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FOREIGM INTELLIGENCE. DESPATCHES FROM THE CRIMEA. (From the London Gazette of Tuesday, December 18.) "WAR DEPARTMENT, DEC. 18. Lord Panmure 1m this day received a despatch and its enclosures, of which the following are copies, addressed to his Lordship by General Sir William Codrington, K.C.B. :— "SEBASTOPOL, DEC. 4. "My Lord,—The enemy continue to fire occasionally, and sometimes heavily, on parts of the town. They must have expended a considerable quantity of valuable am- munition, without causing U3 any loss or inconvenience. The enclosed casualty return is the first of the sort I have had occasion to report to your Lordship. It may seem unimportant to refer to the state of roads and weather here, but their condition affects the essential communications and well-being of the nrmy, The winter broke upon us suddenly on the 26th and 27th with snow, and has varied with gales and rain; and a very deep state of the ground has damaged all communi- cations. Constant presence of labourers and constant attention are requisite, and are being given to the road, which, from a peculiarity of soil and condition, was worked into holes, but which is and will continue to be of the greatest service to the army and i's supplies. I have, &c., W. J. CODIUNGTO.V, General Commanding." P.S. I beg leave also to forward the weekly report of Dr. Hall, the principal medical officer, by which your Lordship will perceive that the general state of health of the army continues favourable. W. J. CODRINGTOX, General Commanding. The Lord Panmure, &c." HEAD-QUARTERS CAMP, CRIMEA, DEC. 4. Sir,-I am glad to be able to point out a continuance of the favourable state of health of the army. The weather has been boisterous, wet, cold, and changeable, which has occasioned an increase of catarrhal affections, and added some cases of catarrhal ophthalmia to our list; but the admissions under this head have de- creased nearly onc-hah during the present week, and it is to be hoped, by care,and removal of those labouring under the complaint to the Monastery, that the disease will not extend. There has been a decrease in the number of admis- sions from fever, but an increase of mortality, confined chiefly to the Land Transport Corps, as 14 out of the 19 deaths that occurred during the week, took place in that branch of the service alone. This corps has a heavier sick-list than any division of the army, which is not to be wondered at, as many of the Europeans have recently arrived in the country, and are not yet acclimated, and the natives bear fatigue and the vicissitudes of weather, like that which we now have, but ill. The following show the ratios of sickness and mor- tality during the week: — l'er cen t. The admissions to strength have been 2.01 Deaths to strength 0.07 Exclusive of Land Transport 0.04 Sick to well 6.08 Exclusive of wounds and injuries 4.90 "J. HALL, Inspector-General of Hospitals. General Sir William CoJrington, K.C.B., Commander-in.Chief." FRANCE. PAlUS, SUNDAY, DEC. 16, 6 P.M. That a great desire for peace is to be found here is undoubted, and it is certain that both Russia and Austria are well aware of the fact. The effect would naturally be to make the one more disposed to hold out, and the other, perhaps, more incomprehensible and tantalizing in her intervention. A separation between France and England is not to be thought of, and if the latter has consented to forego any conditions which she may have considered essential to attaining the great object both C, have ever had in view, it is probably more out of defer- ence for her faithful ally than from any conviction of her own as to the necessity for the sacrifice. I do not be- lieve that Austrian intervention would be listened to by England at this stage of the proceedings but for the same deference. The arrival of the new English Ambassador at Vienna gave rise here, as well as there, to the various rumours which I have already noticed. It was believed for a time that he was the bearer of instructions relative to the propositions arranged between the English and French Cabinets and the moment M. de Serre, Secretary of the French Legation at Vienna, and who had been on leave of absence here, returned to his post, it was affirmed that he also took with him instructions to the same effect, and that the propositions to which they referred, met with the complete approval of the Cabine of Vienna, and that these propositions were to be presented at St. Petersburg by Count Esterhazy. Indeed, it was stated here yesterday, on the authority of an official person, that the Count (whose return to "his post was daily ex- pected) would lose no time in commencing negotiations with the Russian Government. The Russian Government affects to be very indignant that any one should suppose that it had taken the initia- tive in the matter of the propositions, or had invited the intervention of Austria. The Cabinet of St. Petersburg may not have made such a request officially, but I have no doubt that it found means to convey in an indirect manner its wishes on that head. It is quite as well known at St. Petersburg as it is at Vienna, what the feelings of the English people are on the war. It is no secret to public men in either capital. and generally among the better informed and higher classes, if not among the mass of the people, that England is determined to make no imperfect peace, after the sacrifices she has already submitted to and that she is now making gigantic preparations to finish once for all with Russian aggression, and show to the world that the more the danger increases, the sterner is her determi- nation to face it. And it is known at Vienna, quite as well as it is in Paris and London, that to-morrow Lord Palmerston would have much more chance of being sup- ported by the English Parliament in his demand for men and money to carry on the war, than he would when laying on the table the propositions for peace. It is affirmed by some respectable persons here, that the pro- position fc-r tha neutralisation of the Black Sea is, in reality, considered hy the Russian Ambissador, at Vienna, to be acceptable, whatever he may affect to the contrary. The present moment for Count Esterhazy's opening his negotiations with the Cabinet of St. Petersburg, is considered very good. Among the higher classes of Russian society, at Vienna, the longing for peace is not concealed; on the contrary, it is expressed most earnestly, most ardentlv. That the same feeling exists at St. Pe- tersburg, few can lid persons, who know anything of the matter, deny, however they may declare that Russia has not taken the initiative. It is no sign of weakness that the co-operation of the secondary States should be invited by the All es. If another campaign opens, it will be more terrible still than the last, and it is not surprising that they should muster all their strength, any more than it is that they should leave the door open for peace to the last moment. It is the opinion of a well-informed man, of much judgment and experience in political mat- ters, that in the event of Russia rejecting every propo- sition, refusing to make any concession, accepting nothing and granting nothing, closing her ears to the counsels of her friends, and still braving the power of her enemies, her friends, and still braving the power of her enemies, then Austria will present an ultimatum to Russia. I should not be astonished if the general terms of that eventual communication were already agreed on between the Cabu.is ul Vienna, Paris, and London.—Times' Correspondent. PARIS, MONDAY, DEC. 17, 6 P.M. The difference which existed between the English and French Governments, relative to the conditions on which they would make peace with Russia are, as I mentioned in a previous letter, terminated, and the propositions which Count Valentine Esterhazy will have to communi- cate to M. de Nesselrode are such as are considered ac- ceptable by England and France. I cannot state in a positive maimer what was the real ground of difference whether, as some say, it referred to a material gua- rantee" of a permanent character, or to a war of indem- nity; but it is not doubtful that for some time the Eng- lish Cabinet, or a portion of it, was unwilling to accept a settlement on the terms which this Government deemed sufficient. It is, however, certain, that the difference, such as it was, has now disappeared. My letter of yesterday informed you of the mission intrusted by his Government to Count Esterhazy. It would be useless to speculate, or even to hazard a con- jecture, on the result. The most experienced, the best informed, and the most clear-sighted men are divided in opinion but the majority incline to believe that Russia will not accept the propositions of which the Count is the bearer, and if she perssvere in the determination ex- pressed not many weeks since, I think that opinion will prove to be correct. Austria is not the first that has, after a certain interval of time, made renewed attempts towards an arrangement. It is not I ong since, Baron Werther, the Prussian Minister at St. Petersburgh, had a long and animated conversation with M. de Nesselrode on the same subject, and, though the representative of such a Sovereign as Prussia is blessed with, spoke, it is said, with surprising boldness, the temerity of a friend, an associate, if not an accomplice, is pardonable when it does not go beyond words, and M. de Nesselrode listened with patience to the end. When Baron Werther had exhausted all his own rhetoric, as well as the borrowed eloquence of his master, M de Nesselrode replied, "Russia will not accept such conditions; Russia will never treat, while there is a foreign soldier on her terri- ory!" Baron Werther again pressed the subject- he dwelt on the danger of a change of policy among' the German States of the second order; gpoke feelingly of the visit of the Bavarian and Saxon Ministers to Paris; of the impression made upon them by the Emperor and his Minister for Foreign Affairs; of the effect throughout Germany of the Emperor's speech at the Paris Exhibi- tion in a word, he made use of every topic likely to touch the mind or heart of the Russian, but the reply I was stil' the same, and M. de Weither retired from the conference unsuccessful. This, I presume, will be de- nied in the Russian organs in Prussia and Belgium, as was the mission of M. de Munster, and the anxious impatience with which M. Staekelbergh's return to Vienna was expected. I have it, however, from to" good an authority to have much doubt of its general correctness. On the question of any previous understanding be- tween Austria and Russia, much doubt is entertained. But we may venture to put the question whether Aus- tria would press on Russia propositions she does know will not be accepted, either wholly or in part, or will submit to the same rebuff encountered by Prussia ? M. de Buol has had conferences with Prince Gortschakoff on the point, and I have reason to believe that the language used at them was such as, from any other Power, could only be followed, in case of failure, by acts of vigour. Whether she will do these acts is another question. It is believed at Vienna and elsewhere that France is more desirous of peace than England, and this desire, perhaps too clearly and too often manifested, may add to the obstinacy of Russia, and produce its effect on Austria. The value of every commodity is raised in proportion to the presumed wants of the purchaser, and the man who wishes to drive a good bargain will do well to disguise his impatience for the possession of the article, or his absolute necessity for it. France has great resources at her command to carry on the war, and her Government would act wisely not to appear to seize with eagerness the first chance that presents itself of making peace. The Patrie publishes the following telegraphic des- patches BERLIN. DEC. 16.—It is currently reported that about the 15th November last Prussia addressed a des- patch to St. Petersburg, with an earnest request to the Russian Government to accept the interpretation given by the allies to the third point of guarantee. Russia has not yet replied." HAMBURG, DEC. 16 —The Russian Generals assem- bled at St. Petersburg, have already held meetings at the Admiralty and at the Ministry of War. At the close of December they are to form a permanent Grand Council of War." A letter from Sprzzia, of the 11th inst., announces that a French war steamer had entered the Gulf on that day with a Russian vessel, sailing under Tuscan colours, which she had captured a"ar Leghorn.—Times' Corres- pondent. RUSSIA. BERLIN, DEC. 16. There is a talk here of a circular note having been addressed by Count Nesselrode to the representatives of Russia, at the different Courts that have made repre- sentations to Ru-sia on the subject of peace. The con- tents of this circular, as represented by those who pre- tend to know all about it (for my own part I do not believe in its existence), resemble so much the views put forward by the representatives of Russia sat the Vienna I Conferences that, if true, the "powers that be" in Russia still look upon her position as unchanged fur the worst since than, or else that nothing is to be got out of her by diplomatic means. In Copenhagen there is a story afloat affording ample and piquant opportunities for those who know some little of Russian ways to indulge in very unfavourable suspicions of the Russian diplomatists there. It is related that as General Canrobert one evening returned some- what earlier than usual to his apartments in the Hotel d'Angleterre, be found a strange man standing at his secretaire, which had been broken open, or opened with a false key, and so busily occupied in examining his papers that he did not observe the General's entrance. In high indignation, the latter is represented to have seized a candlestick, or, as others say, some sharp-cutting object, and to have flung it at his.head. The stranger, turning round, received a severe wound in the head" in the neighbourhood of the eye, or, as others say, bad his eye knocked out. That is the story the fact is, that the same evening a valet de place was conveyed from the Hotel d'Angleterre to the hospital, where be seems to be under some danger of losing his eye from a hurt he has received. A private letter from Moscow at the end of November, speaks of the confidence of the petty tradesmen in the Russian paper currency being much shaken that cases frequently occur now, more particularly in Moscow, Nichni, Astrakhan, &c., of their refusing to take it, while, on the other hand, they keep back and hide their silver money. Silver continues to rise there in price, a great deal of it being smuggled out of the country, then melted down. and brought back at an advance. The patriotic contributions" to the war fund are made for the most part in kind, consisting of manufactured goods, produce of the soil, pictures of saints, the paper money issued by various monetary institutions or their coupons, so that the Treasury itself is not much the richer for them. Exactly the same I read in a letter from St. Petersburg now before me; -the preference which the Russian at all times entertains for specie, increases in the same propoortion as the paper money increases. For all trade with Asia, paper money is, of course, useless; silver becomes every day dearer, and, in spite of every prohi- bition, disappears more and more from circulation. The public offices pay out little or no silver, and it is ex- pected that very shortly it will be made obligatory for a portion, at least, of the taxes to be paid in coin. The high price of sugar, which seems to be a matter of gene- ral complaint everywhere, continues to rise, and the stocks in hand continue to diminish, without prospect of being replenished, and the prices of conveyance from Kowno to the capital, increase the already high pric s to an almost unattainable amount. THE UNITED STATES. NEW YORK, DKC. 4. Congress met yesterday, and up to the time I am writ- ing have not succeeded in electing a Speaker. The vote, so far as taken, shows an Administration strength of about 75, a Southern Whig and Know-nothing strength of 30, and a Northern Know-nothing and Republican strength of 104. As soon as the House is organised, the Message will be sent in, and with it will be published the correspondence with the British Minister and the British Government, and the world will see whether there was the better cause for the apprehension that pre- vailed in Europe, or for the confidence in continued peace that has been felt and manifested here. The trial of Aaron Burr was really for a violation of the neutrality laws, although not so (if I remember rightly) in form. And when the laws were supposed to be found insufficient, in the case of the Canadian insur- rection, additional powers were given to the President by Congress. Kossuth, when here, urged in his popular orations, a departure from the long-settled policy of neu- trality; but his words rebounded from public opinion without moving it, and destroyed the popular influence of his oratory. For these reasons, and especially from the tone of public criticism on the present questions I have concluded that even the present Government weak as it is in Congress, would be sustained in a vigorous effort to maintain the neutrality of this country. And so uni- versal is this sentiment, that such a course would not be regarded as tending to a collision between the two Go- vernments. But should the Cabinet attempt to go beyond an honest enforcement of these laws, and refuse to re- ceive a reasonable explanation of a mistake, then it is not so clear that public opinion will follow it; though, for that matter, the temper in which the question has been discussed would strengthen this Government even in that case. The New York Journal of Commerce, a paper friendly in the main to the Administration, enters a pro- test on behalf of a very large section of Conservative Democrats, against the further prosecution of this busi- ness :— We regret to see it announced in letters from Wash- ington to the public press in this city, that it is the deter- mination of the Administration to make the British Mi- nister, Mr. Crampton, the expiatory victim to the offence alleged to have been perpetrated in violation of our laws by the enlistment of men in the United States for the British army. The energy of the Government, favoured by a healthy tone of public sentiment, has been success- fully exerted in vindication of the neutrality laws and their attempted infringement has been rebuked by the con- viction, and is now being atoned for by the punishment, of at least one of the offenders. The result of this prompt enforcement of the law is, that all attempts to obtain re- cruits in this country for the Crimea are abandoned, and that intimations have been made to this Government on the part of Great Britain, that the efforts heretofore made were undertaken in the belief that they would not be re- garded as offensive by the Government and people of this country, and that they did not involve the violation of our laws." This view of the transaction is further esta- blished by the publication of Mr. Crampton's instructions to those who are to make known to persons in the United States the terms and conditions upon which recruits will be received into the British army.' Such agents are abun- dantly cautioned to refrain from violating the laws by recruiting, or hiring, or retaining anybody to leave this jurisdiction with intent to enlist in the service of a foreign Power,' or by making promises or contracts here on the subject of enlistment. They are required to confine their action strictly to giving information as to the terms and facilities offered by the British Government to persons within British territory. In the event of their going be- yond this limit, they are distinctly apprised that the British Government will in no way sustain them, but, on the contrary, will feel compelled, by the clearest dictates of international duty, to disavow their proceedings.' "There is no testimony before the public deserving of consideration, connecting the British Minister at Wash- ington with the recruiting operations in this country, except the instructions which have already appeared in our columns, the purport of which is briefly given above. From the tenor of these, it is evident that no design ex- isted to violate the sovereignty of our Government and laws, and that, although it was hoped that the induce- ments offered would tempt such portions of the population as had no better prospects here, nor ties to bind them to the country, to take service with the British army, the reasonable expectation was entertained that their depar- ture from among us, under circumstances like these, would result neither in injury to our material interests, nor in wounding the sensibilities of our Government or people. As soon as the steps taken to this end were met with official rebuke, they were promptly abandoned, and conciliafory explanations were promptly made on the part of the British Government, together with satisfactory assurances as regard, the future. Aud here, we trust, the matter will be allowed to end. Our rights were encroached upon but the prompt ac- knowledgment of the offence, before it bad involved us in rouble has been tendered, and what do we want more ? This is considered a sufficient atonement where the parties are private gentlemen and it does not seem as if any- thing further were requisite in this collision of Govern- ments To push the matter beyond this point, and to require that Mr. Crampton should be recalled or dismissed from his post, would seem to be vindictive and unworthy the magnanimity of a nation confident in its power and in the respect of mankind. Nor would the public senti- ment justify the Government in the adoption of such a course, unless there exist other evidence of delinquency on the part of the Minister, than that which has been given to the world. We are safe in saying that there is no disposition in the community here to press the demand for satisfaction beyond the explanations and assurances which are already understood to have been given. We do not know but that some incidents of formality may still be necessary to satisfy the requirements of diplomatic etiquette but in the temper of the British Government and country, judging from the tone of the London press, no deficiency of that nature wi!l be permitted to consti- tute an obstacle to the restoration of as amicable relations between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain, as. wo believe, now to be firmly established between the peoples of the t o countries." The money market of New York, always responsive to London, is again tight. Money is in fair demand, though not enough to justify the rates at which it is held. Bread stuffs continue to arrive. The canals are kept open, and will be kept open as long as the frost will permit. I understand that large quantities are arriving at Syracuse from Oswego, in the hope of getting through to Albany before the canals are closed, and that for this reason they are to be kept open longer than was intended. INDIA. The Overland Mail arrived in London on Friday, with deRpatehes from Calcutta to the 8th, and Bombay to the 15th of November. Vigorous measures had at length been taken to put down the Santals. The cold weather having arrived, the troops could enter the jungles. Mar- tial law was to be instantly proclaimed; 6,000 troops were to he added to the permanent force stationed at I Bengal; General Lloyd, with one body, was marching down the grand trunk road, and sweeping the Santals southwards. General Bird's force, stationed at and about Raneegunge, would intercept their flight, and the savages, thus surrounded, it was supposed, would submit or be exterminated. An act was to be passed condemning the Santals to labour for ten years, in constructing roads through their country, and bridging its rivers and creeks. With regard to the religious war in Oude, it was known at Bombay on the 12th, that Ameen Ali had collected an army of 3,000 men, and was advancing upon Fyzabad to burn the Hindoo temple there; and that the King's Government had promised to direct the Royal troops to prevent him doing so. A telegraphic message from Meerut reached Bombay on the ]4th, stating that "on the 9th, the insurgents of Oude were defeated by the King's troops, and their leader, A.meen Ali killed." If this be correct, the danger for the present is over. The Governor- General has issued a proclamation announcing the fall of Sebastopol, giving a brief account of the losses of Russia during the war, and appointing the 2nd of December as a day of thanksgiving for the successes of the Allies, to be observed throughout the Indian empire. THE WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC MAILS. SOUTHAMPTON, DEC. 17. The Royal Mail Company's steamship Parana, Captain Elliston, with the West India and Mexican mails, in charge of Lieutenant Brydges, R N., Admiralty agent, has arrived. The Parana brings forty passengers, among whom are Captains Phillimore, R.N.; the Hon. A. Bury Fenwick; and Captain and Mrs. Milner; Lieutenant Duncan, Rev. W. Jackson and son, &c. On freight, there is specie valued at 633,972 dolls. 90c. —say £ 126,000., of which 620,048 dolls, are from the Pacific ports. The total com- prises 361,035 dolls. 7c. in dollars, 256,483 dolls. 23c. value in gold and gold dust, 6.240 dolls. 60c. value in plata pina, and 10,214 dolls, value in silver coin and old silver. The cargo comprises 399 serons of cochineal, 62 serons of bark, 18 serons of sarsaparilla, 60 bags of cocoa, 449 casks of coffee, 42 packages of succades, and 53 pack- ages of sundries. From Jamaica, our dates are to the 27th ult. The Legislature was still in session when the packet left, and appeared very dilatory in proceeding with the business of legislation. They had passed a Clergy Bill, with a dura- tion clause of fourteen years, whereby a saving of 12l per cent, on the salaries paid to the clergy has been effected, or about £ 3,000 per annum. A message from his Excel- lency the governor bad been presented to the House accompanied by a despatch from the colonial secretary, proposing to send out a geologist and mineralogist to the West India colonies, at the expense of the Home Go- vernment,providing each colony would pay 20s. per diem towards his travelling expenses when actually engaged in such labour. The proposition had been agreed to by the House. Trade in the city was extremely dull, and arrivals had beeen very few. The news of the unex- pected advance in the price of sugar, brought out by the Parana, was received with great satisfaction, and the fur- ther abandonment of estates would, in consequence, for the present be averted There was an ample stock of brandy, but no sales. Bread was in extreme supply, with little demand. The market for corn meal had been very quiet, and the stock was in excess of the demand. In cheese, sales of D.G. were made at Is. 3d. per lb. Logwood was held at 10 dolls, per ton. No sales in malt. There were no trans- actions in soap, holders asking extravagant prices. Ex- change on London for bills at 90 days' date,was quoted at one per cent, premium 60 days, If ditto; 30 days, two ditto. From St. Vincent's we have intelligence to the 26th ult. The ship Anna, from Demerara for London, which had put into the island disabled and leaky, had been repaired, and sailed on the 13th of November. The Lieutenant-governor had threatened to open the gaol, unless means were voted for the maintenance of the prisoners. The high prices of produce had induced many parties to visit the island with the view of purchasing some of the numerous estates nov offered for sale. Shipping was scarce, and freights quoted 4s. to 4s. 3d. for sugar; 5d. to 6d. for rum. THE FALL OF KARS. The Times says-Three Eastern regions are from time to time spoken of as the seat of war." In one a disas- trous drama has just been enacted. Amid the bleak heights of the Armenian mountains an heroic struggle is now concluded. For nearly five months the defenders of Kars resisted the canon of a vastly superior force. Twice they repelled the onset of the enemy. No event oF the war has displayed more courage and stubborn for- titude noye has more called forth the interest and admi- ration of the world. But famine has done its work, and brave men have yielded when honour and their country's fame were fully satisfied. Kars is now a Russian posi- tion. The earthworks which our gallant countrymen constructed will now shelter determined foes, emulous of the resistance of Sebastopol, and anxious to preserve what they must feel to be their only conquest. Gumri is now no longer the advanced post of the Czar; his armies, though weakened by their long and dreary bivouac, now hold a fortress and a district 8,000 feet above the sea, in a country difficult to approach, and guarded by the long range of the Soghanly Dagh from the attempt of any but a powerful and resolute foe. These mountains look down on Erzeroum, which is now the frontier city of the Turks. There is probably little fear that it will be at- tacked at such a season, should a relieving army have had time to concentrate itself behind the works, which were the especial care of our gallant General Williams. But it is evident that we know too little of the armies in these parts to make any conclusion weighty. Nineteen days have elapsed before the surrender of Kars has been fully confirmed in that time much may have happened, and of Vely Pasha and his forces wo know almost no- thing. On the inland Asiatic sea of war we are thus certain but of one thing—that the Turks have lost an important post, and that another may be perhaps in danger. SlIt COLIN CAMPBELL.—This distinguished officer has been applied to by a number of the citizens of Glasgow, to allow himself to be nominated for the representation of its constituency, in the event of a dissolution of parlia- ment. In his reply, the gallant General says :—" I in- tend leaving this country for my post in the Crimea in a few days but I am most deeply sensible of the high ) honour contemplated by the gentlemen whose sentiments you represent, which I r quest you will express to them. At the same time, I would add that, as from the age of 15, I have devoted my best energies to the profession of a soldier, I have had no time to give to the consideration of those subjects in which the prosperity of so great a commercial city as Glasgow is concerned. I therefore feel that I could not do justice to the position which I might obtain through the good opinion of its electors, and I, therefore purpose, as long as it pleases the Almighty to give me health and strength, to persevere in a profession to which I am ardently attached and devoted. Under these circumstances, I beg respectfully to decline the honour proposed. have the honour to be, sir, your very faithful and obliged servant, C. CAMPBELL." MUNICIPAL BOROUGHS IN ENGLAND AND \S^.LES.— On Monday was published an abstract of the accounts of boroughs in England and Wales for the year ended the 31st of August last. It hence appears that the gross total receipts (including the balance in the treasurers' hands) amounted to the sum of J61,590,609, whereof j6311,953 .accrued from borough rates, and i61,156,860 from other receipts." It fuither appears that the total loncurrent expenditure amounted to £ 1,522,230, including fE25,211 due to treasurers. THE STATE OF MISERY AND DISTRESS INTO WHICH RUSSIA HAS BEEN PLUNGED BY THE WAR. The following letter has been received from Russian Poland it is dated the 28th ult. "The incognito journey of the Czar to the Crimea, where he made only a short stay, has revived in the Russian press, so mute and so servile, the pre-eminence of the governmental system in that empire over all the other nations of Europe, and especially of France and England. Here the deepest silence covers all the acts of Government. Troops are levied, assembled, disembodied, marched to the north or to the south, or retrace their steps; diplomatic agents or secret emissaries are despatched in all directions; but all is done mysteriously. Yet, in spite of all these difficulties, in spite of all precautions, we occasionally learn sufficient to enable us to form an opinion of the misery into which the war has plunged Russia. The Chamber of Public Relief of St. 'Petersburgh has been obliged to sell by auction, the property on which it had made advances, but which it was impossible for the borrowers to pay when the moment arrived; and the number of insolvent debtors increases daily. The popu- lation. itself has suffered from this state of things. A census has been taken of the male population, and, though four years have passed since the last, yet the numbers remain still the same. On certain points of the empire it is less than in 1851, owing, doubtless, to the numerous levies since then. It is not the loss on the field of battle which is solely the cause of this decrease; the general health of the army has much to do with it, and the last report of General Paniutin on the mortality among the troops is actually fearful. These unhappy wretches are decimated by epidemic diseases, which assume every sort of character. For several years past the cholera has not ceased a single day at St. Petersburgh the number of cases may vary, but the malady never disappears. It is not in Russia only that it exists; it rages in Finland, in the Baltic provinces, in Poland, in the Crimea, and in the Caucasus, and wherever troops are assembled in numbers, cholera is sure to be in the midst of them. One fact which is now beyond dispute, and which has particularly attracted attention, is, that the female population exceeded the male in proportions far greater than in any other European country, and the J great difference between them is now more remarkable than ever. Whatever be the sacrifices made by the Allied Powers in carrying on the war, they will never be comparable to those of Russia. She has now eight armies on foot the first, of Finland, under General Berg the second, of St. Petersburgh, under General Rudiger; the third, of the Baltic, under General Sievers the fourth, of Poland, under General Soumarakoff; the fifth, of the centre, under General Paniutin; the sixth, of the centre, under General Luders; the seventh, of the Crimea, under General Gortschakoff; and the eighth, of the Caucasus, under General Mouravieff. Russia must possess great vitality to meet so many claims; but these violent efforts must produce exhaustion, and that exhaustion her fall. It would be difficult to give an exact notion of the misery which prevails in several provinces of the empire, and particularly in Poland. I have just traversed the whole southern part of Volhynia, and I have found everywhere the same evils. The most ordinary articles of consumption are so dear, that the peasants are deprived of a portion of what is most necessary, and those who can afford to purchase arrive in crowds to empty markets, from which the greatest part return empty. The harvest has not, however, been bad; indeed, it may be said that we have had an average year, but the corn is taken off for the Government and sent to the south, to form immense magazines, which are destined to become the prey of flames, and are consequently lost to every one. In certain provinces the grain intended for seed has failed, and I can declare, without fear of contradiction, that, at the very least, one-fourth of the arable land will remain out of cultivation for want of seed and of hands. The peasants are not the only class that suffer from this state of things. The nobles—even the richest among them— whose fortune consists of corn, see their revenues reduced to proportions which, for most of them, the continuance of the war will change into absolute ruin. All classes of industry are in a state of prostration; the national activity is paralyzed; and commercehassufferedirreparable evil. Distilleries are the only establishments that are fully at work. As the Russian Government supplies the national enthusiasm of its troops with the excitement of intoxication, sprituous liquors are made in enormous quantities for the Crimea and Bessarabia, in order to heat up the courage of the soldiers. All the grain employed by manufacturers is taken away for consumption, and increases the general misery. We bad counted on the potato crop, which at first presented a favourable aspect, but the blight has made terrible ravages, and fully one-third of the whole is affected with it. To these evils is to be added that of the levies, if we call by that name the brutal press system, which, in a few hours, makes a soldier of a quiet peasant, and hurries him off from his family without the remotest hope of ever again beholding him dead or alive. The peasants make the most desperate efforts to escape from the recruit- ing parties, and I could quote you thousands of instances of the perseverance and. audacity displayed in flying from them. Prince Paskiewitch continues very ill. The Emperor Alexander has just sent him another physician. People have reached such a degree of hypocrisy, that for the last ten days public prayers are offerad up in the synagogues for his recovery. I leave you to judge how far those prayers can be sincere."


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