durham, was strong on the opinion that the man in the "reet would yet come forth and settle this 14eation, ani not the dukes and earls and landed "°prietors who were Mr Chamberlain's present When at Newcastle, as well as at those that toil not neither do they Jan" were his companions and on his plat- ?f0as, and not the working men of the huge c'tieg. So Mr Chamberlain mnst not complain now to himself judged and condemned by the ure that he used to mete out to others. v 4t a man is to be judged by the company that 6 keeps is equally as true now as ever. Mr berlain seeks a mandate from the people, d the people cannot go to his meetings because the price to be paid. The earls and dukes J^t can afford to pay the price to go within are athusiastic enough. No doubt things look slyag for them. But the question must Hve The Approval of the Man in the Street ^ore it can be adopted, and the oftener Mr k&mberlain speaks the more will the people learn ifAis real views. Mr Chamberlain commenced his r^P&ign with declaring that in this country the hitmen would have more wages and more But to the manufacturers at Tynemonth week he explained that the Germans suc- 40ded on the grounds that they had not OÐted our humanitarian views about the posi. IOn of workmen." and further said that 'CCordingly they have been able to produce more j because they have got their labour at a price." This no doubt was a bint to the i Q,llufactorer, just as the other was to the work- man. But I am informed on the most excel- ent authority that the old veteran mannfac- on the Tyne and other places, sncb as Sir *tQes Kitson, Lothian Bell, and others will have ^thing of his new panacea. I cannot but *°ngly commend to all working men this most utterance with regard to the success derlDany. What a comment it is on the con- Jt>ons of Protectionist countries. What a of Mr Chamberlain's ideals for this tlntry-dear food, t Dear Manufactured Goods and Lower Wages; if this is the price that we will have fo pay j0t Mr Chamberlain's Empire then the workers, 4Sc, will prefer the Empire we already have. Evidently Mr Chamberlain's policy, as some- has already said, has become a series of dis- views, one day pleasing to the workers another pleasing to the manufacturers, but day pleasing to his new companions of the /toiling spinning wheelers. I am told that ?°1toe of the Lancashire spinners have been in *voor of the new fiscal policy until thev heard the explanation that Germany had become ]Perous because the German employers had lot adopted onr humanitarian views about the tlon of working men." .0, Mr Chamberlain must not grumble now workers want to test doubly every state- that he makes. At Glasgow he made a deal of play with the tinplate industry, he implied had perished by reason of our Ability to employ retaliatory measures against Orica for its preservation. How far this is the fact has been.shown already by Mr l^Bmor Jones, who pointed out that between and 1902 the average number of tinplats "Is working in the United Kingdom increased » 8,8 shown by the Board of Trade returns—from 14 to 397. Now Mr Harry Jones completes the t%%b in the Spectator." Not only have the 'Is increased in number, but they have also in- in capacity. More tinpiates are actually atifactured in this country now thao tbere 11 years ago. f A New Trade t was created, and instead Of sending (in i America, as they used to, they are now lending meet the expansion of the home demand by despised biBcuit-making, and con- j, t'onery trades." It is trne that the operations McKinley and Dingley tariffs greatly re- the oxport of tinplates to tbe United utt4ft, but none the less the Americans, in spite *heir unique opportunities, do no$compete Ca in the markets of the world as sellers of i ^Plates. The present dnty on tinplate imported, America, I am told, is nearly per ton. *thi8 duty 99 per cent, is returned in the form of ftu wback on the exportation of articles manu- 'r) t\].ed from the imported tinpiates. Thanks a drawback the Welsh makers still supply J^erica with tinplate. Mr Chamberlain is lanced that our Colonial brethren are not li He might extend hiB obarity to capita- 6(n8 at home they probably know something their own business. 114 Chamberlain, no doubt, is sincere enough his conviction that j The British Empire Will Dissolve I time or another unless his remedy be v^Pted. But others among our leading politi- ;4 ns> our present school of political economists, '^>19 of industry, and leaders of men are as entitled to be heard as he is. Wej8°nally, I am always very willing and h !O8 to hear what he has to say on all great especially those that are affecting the t')t, of working men. In this case I can- i, '°olp thinking that he has taken too much 11 ^iniaelf. He has determined to force upon "¡ Country a scliemo which has often been l° before and found wanting. He desires j hi^P'y an old, discredited remedy to what he 1 8e^ nrges are entirely new conditions. But Plain matter-of-fact man will naturally IUne that the old cloth will not atisfactorily mend the garment. He is sorely afraid that even a larger rent may be made in it. and that, whatever the conditions are, the effects of Protection now will be generally the same as were the effects of Protection 56 years ago. Few men will believe that the effects of new imposed taxes can be easily stayed- history or common sense are against such a proposal.
THE HOUSEHOLD. The sketch depicts a very pretty work bag of the double type, which is very handy, in that it can be hung on a door knob out of the way, and be both useful and an ornament. For the founda- tion pale greyish green linen is the best. rirst cut a piece for the back of the bag 18 inches long and eight inches wide. In the middle this strip should be narrowed to a width of about three inches, and it should be widened out to eight inches at a distance of three inches from the ends. Thence it is cut at each end. as shown in the sketch. For the shield-shaped pockets some of the same linen should be procured. It should be ornamented either with embroidery, roughly executed painting, or with applique, specially pretty would be a dainty little spray cut irotn cretonne of a good pattern and colour. J- nis A Convenient YTnk Bag. should be laid on the material and sewn nuo place with stitches taken over the edges. J.ne outlines are then to be followed with t short or buttonhole stitches worked with siik to match the colours of the cretonne. The centre of the flowers, the veins of the leaves, and the stems should all be put j" with silk in tbe usual way. Both pockets should be em- broidered, but it is not by any means necessary for them to be exac^ j-fFowmt- '• indeed, they are often better to be different, as then the worker will know into which pocket she has stowed away her embroidery. The top edge should be finished withia line ot pietty braid, or galoa, and both pocket have a lining either of some of the same line a or of sateen to correspond in colour. After the pockets have been sewn into placa, the DacK oi work bag should be lined with some of the material employed for thejnside of the P"cke^ and the lower edge is finished off or tassels. The whole thing must be folded in half, and at the fold must be arr&nged a and a loop of ribbon to correspond in co!o«^ W'th the rest. The loop is, of coarse, to serve for sus- aSitS-. «*«*.■—«~i ■»' effective ways of folding serviettes is that known as Cleopatra's Needle. The serviette should be well starched and ironed. Lay it on a flat surface and fold over in eight, all the folds being A Pretty Serviette Design, I lengthways, as in Figure 1. Then roll it up loosely, but evenly, as in Figure 2, and fasten it with a pin at the end, as in Figure 3. Stand it on the table and gently pull up the innermost fold till it assumes the shape of Figure 4. Here is a dainty present for a friend. It is a spong bag of wire and Lustrine thread relieved by beads. One and a quarter yards of cap wire should be bought, and divided into two lengths, one measuring 26 inches, the other 16. These two strips should then be bent into a circle and fastened securely where thev overlap. The larger circle (for the top of the net) must be 24 inches in eireamferende, and the smallereirele 14. Three skeins of twisted Lustrine are required, and three strings of smoked beads- about 200 beads in all. The beads must have large enough holes to allow of two threads of the Lustrine to pass through. A packet of darning needles is the only other requisite. Open one of the skeins of Lustrine to its widest extent, and cut it at each end this gives 34 pieces. Knot them together at one end and pin the knot to the table by means of a large bonnet-pin. Then thread each end with a darning-needle. Take up one of the beads and pass two adjoining needles through it; let the beads slip down the threads till within one inch of the knot, then catch the threads together at that spot by the simple ex- pedient of passing one of the needles through the centre of the other's thread. This forms a sort of knot. Repeat this with the rest of the 34 threads, working them in pairs. Now repair the threads, making the last and first come together, the second and third, and so on in fact, each pair of the former row is now divided. Then thread on a second round of beads in a similar manner to the first, keeping them exactly one inch from the first lot of beads. The real diffi- culty lies in keeping the different threads clearly disentangled, and not allowing them to get mixed. To do so is simply fatal, as it prevents the net from assuming tho required shape, Collapsible Spong Net. namely, that of a bag knotted together at the base. tFhe easiest method of keeping the work straight is to fold a piece of paper into the shape of a cornucopia and to slip thia between the threads, working the bag shape gradually round it until it lies completely enclosed in the mesbes. Aa soon as the net is finished the paper is with. drawn through the top; which is, of course, wide open. About 12 rounds of beads are necessary. At the thirteenth round the threads are knotted to- gether in pairs without any beads at all; in this instance they are knotted with the fingers in the ordinary manner, not with the needle. There. mainder of the details will suggest themselves. This is a good plain pudding that is sure to be much appreciated wherever economy must be studied. Weigh three-quarters of a pound of any scraps of stale bread, cut them small, and pour over them enough hot milk to soak them well, letting them stand aside until the milk becomes cold, then mash the bread with the back of a wooden spoon, adding a little ground ginger, enough sugar to sweeten, half a pound of washed and picked currants, a quarter of a pound of sul- tanas, the juice of half a lemon, and the grated rind. Mix all well together, and bake in a nicely- greased baking tin. ETHEL.
Somehow I feel that I can trust my daughter to you." It You can, indeed madarne. Every- body trusas me.
MUSIC IN WALES. a BY D. EMLYN EVANS. BIRMINGHAM FESTIVAL There was a time when the word Brumma- gem was a term of reproach-and it may be so more or less still, for aught we know-but Bir- mingham has shown the way how to do things in more than one direction, and probably in none more successfully and markedly than in con- ducting a musical festival. For many years the Birmingham Musical Festival has possessed an interest which appeals to all musicians, due to the number of eminent composers who from time to time have figured in its programmes, and often personally on its platform, in connection .vith works especially written for the festival, the fame of the artistes engaged, and the excel- lence of its chorus and orchestra. The large sums of money which it has been the means of adding to the treasury of the General Hospital-always representing all the actual profit-commends it to the general approval, and other aspiring towns may well study Birmingham methods in the matter of festival management and the ideal to be reached. It may be instructive to note that the chorus this year, under the control of Dt. Hans Richter, contained an exceptionally large proportion of sopranos, that voice totalling 112 singers to the 84 of the contraltos, 75 tenors, and 82 bass-353 in all; the orchestra, chiefly drawn from Man- chester, being also numerous, and consisting of 86 stringed and 38 wind and percussion instru- ments. The chief interest as to novelty centred this year in Dr. Elgar's new work, "The Apostles, or: more strictly speaking, the two first parts of the work. but representing, as we presume, all of it that has been completed. Radical Birming- ham, however, was sufficiently conservative to inclade both Elijah and the Messiah in its programme, giving the first place of honour to the former immortal work, produced under the guidance of the great modern master of oratorio himself at the festival of 1846. This year musical Wales was vocally well represented in the per- sons of Mr Ben Davies and Mr f frangoon Davies —probably the first time in the history of the festival that two Welsh artistes have taken part in its performances. Both were allotted impor, tant work in their respective parts, and- according to the universal verdict, we believe- both discharged their duties as artistes of the front rank. The Late Llew Buallt. Through the lamented death of Llew Buallt— for so he was best known in eisteddfodic an musical circles—Wales has lost another of its most nrominent and strenuous workers in the field of choral song, and at the comparatively early age of 55. We have said choral song, as it is in that direction that the deceased helped to secure for Builth and its neighbourhood their present conspicuous position in the Welsh musical world; although he had previously laboured for years in the less public, but at least not less important, work of musical class teach- ing in country districts and towns and villages in his native county and those counties adjacent. It i s no small ambition for a man located in a ruraJ country, who was musically self-taught, and situated out of the reach of any great oppor- tunity to obtain much outside assistance towards one's advancement in the art, to aim at establish- ing a choir in such a locality fit to make its appearance on the platform of the National Eisteddfod, and to pit itself against picked choirs drawn from populous centres, possessing the many advantages of such a position, and inherit. ing the traditions of more than one generation of successful eisteddfodauists. It is no small feat also to have accomplished this, and to have won chief honours before very long as Llew Buallt's organisation did, and in competition with some of our ablest choirs. This nroVed, as it had been repeatedly proved before and has been since, that the race is not necessarily to the strong, and what makes the successes of the Builtb choirs more marked-for there are, or were, two distinct choral combina- tions centred there, and led by different conduc- tors—is the fact that they emanated from asmall town, more or less remote, and situated in a thinly-populated country blessed -or otherwise- with not very superior railway facilities. Of course, it is well understood that not only Bailth and its immediate neighbourhood, but neigh- bouring towns and localities, not only m Breck- nock and Radnor, but counties farther removed, had to be drawn -upon for the necessary vocal forces. But this fact really makes the achieve- ment of Llew BuaUt choir's at Llandudno in 18% and Mr A. P. Morgan's at Festiniog in 1898-not to mention other more or less conspicuous suc- cesses-all the more remarkable, for experience's teachings are that a compact choir drawn from a small area, whose members can be kept in touch by well-sustained and continuous drill, will produce better results than a choir of all the talents too scattered to enjoy those very im- portant and advantageous conditions. In support of this may be cited the present policy of the promoters of the Three Choirs Festival and the Birmingham Festival just mentioned, no outside choristers being now selected for the former, while the Birmingham singers were chosen en- tirely from the two leading choral societies of the town. Wales laments the removal—too early in her siabt-of Llew Buallt, but he laboured well, and the effect of the good work he wrought will be felt for many a day to come. The Workington Eisteddfod. The founder and chief promoter of the above eisteddfod-in other words, the Cumberland Musical Festival—Mr Ivander Griffiths, is as energetic as ever, judging from the syllabus of the next annual meetings, the 29th of the series, to be held on January 1st. 2nd, and 3rd next, and which we have just received. The prizes are not large (the object being to encourage art rather than be prodigal in squandering money), but the subjects are good and calculated to make for improved taste and culture. We heartily wish the "Ivander" competition of 1904 every success,
Songs for the People. Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, in a letter to the Marqtris of Montrose, wrote :—" I know a very wise man that believed that if man were permitted to make all the ballads he need not care who should make the laws of the nation." LIBERTY. When, linnet like confined, I With shriller throat shall sing The sweetness, mercy, majesty, And glories of my King; When I shall voice aloud how good He is, how great should be, Enlarged winds that curl the flood Know no such liberty. Stone walls do not a prison mpke, Nor iron bars a cage; Minds innocent and quiet take That for an hermitage; If I have freedom in my love, And in my soul am free, Angels alone, that soar above, Enjoy such liberty. Richard Lovelace: 1618.
THE FLAME FAIRY. What do yor think I saw When snng in bed last night, And nurse forgot my candle. And left it burning bright ? There on the candle tip, As plain as plaiu couil be, The dearest little fairy Was bowing right at me. Her hair was long and golden, Her title skirts were red; I couldn't help but love her, And this is what she said :— i.k Good evening, little Earth Child, yzz I've come to bring you light, And if you're very good, dear, I'll watch you all the night. 1 I love to live where dark is, And spread mv skirts so fine; It makes me oh I so happy v." To shine, and shine, and shine I And you could shine, too, Earth Child, Just like a candle light, Shine all your little life, dear, And make the whole world bright." Just then the door blew open, The wind came with a prance, He took my little fairy's hands And made her leap and dance. She whirled, and twirled, and twisted, To 'scape the playful breeze. She begged him to release her Upon her pretty knees. Bad wind 1 He ran oft with her I She left one kisB-a spark- The naughty little fairy— She left me in the daAI
Illustrated Fashions. 1 The modes have become somewhat more settled the last few weeks, and we are able more easily to determine the style and material of our early winter toilettes. After the first outburst of Dovelties the fashions become more settled, and the eccentricities and excrescences which mar their beauty are rapidly toned down or vanish altogether. Many are the modes that disappear almost as soon as thev are created, and are in reality only efforts towards novelty on the part of one or other ef the leading and most enter prising fashion makers. October, however, brings with it a sense that the fashions are more settled and that the dull season, as regards affairs sartorial, is at last at an end. Every. A Useful Coat. thing this season seems to indicate that the leading inspirations of the best dlessmak ers will be drawn from the early seventies, and that our dress will correspond in a modified manner with the dress of that period. We cannot pre. tend to greet this state of affairs with any enthu- siasm, for the fnll skirts, dolman-like mant le, and the tight-fitting bodice of that period do not agree with our ideas as to the artistic require- ments of dress, and many people prefer to retain as much as possible of the more becoming modes which have hitherto been our portion. The three-quarter coat sketched is of a style which, though not very new, is ever popular, and will be found i nvaluable for winter wear. It is easily slipped on and will stand plenty of hard wear. A coat of this description can be made of rough serge or frieze or any ot the innumerable artistically coloured tweeds which are so reason. able in price and so enduring. Rainproof covert coating is, however, the material par excellence, and will always keep its look if sent occa- sionally to the tailor to be pressed. The girl A Mornitig Blouse. who prides herself on the neat tit and smart appearance of her tailor-made garments will find the few shillings spent on having these cleaned and pressed by her own or her brother's tailor a real economy in the long run. Do not on any account entrust work of this nature to a woman tailor, as it never gives satisfaction Tailor- made coats and skirts have this season returned to their severe but undoubtedly smart traditional simplicity, and we find the Newmarket basqne amongst the newest models. The blouse sketched is of a simple style and would make up nicely in vivella or flannel with a few ornamental buttons and a dainty crivvat and collar. It is really best to have a blouse, however :plainly made, cut to measure and fitted, although at first it may cost a little more to have this done. The ready-made blouses do not fit as a rule, as they are only made in certain stock sizes and therefore do not allow for variations of figure. Of course I do not intend to convey the impression that all ready-made blouses are necessarily ill-fitting, as there are many people who find no cause for complaint, but these fortunate individuals are.- A Coiiy Gown. I i :U «« ii I ] generally of slender DUUU, Ma wuvxu .a usaauy a lack of fulness in the bast measure of a cheap ready-made blouse which bans it for ever from the wardrobe of those to whom Nature has been liberal in the matter of flesh. The more expen- sive blouses, whose prices are never less than one guinea, will be found to be better cnt and liberal as regards material. Still to my mind if one is willing and able to pay a good price it will always be found better to have the blouse made to measure, while greater scope is offered at the same time for the display of originality. Tbeeosy dressing gown illustrated recommends itself, and is a really necessary garment. There is nothing of the tea gown in the fashion of the one depicted, which is designed strietiy for bed. room wear, and suggests in its aspect a cosy chat by the fire with the congenial confidences in which girls delight while brushing out their hair for the night. I should recommend a nice bright crimson or cerise flannel for its construction, although blue and green are likewise becoming, and even a warm yellow has been exploited by a blunetta with eminently satisfactory resnlts. Yellow is not only a colour for the dusky-tressed damsel, but can be worn by a blonde provided she is possessed of a good clear natural com- plexion. The addition of a fine muslin or wash- ing silk fichu would add to the dressiness of this gown, but when such is added it must be made to be easily removed for washing purposes, and not stitchdd in at the finishing of the neck, as is so often the case in a dressing gown which has been bought ready-made. COQUETTE.
Fond Father (showing off his offspring's in- telligence) Now. Elsie, dear, what is a cat ? — Elsie Dunno.—Fond Father Well, what's that funny little animal that comes creeping up the stairs when everyone's in bed ?—Elsie (promptly) Papa. The Star The author of this play is a great stickler for realism, isn't be ?—The Manager I haven't noticed it.—The Star: Why, he often the case in a dressing gown which has been bought ready-made. COQUETTE. Fond Father (showing off his offspring's in- telligence) Wow, Elsie, dear, what is a cat ? — Elsie Dunno.—Fond Father Well, what's that funny little animal that comes creeping up the stairs when everyone's in bed ?—Elsie (promptly) Papa. The Star The author of this play is a great stickler for realism, isn't be ?—The Manager i I haven't noticed it.—The Star: Why, he objects to my wearing diamond rings in the scene I where I pawn my hat to bay food for tbe children.
SCIENCE AND HEALTH By Dr. ANDREW WILSON, F.R.S.E., So. A Health Resort, I am always interested in the publication of the annual report of the medical officer of health of the city of Glasgow. This is chiefly for the reason that Glasgow, being the second city of the kingdom in respect of population, offers us a very wide field for the observation of health statistics and for forming ideas regarding the progress of sanitation. The report of Dr. Chalmers for 1892 has been sent to me. It is full of extremely interesting details, only a few of which I may cut! for the benefit of my readers by way of giving them certain object lessons in the prevention of disease and in the preservation of health. It will be remembered that last year I expressed very strongly the opinion in connection with the cases of pork pie poisoning at Derby,that food otherwise perfectly sound was liable to be- come contaminated through being exposed to in- samtary conditions. I find in the Glaseow re- port a very interesting observation which clearly bears out this idea. Dr. Chalmers's remark that of recent years it has been shown that a certain bacillus which is usually present in the digestive system of horses and other animals is capable, when it gains access to our foods, of producing changes in them such as are liable to prove fatal to the consumer. The contamination in question arises obviously enough from these germs being swept up as dust from the sheets, and being thus conveyed to foods. Wind insects, and especially flies,may be taken to represent the chief agencies in this diffusion of germs whilst it is added that the soiling of boots and clothing in damn weather transfers the mud of the streets to the interior of the houses. The moral of this this story is evident. Street washing, it is shown, by reducing the volume of dust, will limit our chances of infection from foods from the source in question hence Corporations may be well advised if they reflect ove r the facts mentioned In the Glasgow report, and insist very fully upon effective washing by the hose, not merely of streets, but also of all courts and more imme- diate surroundings of bouses. The Infant Death Rate. In 1802, in Glasgow, 3,168 infants died. This represents a death rate per 1,000 born of 128. compared with 149 in the year 1901. Dr. Chalmers notes as a matter of fact that illegiti- mate children die at almost twice the rate of legitimate children in their first year, and be attributes this enormous difference to the syste- matic neglect to which many of them are ex- posed. One sentence in the rtcort strikes me as singularly significant. It is remarked that modern sanitation has failed to influence to any great extent the infant death rate, this, probably, for the reason that the general principle of sani- tation which affects masses of people are power- less to affect the hfe and conditions under which infants are brought up in households. Here we find a very strong argument advanced indeed for the better education of women in all matters relating to the treatment of young children. More than one-third of the total deaths of infants, we are told, occur in the first month of life. This is in itself a sufficiently startling statement. Much of this mortality may be reckoned with under the head of defective development, but at the same time we have also to take into account a very important factor in the shape of the de. claration that it is during the earlier months of the infant's life that ignorance on the part of the mother of proper means of feeding is apt to cell with heavy severity. The Season for Colds. We are practically now in the season when lung affections, popularly summed up under the name of colds, at least as regards their begin- nings, are apt to be prevalent. A few words of caution, therefore, regarding colds and their treatment may be permissible on the present occasion. The importance of a cold may be said to be due to the fact that it tends to form a general or common ground where many other diseases may take origin. The cold in this respect lowers the vitality of the body. It may be compared to the case of that lower state of the system which is repre- sented in a man who lives in a house the drains of which are detective, and who, therefore, is apt to breathe sewage gases. These gases of themselves may not precisely convey to him a disease such as typhoid fever, but in the opinion of sanitarians they lay him more readily open to the attack, not merely of the affection in question, but of other diseases as well. There can be little doubt that the ordinary cold pulls the system down, to use a popular expression, in the case of certain indi- viduals. The ordinary causes, of course, are chill and sudden lowering of thA temperature, for which we are not prepared, and consequent action on the blood vessels of the skin, causing some arrest or slowing of the circulation, the effects of which propagated to the nervous system in due course appear in other regions of the body. In this way one man suffers from a cold in his head, another from a cold in his chest, whilst a third may acquire rheumatism, a fourth Jnmbago, and a fifth neuralgia. All these varied ailments and others, which I need notatuention, start, therefore, from the general condition represented by the word "chill." With regard to the pre- vention of the effects of cold, and what is more to the point with respect to the checking of the disorder in its earlier stages, one of the most sensible pieces of advice is that which recom- mends the person who feels chilly and shivery at once to place himself in a warm, but not too hot room. It he happens to be away from home or in any situation where he cannot immediately gain the shelter he requires, he may fortify him- self by drinking one or two cups of tea, only the tea must be swallowed when it is practically boiling hot. In this way the skin reaction may be re-established, gnd the feeling of chilliness may be counteracted. I need hardly say that if this plan be followed out care must be taken by covering the body sufficiently so that any addi- tional chill may be avoided. Some Other Hints. I am well aware that a great many persons have a tendency to regard the use of alcohol as a means of wardingoff the effects of cold and chill. They should remember that wnilst the first effect of a dose of hot grog will be to stimulate the heart and the skin this period of stimulation is apt to be followed by one of depression. It is on this account that alcohol is not nearly so useful or so well adapted to counteract the effects of a chill as very hot tea, seeing that after drink- ing the latter, depression is practically absent. When the person goes home be should either take a warm bath or place his feet in a tub of hot water, to which a little mustard has been added. He should then go to bed, and if the feel- ing of chilliness still continues, between the blankets have ten grains of Dover's Powder ad- ministered to him in water. This powder will have the effect of inducing profuse perspiration, and in view of this event taking placelt is need- ful again to give the caution that if free action of the skin is induced care must be taken by chang- ing the body clothes to avoid chill. It is through the inducing of free skin action of this kind that we are enabled very frequently to ward off the effects of cold, and to save ourselves from an attack of any of the ailments to which a chill may be said to form the ante-room. As we are also gradually approaching the winter season, I may remind my readers that those who are of feeble circulation, and therefore presumably more liable to the attack of chills than others, should fortify themselves by taking an additional allowance of fatty food. They may increase the amount of butter and ordinary fat they take, but possibly one of the best means of effecting the end in question will be that of taking after meals a tablespoonful of that admirableprepara- tion known by the name of virol. Some persons prefer cod liver oil emulsion, and if this agrees with them, taken after food, that is, it may be thoroughly recommended. A knowledge of the fact that our fatty foods tend not merely to brace up the system but also to provide us with heat and energy should form a certain gnide to our treatment of ourselves during the cold season. Uric Acid. Of late I have had several inquiries respecting uric acid as a cause of disease. Many of my readers may, no doubt, be aware of the fact that excess of uric acid in the blood is commonly re- garded as the cause of gout. Uric acid itself represents a certain stage of what may be called the physiological breakdown in our bodies of those foods we term nitrogenous in character. Briefly regarded these foods are represented by the ordinary meat foods we consume. If they are used up properly in the body their ultimate des- tination is that of appearing in the form of a substance known as urea, which is excreted from the body by the kidneys. If the foods in question are not fully utilised the nrea stage is not reached, and the process of disposing of them really stops at the uric acid stage. When this acid accumulates in the blood, as I have said, to an undue extent, we are then met with the manifestations of gout. What the readers in question, however, specially refer to is the fact that short of the development of gout in our systems the presence of a certain amount of uric acid may give rise to certain symptoms of a very definite character such as are now widely lecog- nised by medical men. Thus, a persistent head- ache is known to be one of the symptoms of the accumulation of uric aoid in the system. Asso- ciated with this symptom we find unhappioess and mental depression. The feeling has been de- scribed by a sufferer as if everything was going wrong. There is also great irritability of temper, and, as it has also been expressed,an inability to look facts fairly in the face. All these symptoms naturally point to the influence which uric acid in this sense exerts upon the brain and nervous system at large. It is unquestionably the fact that a change of diet in such cases cures the patient. Dr. Haig has devoted much time and trouble to the investigation of these uric acid troubles,and books by this author can be obtained from any publisher dealing with the subject in question. Whilst he does not abolish all meat from the dietary, he recommends that the amount of meat taken should be small. Pish, in its way, is preferable to meat, but stress is also laid on the fact that persons who are apt to suffer from uric acid troubles of the kind in question would be much more wisely advised if they adopted what may be described as a vegetarian dietary, and one in which fruits, as well as vegetables, bulk largely. This latter advice is a hint that those readers, who may be troubled with the symptoms in question, will do well to follow even by way of experiment. Alcohol in such cases must be tabooed, and general attention paid to the state of the bodily functions, a certain amount of exercise being taken, whilst rigid attention must also be paid to the condition of the skin.
Illustrated Humour. I "Mamma," said small Flora, "I've go a question that needs an answer." Well, dear, what is it ?" Where does the dark go when daylight comes ?" Sporting Customer Pound of cheese, please. Grocer: Yes, sir; Gorgonzola or Cheddar? S.P.: Oh, I don't care; start em both across tha counter, and I'll take the winner. Clarence (cautiously): Would-er-if I were to ask you to marry me-er-would you be sure to say" Yes" ? Clarissa (also cautiously): Well if I were to eay Yes "—er—would you be sore to ask me to—er —marry you ? First Man Did you ever meet with an acci- dent? Second Man Yes When I met my wife. Bigbee: I say, Smallbee, yoa are jast the man I want to see. Yon have known me now for five years, haven't you ? Smallbee Yes. Bigbee Well, I would like you to accommo- date me with the loan of k2. Smallbee Sorry, Bigbee, but I can't, Bigbee Can't ? Why not ? Smallbee: Because I've known ycu for years. I Merely Things of Beauty. First Fisherman Jost give that bit o' lead a. bite atween yer teeth, will yer? Second Fisherman Ain't yer got no teeth of yer own. First Fisherman I got some, but there ain't none of 'em opposite one another. The universal idea of a level-headed man is one, who agrees with you. She (firmly) We must part for ever, He (in alarm) Why? She I have discovered that I love you. Mrs Strongmind (about to start with the pic- nic party) Let me see-here are the wraps, here's the lunch basket, here's the opera-glass, and here's the bandle of umbrellas. I think we've Rot everything, and yet—children, we haven't forgotten anything, have we? Husband and Father (standing meekly at the horses' heads) Shall I get in now, my dear ? Mrs Strongmind Why, to be sure. James. I knew there was something else t The Calf Was Innocent. ] Mrs Henpeck On the 25th of the month we will celebrate our silver wedding. Don't you think we ought to kill the fatted calf, and ask in the neighbours ? Mr Henpeck Kill the calf ? I don't see how I the unfortunate animal is to blame for what happened twenty-five years ago. The Sentimental One Alas! many a smiling face conceals an aching heart. The Literal Idiot: It seems to me that an aching tooth would be more likely to be there. Mr Slimson (from the head of the stairs): Clara, is that fellow gone yet? Clara Yes, father, he's too far gone to go. Very Magnanimous of Miegs. Mrs Miggs Alfy. promise me you'll never describe me as yoor relict." Alfy Dearest, I never will t I'd die sooner! "How long has this affair been building?" asked the American tourist, as he looked at Cologne Cathedral. About 500 years," answered the guide. Five hundred years Why, over in Chicago we conld put up a building like that and have it all to pieces all within five years." First Farmer Blest if I think the Agricul- tural Department is any good at all f Second Farmer; What's the trouble ? First Farmer Well, I wrote to 'em to find out how high wheat was goin' up to, an' I couldn't get no satisfaction at all. He: The cook has written me a letter asking me for more wages. She Well, isn't that all right? He No. I don't like the letter, because she is untruthful in it. She How so ? He Why, she signs it Your obedient ser. vant." I never w-vste words on a fool," said a pom- pons man. That doesn't agree with your wife's statement," remarked a sceptical friend. '• What did my wife say ?"—angrily. "Why, that you were in the habit of talking to yourself I" He: And so your answer is final-you will not be mine ?—She Never But pray don't go and blow your brains out I—.He It would be a useless attempt. People say if I had any brains I never should have proposed to you I Guest Why do you believe in second sight, major ?—Major (in an impressive whisper): Because I fell in lore at first sight.
Welsh Tit-Bits. Neu Wreichion Oddiar yr Eingion* BY OAORA WO. THE BASSETT FAMILY. The origin of the family of Bassett is Norman. Among the retinue of William the Conqueror were two brothers, named Allan and Thnrstane. The first was a General in the Conqueror's ser- vice. the second being his Grand Falconer, an office, as we have shown lately in this column, of tbe highest distinction. These brothers were the progenitors of the various branches of this great family. Drayton Manor, the seat of the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Bart., was formerly known as Drayton Bassett, and was the residence of the above-mentioned Thurstane Bassett Ralph, his eldest son, continued at Dray ton, from whom descended several noble and illustrious branches of the family who distinguished themselves both in the field of battle and on the Judicial Bench. There were two of the name of Ralph who appear to have held the office of a Judge for many years during the reign of King Henry I. and King John; and the signatures of two of the Bassetts are attached to Magna Charta. Later there are two more of this family holding the office of Chief Justice of the Kings Bench, in the reigns of Henry QI. and Edward HI. while others appear to be actively engaged in the cause of the barons under Simon de Mont- fort, and many of the Bassetts perished in the wars of Henry III. John, one of Thurstane Bassett's youngest sons, came over with Robert Fitzhamon to tbe conquest of Glamorgan, and Fitzhamon ap- pointed him his sheriff, with authority to hold his Courts at Cardiff ClIoStle:and Boverton Grange. lIe also presented him with the Lordship of 8t. T1 inry, together with several knights' feea. This John is supposed to have been born about the year 1066. He married a daughter of Wm. Bretevill, a distinguished Norman, and had issue Sir Richard Bassett, who married a Welsh lady named Cynedda, a daughter of Howel ap Efan, Lord of Senghenydd, and issued Richard, who married Eve, a daughter of Cynfrig ap Griffith, ap Iestyn, ap Gwrgan. The Ancient Name of Beaupre was Maes Essyllt, which signifies in English Fair Meadow, and the Norman name Beaupre ia only a translation of the original Welsh. This castle is stated by Mr Malkins to have been successively possessed by Llywelyn, Conan, and Robert ap Sitsyllt, three Welsh chieftains. Sir James Sitsyllt, son of the said Robert, was slain at tbesiee of Wallingford Castle, in the reign of Stephen. His son John was taken prisoner at thesiegeof Lincoln. A son of this John married a daughter of Sir Walter Pembridge, and had by her Baldwin Sitsyllt, who was slain in his father's lifetime at the siege of Cardiff, in the reign of Henry II. From this family is said to be descended the Earls of Exeter and Salisbury, the Welsh Sitsyllt being Anglicised into Cecil. The tradition that Magna Charta was signed at the old Castle of Beaupre has its origin in the fact that several Bassetts had signed their names to this charter of freedom. We find in the family pedigree of the Bassetts that Sir Philip Bassett, who was Forester of Santh Wales, towards the end of the twelfth century married a Sitsyllt of Beaupre, with whom he received the estate. His next in descent was Alexander, who married the daugh- ter of Tidfyl ap Howel. This person is said t& have distinguished himself greatly as a Crusader in the Holy Land. His son William married a daughter of one of the Tnrbervilles of Coity. Thomas their son married Alice, daughter of William de Carey, oE Cardiff, and issued Sir Elias, married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Delabace Lord of Gwibli and Knolston, in Gower. The arms of the Celabares form the second of the six compartments on the old Porch at Beaupre. The issue from this marriage was Hugh. who married Sleicy, a daughter of Sir Griffith ap Nicholas. This Hugh is supposed to have been engaged in a fatal duel wherein he slew hie opponent! and his lands in consequence were forfeited to the Crown. John, brother or cousin to the aforesaid Hugh, continued the Bassett line. He married Joan, daughter and heiress of Thomas ap Madog ap Rhun. This John was witness to a Cardiff Charter, bearing date 16th Oct., 20th of Richard II., or A.D. 1397, He is buried at St. Hilary, where a handsome recumbent figure of him may still be seen on his tomb in the chancel of the church. On the tomb his death ia recorded 4a have taken place 14th Dec., 1423. On the tomb are carved the arms of the Bassetts. Before-we leave this tomb. let me ask- Where is the Welsh Motto so prominently placed over the old porch af Bewper, with the Bassett arms? Why not here on the tomb? Had it been adopted by the family at this time ? Or was it after the death of this John Bassett it was adopted f I am inclined to believe that it was after the above date it became the family motto of the Bassetta It was used by the De Spencers previous to the above date. Sir Thomas LeDespencer, who died 1400, being killed by the rabble at the High Cross, Bristol, had for his motto the Welsh legend— Gwell Angau na Cbywilydd." This ia on his tomb at Tewkesbury Abbey. Thif Sir Thomas was in residence at Cardiff Castle, or had escaped there after the battle in which he acted treasonably towards the King (Richard IL). When the King sent his soldiers down to Cardiff he bolted, and got on a ship in the Bristol Channel. But the captain of the vessel would not land him at any port but that o Bristol, and the people of that town hated th< Despencers, and forced the Mayor to hand hin, over to them, and he was cruelly done to deatfc by them. But his remains were taken to the Abbey, the burial place of Fitzhamon, the De. Clares, and the Despencers. If it coulrik be proved that the Bassetts married into the Despencer family, we could account for the subsequent Cde of the motto by the Bassetts, But Thomas, tbe son of the above mentioned John Bassett, married Alice, daughter and heiress of Lewis Marcross, Esq., and by thiir marriage the Bassetts became possessed of the Marcross estate. From this marriage there appears no issue. The next in rotation is John Bassett, born 1410, who married Gwenllian, daughter of Eva" Gethin, ap Evan, ap Lleysion, Lord of Baglan, From this marriage issued Jane, who married John Butler, Esq., of Dunraven, and Jenkir, Bassett, the continuator of the Beaupre line, who married Jennet, daughter of Morgan Jen- kin Philyp. of Pencoed, Moumouthsbire-thf" same family as the Morgans, of Tredegar. From this marriage issued— James Bassett, who married Catherine, daugh- ter of Rimbron Mathew, Esq., of Llandaff, and issued an heiress, Eleanor, who became the nrat wife of Sir Rees Mansell, Knt., nurchaser oi Margam Abbey, which at the Dissolution was of the value of JE188 14s total yearly income- 8 tolerably large sum at that time—the King- granting the site to his faithful friend and councillor Sir Rees Mansell. irom whose des dants it has passed into the possession of the Talbot family. The original document is still extant which records the Crown sale to Sir Reec Mansell, Knt., for the sum of JE938 6s 8d. Sir Rees, in A.D. 1552, converted part of the Abbey into a dwelling-house, which for two centuriea continued to be the family mansion. The modern mansion of Margam was built by the late Mr C. R. M. Talbot, M.P. It is in the Tudor style, and from tbe design of a London architect, a Mr Hopper. This is the first instance it seems of a failure ot transmitting inheritance from father to SO in the Beaupre family. But the name restored with the next generation. Sir Rice Mansell gave the Beaupre estate aa a marriage portion with his daughter Catherine, who mar- ried William Bassett, born 1510, who was 4th and 18th sheriff for the county of Glamorgan, who also represented the county in the British Parliament in the years 1563-1571, Richard, eldest son of WiJliiam and Catherine Bassett, born 1535, married, 1st, Mary, sole heiress of Thomas Bowen, Esq., ofFishwear; 2nd, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Raglan, who had been the widow of John Carae; and 3rd, Catherine, a daughter of Sir Harri John, of Abermarlais, a widow of Thomas Vychan of Dunraven. but bad no issue by his last twe wives. This Richard it was wbo built the poreh at Beaupre, a beautiful specimen of architecture in the Elizabethan era. There is a tradition, but no evidence, that the plan of this porch was furnished by the celebrated architect. Ioigt Jones, who at that time was taking a took through the Principality, and that it was lnigt who recommended his fellow traveller^and com- panion in Italy, Twrch, to Mr Richard BaMett for the execution of tbe design.