QUARTERLY MEETING.—On Sunday last, a quarterly meet- ing was held at Zion Baptist Chapel, Biynmawr, -when the Herds. J. Jones, Merthyr, and B. Price, (Cymro Bach,) preached to large congregations. A collection was made at the close of each service towards liquidating the debt on the chapel. LECTURE.—A lecture was delivered, on Monday evening last, by the Rev. J. Jones, Merthyr, in Zion Baptist Chapel, Brynmawr, on "Miracles."
CHEPSTOW- SOUTH WALES RAILWAY.—Through several reports having reached the authorities, to the effect that many passengers are constantly riding in second class carriages, with third class tickets, and, in fact, boasting of their ability to do so, at all stations, when the tickets are collected at the gate, the trains have been stopped within some few hundred yards of the stations, and the tickets examined, with a view to detect any fraudulent attempt on the company. We have not heard of any who have yet come under the lash of the law.—The telegraph wires on the South Wales Railway are laid to Gloucester, and will be now completed on the whole range of the line. VENTRILOQUISM. -Two ventriloquial entertainments were given by Professor Ewart, on two evenings, last week, at the Assembly-room, Beaufort Arms Hotel. The audience on either evening, was far from being so large as the nature of the performance, which was unquestionably first-rate, de- served the ability of Mr. Ewart, which was all that could be desired in the art of ventriloquism, was fully exemplified in the truly wonderful, though natural, power of the human voice, displayed by him in his varied performance. The power of imitation, combined with the extraordinary ability of sending the voice apparently to an immense distance, was no less surprising than wonderful and interesting. The parts of the programme which more particularly struck the audience were, the imitation of a hive of bees, the watchman calling the hour of the night, the town crier proclaiming a lost hat, the dialogue between an Irishman and a Scotchman, and the winter evening's party. The performance was as natural as xeality itself; the imitation of seven or eight different voices, and their approaching and receding sounds, was truly excel- lent, and the audience could hardly believe but that several persons were actually assisting Mr. Ewart, though from the nature of the room, that was impossible. Should Professor Ewart visit Chepstow again, we hope he will get those .audiences which his talent deserves. PALM SUNDAY.—The interesting ceremony of decorating the graves in the churchyard, as is usual on this day, was performed by some hundreds of persons on Sunday morning. About ten o'clock the place was thronged with people, who engaged in their work with a becoming spirit. Many of the graves were beautifully decorated with wreaths and bouquets, and the scene presented added to the solemnity of the occasion.
CRICKHOWELL. PETTY SESSION S.—FRIDAY. [Before Capts. Seymour & Parkenson.] Thomas Stevens, farmer, Llanellen, was summoned for allowing his servant to ride in his waggon, in the parish of lilanelly, without reins. Mr. Stevens said he was at the time under a week's notice to leave, and had left on the day follow- ing he had therefore no chance of getting the expenses, and thought it a hard case for him to pay for the misbehaviour of his servant. The Magistrates told him that, if he wished, they would adjourn the case for a week, and would grant him a summons against the man, but should he not be forthcoming, he would. have to pay the expenses. Mr. Stevens paid the 13s. costs, and a nominal fine of 6d., and received permission to get the summons, if he thought proper. John Bevan, farmer, Llanellen, appeared to answer a sum- toons issued against his servant, for a similar offence, and was fined os., and 14s. 6d. costs. The Magistrates allowed an assault case, from Cwmdu, to be settled out of court. Summonses were granted against William Parson and Francis Herbert, of Llangattock, the former for stealing a furret, and the latter for being drunk and disorderly on Sunday week.
EBBW VALE. [TO THE EDITOR.] SIR, In the Tredegar County Court report, I observed ray name very improperly made nse of: therefore I hope you will at once correct the error. The case alluded to is Seholard v. Francis (about a pig). You state that the dispute arose from the slaughtering of the "big fat pig." Now I should be very glad to know what the slaughtering of one pig has to I do with the slaughtering of another, both having different owners; and the pig in question having been slaughtered at least a month previous to the other. know of the matter is, that the full price of the afore- FSOHN?1^VT\AS T}* ME Evan Francis, according to his L&ctiolatd s) request. NEXTN^ER^OA make these facts appear plain in your I remain, yours respectfully, JOHN WISHLADE.
HAY. BUT a small supply of stock, of all descriptions, 'LR A?POA~ance: the}- were much sought after, and on exchanged hands, at high figures. For good horses, any PNCE could be obtained, more particularly for superior saddle ND harness purposes; many obtained five pounds each, more AN their owners contemplated when they left home.
LYDBROOK. £ "0^~CERT.—On Monday last, a grand concert of sacred music NI 8 S^VEN at the Anchor Inn, in this village, by the Monmouth R0N°L AQD Madrigal Society, WHICH was much more nume- INE T? ATTENDED THAU WE C?UID HAVC anticipated, clearly show- to K L°VERS MUSICAL entertainments were everywhere DERFR! ND* able and efficient manner in which the CR<VHFMANEE WAS C0UFhicted, reflects the greatest possible FECUT upon the society at large.
MONMOUTH. DEATH.—Last week, as Mrs. Roberts, of the May- >ELL FNR R TOWN, was proceeding in perfect health to a RAVINE S?DLE WAter, she suddenly fell lifeless to the ground, of A almsband, and six young children, to deplore the loss •WITH WHQER AND L)ARENT much beloved and respected by all >UPPO8ED°M WAS connected. Disease of the heart is the the COURSCAF3E—IATA- MALADY has ushered so many, in "World the last few months, into another and eternal has sinCE > °UT the slightest previous warning. An inquest AN.EE WITH3 UPON the body, when a verdict, in accord- T A evidence, was returned. ENT'—ON Monday last, as Mr. Miles, of the Old Nag's T)r the J1' THIS town, was wending his way into the country FELL t0 JPURP°SE of transacting a little business, he accidentally FOADG N E,?TOUND> in consequence of the slippery state of the FLIGHT AI3I EED KY the snow which had fallen on the previous WAS so severely hurt, that in the course of A few GL^D to WAS nearly covered with blood, though we are STE^I-no limb has been broken, but that he is now pro- favourably, although we believe nearly eighty years in MeN1.touTII FARMERS' CLUB.—ON Tuesday last, the morn- ^IS 2!NED beautifully; the sun at an early hour striking out THE 5S OF brilliancy over the fields and valleys; WHICH on \*°US day had been covered with snow. When the T T°N F°R the prizes offered by the Monmouth Farmers XTTG place, commencing about nine o'clock in the morn- <} EVTEYTHIUG was "in readiness for the business of the '■k.omas S. Williams's farm, Drybridge. The THE society will be held on Saturday next, at the in this town, when the further business will and the officers for the ensuing year elected, the at which shall be duly reported in our next. P.Np""LLW MAGISTRATE. -On Tuesday last, the Rev. W. tftd ™.A., t°°k the necessary oaths, prior to his acting oefojg bench for the Borough of Monmouth, worshipful the mayor, John Powles, Esq., the -Uyke Esri T Ma>'ou- Esq., Alderman Probyn, and Thomas d not an on^y case before the Bench, the plaintiff THE- r" hearing was therefore adjourned. ^isitorg SCHOOL.—The quarterly meeting of the f^8 ^^table institution, was held on Tuesday 8°hool Ij^t &ames of several new boys were enrolled on the
Olt. PONTYPOOL. v During the past week a very alarming mor- c«ildrejt VTT>eea experienced in this town, chiefly amongst ^teen were buried in Trevethin church- ?. seven adults, make a total of twenty-two— X. £ reater by 25 per cent, than during the most ma- r^th of the cholera. Hooping cough, accompanied Caw"I 811 "i inflammation of the lungs, has been the It w6 deat^8 that have occurred. ITOL *^H,IBYA» CHAPEL.—The Lord Lieutenant, C. 'J ha« generously given additional land for the eyet-a tbuilffinm &c., in connection with the new -Jjapel, about to be erected in this place. The "Vim? Stand 011 a prominent piece of ground, observable suntmading points, and will be in the Early O'' 1¥POOL POLICE COURT—SATURDAY. ■tw, a'^8t*a^s present: J. Thompson, Esq., and the tr Rev. David Jones. and Ebenezer Howell, father and son, two •TS'ewport and Pontypool Canal,, were charged k, and about three bushels of oats, the pro- ,"t9in Williams, landlord of the Canteen beer- t^^purtis saw the oats safe on Thursday evening, Ur ^^jnera in the house pn the same evening. The oi. ffijvell, was seen by another witness late in t the evening bringing a sack. containing something, from the direction of the Canteen, and the-son came and met him, and took it from him, and they both then went in the direction of the boat. P.C. Vincent proved searching the boat, and finding about 2l bushels of white oats in a sack, and on further searching, he found an empty sack, which had contained white oats, which was fully identified by a patch that was on it and a-string, as being the sack that contained the oats when last seen at Williams's house. There were several other witnesses examined, who fully brought the case home to them, and they were fully committed for trial at the next assizes. The elder prisoner has only just finished a term of imprisonment for stealing beer. William Harris, a retailer of beer at Blanavon, was charged by P.S. Merewether with opening his house for the sale of baer before one o'clock on Sunday. The defendant pleaded guilty, and was convicted in £ 1 9s. 6d., including costs. baer before one o'clock on Sunday. The defendant pleaded guilty, and was convicted in 41 9s. 6d., including costs. John Jones, another retailer of beer at Blainavon, was charged with a like offence, on the 13th of March, and con- victed in the same amount, the Bench at the same time ex- pressing their determination in future to make an example of all parties that should be brought before them on similar charges. Joseph Stock was summoned for non-payment of 12s. 8d., wages due to Luke Buckley. Ordered to pay 5s. 2d., and 6s. 6d. costs. f J James Dalley was charged with assaulting Thomas Milling The defendant, who caused a deal of merriment in the court by his gestures and expressions, was convicted in 14s., includ- ing cost. David Davies, was charged with an assault on Wm. Davies. The parties applied to the Bench to be allowed to settle their difference, which they were allowed to do. [Mr. Thompson here lept the bench.] Esther Morgan and Mary Thomas, two respectably-dressed women, were charged by P.C. Beacham with committing a trespass on the property of E, B. Dimmack and others, by stealing coal. The case having been fully proved by the officer, they were convicted in 20s. each, including costs, or in default fourteen days each. The money was paid. MONDAY. Magistrate present J. Thompson, Esq. George Stokes and John Hibbird, charged by Superinten- dent Roberts with being drunk and incapable, pleaded guilty and were fined 5s. each. SATURDAY, March 26. Magistrates present: J. Thompson, Esq., and the Rev. D. Jones. Bladon v. Goddard.—This was an application to recover possession of premises at Pontypool, under the Small Tene- ments Act. Warrant granted to obtain possession in 21 days. Mr. Bladon conducted his own case. Mr. Champ, of Newport, appeared for the defendant. Sarah Plummer v. John Phillips.—This was an application for an order of affiliation for the maintenance of a female bastard child. The case had been adjourned for the production of a material witness. The defendant is a farmer, residing near Pentwyn Mawr. He bad been summoned to give evi- dence, but not being in attendance, Mr. Grcenway proceeded to call him upon his summons, when Mr. Owen said he would send for him. Mr. Greenway then called Miss Plummer, who proved that the defendant was the father of her illegitimate child, and that she had been seduced by his repeated promises to marry her. The witness gave her evidence in a very com- mendable manner, and although subjected to a rigid cross-ex- amination by Mr. Owen, nothing could be elicited to shake her testimony. Mr. Greenway then called the defendant, who, after consulting his attorney, submitted to an order for 2s. 6d. per week and expenses. He then expressed a wish to see the child. Mr. Greenway (to the mother): Bring the child to her father; he wishes to kiss it. (Laughter.) Attorney for the plaintiff, Mr. Greenway; for defendant, Mr. Owen. It is rumoured that Miss Plummer intends carrying the case a little further, by bringing an action for breach of promise of mar- riage. Thomas Williams f. John Bevan.—This was an application, under the Small Tenements Act, for a warrant to obtain pos- session of a dwelling-house and premises at Pontnewynydd. The complainant proved the letting of the premises on the 4th March to defendant, at £10 per annum, and that he served defendant with a notice to quit, which expired on the 4th inst. The defendant had since refused to give up possession. C. S. Harper, clerk to Mr. Greenway, proved the service of the notice of application. Warrant granted to issue in 21 days. Attorney for complainant Mr. Greenway. There were several other cases disposed of summarily, none of them possessing any feature of interest.
YR AWDWR A CHYFAILL WRTH EDRYCII AR Y MELLT, Nos Fawrth, Aivst 17eg, 1852. l" st! Ust! fy hoff gyfaill, a welaist ti oleu ? Fe ddaeth o'r cymylau yn ddysglaer ei wawr; Ah, dacw fe eto yn gryfach, 'rwy'n coelio, Na dim sy'n goleuo ar wyncb y IIawr Ow, dacw un arall yn eanlyn yn ddiball- Mae llawer 'rwy'n deall o honyrit yn dod, B'le mae y trysorau He mae rhai'n yn chwareu Cyn dangos eu goleu i ni is y rhod ? Mae'n well bod yn ddystaw, fe'n gwlychir a'r curwlaw, Y daran sy'n gwtliiaw'r mellt gwyn, teg eu gwawr; Fe allai gwnant ddisgyn a'n llosgi fel eisin- Yn wir mae eu dychryn hwy amaf fi 'nawr; Ow Ow! dacw luoedd yn rhwygo'r wybrenau,— Och! clyw y taranau yn rhuo uwchben; Mae'n ddiau fod rhyfel, mae'n well i ni ochel, Mae terfysg goruchel yn oriel y nen. Na, na, nid rhyfllll Yw gwaith y rhai yna, Hoff weision Jehofa sy n eadw eu gwyl; Eu ffordd mae e'n adwaen o'r deheu i'r dwyrain. Maent heno yn llawen mown nwyfiant a hwyl: Hwy glaciant, pan folant eu huchel Greawdydd Hwy ddawnsiant yn hylwydd ar gledr ei law j Rho'nt rybudd i nmau ar froydd a bryniau Fod echrys darauau yn rhwyle gerllaw. Mae gan Dduw drysorau frr.'n mhell yn y gwagle, Oes myrddijn o goffrau eangfaith itwehbon; Fe'u geilw'n finteioedd o eithaf y nefoedd: .t e, U Fe ddengys i w luoedd mai fe sydd yn ben Fe'u gyr1a]r/lrawia? trwy'r eangfaith gread,— 0 ryfedd fath genad, mor chwim a hi 'nol! Ni weiir hi WED YN nes cael ail-orchymyn, Ac yna hi ddisgyn l r dyffryu rieu-r ddôl. Rhydd genad *ynt weithiau i wisgo'u sandalau, A lluchio mynyddau na chrynodd o'r blaen; Ac ami y disgycant ar aelwyd neu balmant, Ac yno y Uosgant y cwbl a'u t&n Y dderw dewfhgog, a r castell cry' caerog, A'r llanydd godidog ar ganol y dd51, A welwyd rai gwelthlau gan fellt yn eu bachau, A chwalwyd yn ddarnau, ni welir eu hoi. 0, Arglwydd y cwbl, paham na chai'th weled Gan lu y rhai digred ar wyneb v llawr5 Mae HOLL bethau r ddaear N » R A Yn tystio yn unfryd m'a?^ ° n" v Ni weliom ni eto ond gl, fi Sydd Wir At olena welir ddJw§S Pr^tyrICS5fmrrdd»' } yny ar ddj nion bydd dychryn a braw. Bydd miloedd yn gwylltu wrth wedd ei wynebpryd, O t fS yn curo eu lw>'nau ynghyd ucn betn yw'r goleuni sy 'nawr yn pelydru, an myrdd tanbeidiach na mellt yr holl fyd? Tv', .w daew'r Ceidw'ad a ddarfu 'ni wrthod, c cuddied y beddrod ni 'nawr rhag ei wedd: in cwmni trag'wyddol fydd uffern a diafol, A n poenau fydd ingol anfarwol dihedd. ynocs oesoedd am oleu o'r nefoedd, 1 dywys y bobloedd at Iesu mewn pryd Fe gedwir myrddiynau trwy gyfrwn/y goleu, Rha £ cr r yn niwedd y byd Er bydd rhai yn ocham a rhinciau eu danedd; Perodli gorfoledd bydd ffryndian yr Oen, Fry yn y Iro hyfryd y'ngafael k'n gwvnfvd 0 gyrhaedd pob trystyd, ac adfyd, a phoe'n. Eisca. DANIEL FRITH, Y CYBYDD. Y cybydd beunydd a boena—ei ben, Gyda'r byd nes d'rysa; Ac wedi nos gado wna Ei fwth i ysglyfaetha. Ei aneen mawr a ddengys—ar ei wedd A thrwy ei wane echrys; Dwg aUan fradog w llys, A'i groen i arbed ei grys. MOK.
RISCA. COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT RISCA. The adjourned inquiry into the cause of this catastrophe took place at the Albert Inn, Risca, on Tuesday last, before W. Brewer, junr., Esq., when the same jury who examined into the death of Thomas Davies, were charged to inquire into the death of John Williams and George Phillips, two men who died last week, in consequence of injuries received from the explosion. The Coroner intimated that the evidence in this case was simply that which had been adduced in the former inquiry; therefore, the present proceeding was, in a great measure, a matter of form. They would, of course, remember the evi- dence which had been submitted to tdem; but if any gentle- man wished to look at the evidence of either of the witnesses, he could, of course, now have an opportunity of doing so. The jury expressed themselves as quite satisfied with the evidence they had heard, referring simply to the deposition of John Williams, and, after a short deliberation, returned the following verdict:— It is the opinion of the jury that John Williams's death was the result of an accident, which was caused by his own negligence, and by his partner, Thomas Davies's reckles conduct. We are also of opinion that George Phillips's death was caused by the negligent and reckless conduct of the above- named colliers." With commendable sympathy, the jury unanimously re- solved to hand over the fees to which they were entitled for their attendance, to the families of the deceased sufferers, and we have no doubt that an act of benevolence so kindly conceived, was warmly appreciated by those upon whom it was bestowed. We give below the Report of Herbert Maokworth, Esq., the government inspector of mines, read to the jury by that gentleman, after hearing the evidence, at the inquiry into the death of Thomas Davies, last week. This important document will be read with great interest by those connected with mining operations, in our neighbourhood. MR. MACXWORTH'S REPORT. In my official capacity I inspected the Risca colliery, pre- viously to the recent explosions of fire damp, and it has devolved upon me to investigate the cause of the lamentable sacrifice of human life which occurred on the liih instant, by several subsequent examinations of the underground working, and to communicate to you my own observations and conclusions. Shrouded as many of these fearful accidents are in an uncer- tainty, arising from the death of the immediate authors, and OF which the ex plosioii in these workings on the 14th January, 1846, Is an example, it is, at least, satisfactory for future guidance and precautions, that no mystery is involved in the present instance. The mo3t able and accurate report made (o Her Majesty's Government by Sir llenvv T. De la Beche, on the state and management, the mode of ventilating, a id' of working the B'ack Vein HP, at the time of the former explosion,and pr'inttd in 1847, removes the necessity for many details which 1 should otherwise have given for, with small, exception the collier} is still HI a similar condition. The workings,carried on.by means of the same level horile road, have extended to distances on the mountain side of 960 yards, on the river o: eastern side of 1300 yards from the shafts. The cross headings have been increased from 12 to 23 in number, 9 being on the western, and 14 on the eastern side of the shafts, and have nearly reached heir proposed limits of extension. The total area of tile works is 1*20 acres, of which 70 acres are closed by fallen Bwl impervious goaves. The pumping shaft is still 1"e¡1 for the downcast, the winding shaft for the upcast a r. ilie air is divided into two east and west splits, which pioceed along the level to the extremity of their respective workings, In the eastein or river side, where the explosi on occurred, the air is carried in the working parts, first up the cross heading, and then down through the stalls l.y means of wind ways or thirlingsthrougli the pillars, after which, passing up the next cross heading, it proceeds in a similar manner wherever the stalls are being worked, and ultimately, after sweeping along the higher edges of the goaves, it unites with the western split 240 yards before reaching the furnace. The following are the lengths of the air courses. W estern split. Eastern split. Intake along level area, 33 square feet '40 yards 1300yards. Air courses through stalls and workings (of which 180 yards through thirlings) area 18 square feet 96Q yards 1050 yards. Return along rise of workings, area 20 square feet 1000 yards 1300 yards. Totallength 2700 yards 3G50 yards. o The quantity of air which reaches the working face is much diminished by the leakage of numerous doors and stoppings but mainly by the small area of parts of the air course, and the alternate enlargement and contraction of the airway in passing through the stalls, which produces destruciive irregularities in the velocity of the current, The area of the upcast shaft is 140 square feet, its depth 168 yards, and it is quite adequate to produce a larger ventilation, if the resistance of the air chan nels were reduced by splitting and enlarging. The velocity of the upcast current is only 2 lineal feet per second, whereas 10 feet i, ofien attained with a similar temperature, even when ihe shaft is also used for winding coal. The temperature at twenty yards below the top of the upcast shaft is 105°; when the downcast air is at a temperature of 40°; the drag or tests-adee of the air ways of the mine is represented by li inch of the water guilge. which is equivalent to 6tlhs pressure per square foot, and the power therefore expended in dragging the air through these airways is about four horse power, not including the resistance of the shafts and furnace passage. It follows, then, fiomthis, that, by splitting the air and enlarging por- tions of the air course, the water guage should be reduced to six-tenths of an inch, and the ventilation be consequently doubled even without altering the rarefaction and power in the upcast shaft. On the previous arrangements for ventilation, Sir Henry De la Heche remarked, We should expect with an increase in the workings, that this system would be found less effective from a diminished rate in the air current, and consequently less power to remove the fire damp. which might col ect in the higher parts ol the cross headings." The system of ventilation which was stated to be in a transition state in 1816, still re- mains the same and on my inspection in May last year the above anticipation was fully corroborated I found that fire damp collected in the higher parts of the work, the quantity of air circulating round the west side was 7000 cubic feet per minute, which was reduced by leakages to 6102 cubic feet near the end of the intakejlevel; the east side received 5895 cubic feet of air per in nute- in all, 12895 cubic feet of which 9340 cubic feet passed over the furnace. These quantities of air were quite inadequate for so extensive a colliery, although the dis- charge of firedamp had, as is frequently the case in old collieries, materially diminished. I urged Mr. Joseph Green to fulfil his piomises, to increase the ventilation, at least four- told, to use brattices more systematically, AND, by proper rules, to controul the use of safety lamps. To some extent, these, and other cautions, have been acted upon, inasmuch as the ventilation has been increased to 10808 cubic feet per minute to the western side, and 10674 cubic feet per minute to the eastern side. A return airway of larger area is being driven along the rise of the workings, and is already partially used. The verbal rules have been reduced to writing, and were in the printer's hands at the time of the accident. That the splitting of the air, and consequent increase, has not been carried so far as I enjoined, is partly to be attributed to the present levels having nearly reached their limit of distance from the shaft, and it is due to Mr. Russell, the proprietor, to state, that two months ago, at my solicitation, he at once agreed to employ a competent viewer, to remodel the colliery, especially the newer winning in the coal to the deep, alter the most improved system; arrangements for which have been in progress. Great as is the anxiety of the proprietors of collieries to pre- ventexplcsions, the sums of monev expended in ventilation are of little avail, unless superintended by the highest skill and experience which this country affords. The experiments of inferior agents are the most costly. They are not success- ful they often lie at the root of disastrous results; and in numerous instances, which have come under my observation, produce irremediable injury. If the sums of money expended in the prevention of explosion in this and many other collieries, had been skilfully and judiciously applied, much more palpable benefit and safety would have been derived. Ventilation and the safety lamp are the well-known means; when they are united, loss of life is exceedingly rare; but a wide-spread idea of theii incompatibility has operated as a drawbrack, but one which I am glad to say is disappearing. Several collieries in this district are worked exclusively with locked safety lamps, and in other instances, if explosions are to be prevented, the slightest appearance of fire damp should be the signal for isolating that district, and working it solely by locked safety lamps. The ordinary use of safety lamps is almo&t confined to a purpose little intended by their inventors, and as little surmised by the public, but on which is based the safety of all firedamp collieries. l'be safety lainp is employed as a test of the presence ofnon explosive mixtures offir -damp in the air ofa mine bythe balo or cap on the flame. This halo is ordinary seen in the Davy lamp when the admixture of gas is more iboti 5 per cent. and less than 7 per cent., the latter being the poin1 of explepi,.On. If the halo is not seen by the fireman in making his rounds, the co'liers aie usually allowed to work with ciidles, and if the rapidity and often carelessness with which the observations of fireman or deputy are made, on so delic»te a test, are considered, it is very manifest that a margin of only two percent, in the constitution of the air is far too small to interpose between safety and exploston. The kind of halo varies in different mines; in some, especially deep mines, it is greater than in others. A variation in the amount of air, in the discharge of gas, or in their mode of admixture, will readily exceed these narrow limits, and at the same time that this explanation will help to account for the caute and results of the recent and many other explosions, it calls for a much worestringent performance of the dutiesof firemen, and the early adoption ef lockedsafety lamps in suspected localities. Variations in the condition of a colliery usually unheeded may disturb the balance. In the Risca colliery, for instance, there will often be a fallipg-off in the ventilation of one- seventh by mid-day, depending on the temperature of the downcast shaft. I have found a difference of one-tenth in the ventilation of a colliery, depending on the skill of the flueman employed to tend the furnace, and still more if the furnace is being cleaned, or happens to be neglected. A still more 'immediate result may be produced by a door being left open on which the course of the air depends. Against the fearful ravages of fire damp, whether fatal or not, humanity calls for the interposition of a wide barrier. In the mechanical arrangements of a colliery, this practice is well established. Winding ropes are made even strong enough to bring the engine to a stand, boilers are previously tested to three times their working pressure, winding and pumping engines are usually of a power largely in excess of ordinary demands, so as to be ready to meet emergencies. Every accessory in the internal arrangements of a colliery, such as strict rules and unwavering discipline, should be used to define this margin, and it should be wide enough for the occasional trespasser not to reach the line of danger. I have gone thus minutely into explanations, as they have a direct bearing on my subsequent remarks. During my recent examination of the colliery, and of the wind-way wheie the explosive gas first collected, 1 was unable to find very decided traces of existing fire damp. The principal discharge is usually from the carbonaceous shale above the black vein coal, and from this proceeded the blower of gas alluded to by the wit- nesses. The windway which was carried up ten feet above the coal over the gob and roof which had fallen in the fifth stall of No. 13 cross heading, was, doubtless, a precautionary measure, but the conducting the air regulated by a canvass sheet, into the cross heading only 30 yards distant, when naked lights were passing to and fio, was attended, under any circumstances with considerable risk. The form of this windway allowed of the accumulation of gas in the roof whenever the amount of ventilation was slackened, and the existence and magnitude of the blower was established by its ignition about the 2nd instant. There is much contradiction between the evidence of Thos. Davies and John Williams, now unhappily included in the list of victims, and that of the men who entered their stall No. 6, within an hour after the explosion. If Williams's account is correct, that the canvass sheet placed across No. 6 stilt was removed by him for ten minutes, whilst he was getting his tram into No. 13 heading, and had been replaced just before the explosion, I believe it is possible that the gas may have collected, and then, forced out of its lodgment, ignited at Davies's candle. Williams's account is, however, negatived by the clear evidence of John Carpenter, who found tbe sheet folded up lying on the gob, and the stall door open, both being undamaged, although close to the point of explosion, It is also evident from James Christopher, and a horse having been burnt at the bottom of No. )3 heading, that the door of No. 6 stall must have been open. I am, therefore, convinced, that regardless of the cautions given to them by the fireman Stephen Crook, Davies and Williams had first taken down the sheet, by which means the gas accumulated in the windway, and that then, by leaving the stall door open (thereby cutting off the ventilation from all the men in the stalls above them) the increased body of air forced the gas slowly out of the windway. Davies and Williams, leaving their work by a way which they knew was dangerous, the former lighted the gas with his candle, a fact which he appears to have admitted to several persons immediately after the occurrence. The finding of the gauze of Williams's lamp, within two yards of the point where the explosion occurred, proves that he must have been close to Davies, and probably carrying a naked light. It does not appear that there was any breach of orders in going with a candle past that place into No 12 heading. From my previous explanations it will be understood how the air current itself before entering [\'0. 0 stall m'lY have been partially mixed with fire damp, iitipereep,ible to ordinary tests. This will both explain the distance to which the flame ex- tended, and account partially for the large amount of after damp developed, and the fearful destruction caused in the first fflty yards of its course up No 12 heading. In this space six men and boys were lying dead, not having been able to pass through this deadly atmosphere. Thirteen others, who had been unable to pass a horse and tram which lay in the road, were rescued before life was extinct, by the prompt and coura- geous efforts of Crook, Shern, Carpenter, and others. One volume of fire damp gives rise in exploding to about eleven volumes of after damp, consisting of nitrogen, vapour of water, and carbonic acid gas, and although the destruction which their inhalation causes is usually attributed to the absence of the vital oxygen, the most serious effect is doubtless owing to the dense cloud of fiery coal dust set in motion by the explosion. On this account the injunction to colliers to cover the face and mouth with a jacket or cap in escaping, cannot be too frequently repeated. It is probable that this precaution might have enabled the whole of the men, as it did three or j four, to pass through the after damp. In consequence of the lamentable loss of life from after- damp in this district, especially at the explosions in Aberdare, and the frequent absence of all precaut ons, I was last year commanded to invite the attention of coal masters by the cir- culation of two reports on this subject It is, therefore, grati- fying to find, that Mr. Green has adopted an additional door at the bo'tom of the headings, which can be closed whenever the usual doors are destroyed. The merit of this precaution has been manifested in this instance by the immediate restoration of the current of air, and the saving of many lives. The deaths on the 12th instant are not attributable either to burning or violence. The quantity of gas appears to have been small and much diluted, as strips of wood in the heart of the explosion are uncharred. It is worthy of remark that the doors of No. 11, 12, and 16 headings have been driven upwards towards the seat of the explosion, as if the sudden expansion acting on all sides, had expended itself in the stalls, and that the re action into the partial vacuum thus formed, had found the line of easiest supply in the atake channel. An attempt having been made by persons of some authority to account for some explosions by a slight increase in the ven- tilation, and as the property of these goaves to yield carbonic acid gas instead of fire-damp, might give a colouring to this assumption, it is necessary for me to point out its fallacy. The admixture of one seventh of carbonic acid gas will just neu- tralise the most explosive compound of one-seventh fire-damp to one of air, but as one-fifteenth of carbonic acid gas will extingui h a candle, it seems that this property of the gas can only have a decided effect when candles will hardly burn. The introduction of an increased current of fresh air diminishes the proportions of fire damp, in at least the same ratio as those of carbonic acid gas, and cannot in this view have a prejudicial effect. From my explanations of the hazardous condition of many fire damp collieries, and to which Risca has been and is now by no means an exception, it is evident that the system adopted there placed too much within the power of the colliers, the means of occasioning by ignorance or neglect a tearful sacrifice of life. By other and minor accidents which have occutred, the evi. dence which has been given, and the absence of printed rules it is evident that there was a want of discipline. The examina- tionsby the firemen are not sufficiently careful or general. It is too much the custom to throw the whole blame upon the collier, as long as the system and management allow so narrow a margin, that the accumulation of a small quantity of gas may cause such results as the present. Neither the amount of ventilation, the use of safety lamps, and the guarding against the appearance of fire damp, are by any means what is required. I butire-echo the suggestions at the last accident in stating, that this district of the colliery at least should have been worked with locked safety lamps. I'he prevention of explosions is only to be attained, by regarding any cap on aflame proceeding from the presence of fire damp as a symptom of imminent danger, and by the immediate exclusion of all naked lights, until at least double the quantity of air can be introduced. The Davy lamp is almost universally used in this country in preference to others, in consequence of the more delicate indications of the cap which it affords, and that it gives sufficient light for working seams of ordinary thickness, has been proved in numerous instances by the cutting of the coal being done at the same cost, as when candles are used. The deputies or roadmen who are responsible for the safety of the roof, can be furnished with lamps, which give more light. Although the actual condition of the Risca colliery presents many defects, the state of many other collieries is, I regret to say, still more deplorable, and the outlay on the part of the proprietor has in this instance been great. Credit is due for the unusual precaution of extra doors to the headings, and tc the presence of mind of those men who immediately applied them. No immediate blame attaches to any of the living actors in this melancholy catastrophe, but I think it right, as a warn- ing to other colliers, to mark my severe censure of the criminal recklessness of Davies and Williams, who have suffered the heaviest penalty for their actions. HSBBERT MACXWOKTH.
DIABOLICAL NEGLECT OF INFANTS. A female, named Margaret Bryan, was safely delivered of a male child, in Bermonsdey workhouse, seven days before las-t Friday. She left the workbouse on Saturday last, taking with her the infant, when she proceeded into tne neighbourhood of the Victoria Theatre, and threw the poor child into the passage of one of the houses near the Gobourgh Tavern. One of the inmates on returning home, found the child lying in the passage almost frozen to death- He at once gave information to the police,Jand the little innocent was forthwith removed to Lambeth poorhouse. Inquires were then instituted as to was the inhuman mother, the result of which left little doubt but the offender was the person above named. She was a singly woman, and, in order to hide the disgrace she had brought upon herself had resorted to this unnatural expedient of relieving herself of her offspring. The police having gone in search of her, they apprehended her in the neighbourbood of Bcrmonsdsey street, and conveyed her to Tower street Police station. The charge having been entered, she became so weak from her recent accouchement that it was found absolute necessary to remove her to Lambeth workhouse; she was, therefore, unable to appear at theSouthwark Police court yesterday; but in the event of her recovery she will be placed before the magistrate to answer the serious charge of attempting to destroy the ltie of the infant by gross neglect A male child, since named Thomas Kennington, was found in a garden in Kennington some two or three months back, whose death was announced to Mr. Carter yesterday. The child was fo md by the police, the and as no one knew where it came from the parish authorities had it christened, and gave it the the above name. After lingering for two months it expired. The mother of the child as yet has not been discovered. t
BRISTOL COURT OF BANKRUPTCY. WEDNESDAY, MARCH 23. (Before Commissioner Mr. Sergeant Stephen.) RE ALEXANDER MITCHELL, DRAPER, &e.. CARDIFF— Mr. Stonj), on the part of the assignees and a number of cre- ditors who had given the necessary notice, opposed the al- lowance of the bankrupt's certificate. The grounds of oppo- sition were that the bankrupt had traded most recklessly; that he continued to carry on business when he wa^ hopelessly insolvent, and, in fact, had been living for some time on the property of his creditors and that more was required from him than of an ordinary trader, inasmuch as in 1849 he was bankrupt, and his estate then paid a very small dividend. There was another charge of concealment of property urged against the bankrupt, but upon examination, it proved to be without foundation. To prove the charge of reckless trading, the learned counsel showed that between 1849, the time of the last bankruptcy, and October, 1^52. the date of the pre- sent petition, the trade expenses were E813 5s. 5d.; private expenses, £ 5'4 18s. 2d making together a total of £1,328 3s. 7d the profits during that period were only £ 902 12s. 2d. so that the bankrupt bad expended £ 4i5 lis. 3d. of his creditors' money. With regard to the second point, viz having carried on business after he knew that he was hopelessly insolvent, the learned counsel stated that in the spring of 1852, the bankrupt was sued by several of his cre- ditors; that, at that time his bills were dishonoured or re- newed; that in March, 1852, he sold all his household goods and furniture for f58 18s 6d., no reference to which transac- tion was made in the first balance-sheet filed; that about this time. Mr. Thompson his principal creditor, applied to him to make an assignment for the benefit of his creditors, or to sign a declaration of insolvency, when he positively refused to do either; and that Mr. Thompson ultimately forced him into this Court by a trader debtor summons, upon which the pre- sent petition was founded. Under these circumstances, it was contended that the bankrupt ought to have ceased busi- ness, at least, in March 1852. It was also alleged against him that lie had only taken stock once between 1849 and~the pre- sent bankruptcy but it was admitted that the books had been kept with tolerable accuracy. Mr. W. Bevan having been heard on the part of the bankrupt. who was subsequently examined by the Court, His Honour said this was a case which had not been very strongly pressed against the bankrupt by the opposing perties, who he presumed, had felt it their duty to bring the facts under the notice of the Court. On the whole. he felt bound to say that the bankrupt had answered the objections urged against him satisfactorily. It was very true that there was only a small profit made on the amount of debt incurred; but on the other hand, it was a material feature in the case that there were losses of £ 1,211, a sum which, if taken credit for, would considerably overtop that which was due to the cre- ditors. This would relieve the bankrupt from the charge of reckless trading, and also from the imputation of having car- ried on business after he knew that lie was utterly insolvent, because it appeared that up to a very short time preceding the bankruptcy, he had attached a value to these debts which they were a!terwards found not to possess. First class certificate granted. RE PHILIP JONES. BANKER, LLANGATTOCK—Mr. W. Bevan, on the part of the assignees, applied to the Court to sanction an advance of £ 4 00O out of the estate wherewith to pay off the liabilities on some Newport Dock shares, be- longing to the bankrupt, which were mortgaged for t tat sum; but for which purchasers had been found who were willing to give £ 5.0'0 for them. The effect of the or<1tr prayed would be that a sum of £ 1,000 would be saved to tLe estate. His Honour suggested that the contracts for the sale of the shares at the sum specified, should be completed contem- poraneously with the payment of the mortgage money, and granted the order upon those terms. RE HARFORD DAVIES AND Co., EBBW VALE AND SIRHOWY IRON WORKS, AND MERCHANTS BRISTOL—In compliance with an intimation from the Court, Mr. Fussell, of the firm of Savery and Clark, solicitors to the assignees, attended this day. His Honour observed that this estate had never been wound up, and inquired whether an early day could nt be fixed for a final audit. Mr. Fussell feared not, for although the whole of the assets of the joint estate had been received, there were some difficulties in completing the winding-up the separate estate of Mr John Harford. As many as sixty four lots of property belonging to that gentleman had been sold, in some of the conveyances of which there were from fourteen to fifteen dif- ferent titles. The solicitors to the assignees had been for some time past engaged in endeavouring to get these deeds completed, but in some instances the purchasers were satis- fied with the title they had already acquired. The separate estate of Mr. John Harford had already paid 2i's. in the pound and there was at this moment a sum of from £ 1,2C0 to E 1,3 0 belonging to it, which as soon as the deeds referred to were completed, would be transferred to the joint estate, and the whole matter wound up. His Honour; Can you state whether there is any proba- bility of a further dividend ? Mr. Fussell enumerated several charges there were to be defrayed out of the estate, and added that as far as his judg- ment went, lie should say there would be further a dividend, or if any, a very small one. His Honour: I can only commend the matter to your best attention, for whether there be a dividend or not, it is as well that this estate sheuld be finally wound up.
ELECTRO TELEGRAPH COMMUNICATION We have now to notice a novel and simple arrangement for the transmission of messages by galvanic electricity, which, if carried into practice, bids fair to throw not only the needle telegraph, by which so many errors are committed, but other printing telegraphs, into the shade, and to secure to the public the means of instantaneous communication, fti charges equal in moderation to those of our brethren on tk« other side of the Atlantic. It is the invention of Mr J. W. Wilkins, of South-square, Gray's Inn, who in addition to a number of years' expe- rience in the erection and management of telegraphs in this country, has recently returned from the United States, where that experience has been very considerably matured and be appears to have brought with him some of those "go a-head" notions for which the Yankee character has for the last cen- tury been so remarkable. The arrangement involves the use of one wire only for any number of stations, and his principal improvements consist in a superior mode of insu- lating the wire, and in securing the full amount of power of the electro-magnet in reversing the current, instead of divid- ing it between two magnets, as lias been the usual method. The apparatus is acted on by the usual clockwork, and is simply a recording telegraph," faithfully transcribing in streuography at one end of the line on paper whatever words the operator may employ at the other. Hence the inventor has termed it the Steno-Telegraph, or the People's Penny Telegraph, and for the carrying out of which. a company is about to be formed. The inventor claims for his apparatus— and it does appear to us to possess unusual merit-simplicity, certainty, rapidity of action, and cheapness of erection and in working, beyond anything yet brought before the public. There is no quivering needle to deceive the eye, or be acted on by atmospheric electricity, or any complex chemical mix- tures which may fail in their operations; but a person at one station can set the instrument at a distant one in motion, and his message will be recorded, even in the absence of the at- tendant, who, on his l'eturn will find it there for his transla- tion. The proprietor is prepared to offer this patented arrange- ment to the public on advantageous terms; and should a company be formed. it is proposed; in the first instance, to connect 20 to30principal towns in England,onwhichmessages will be sent at the rate of 20 words, not exceeding 100 miles, one shilling, above 10 ) miles, one shilling and eightpence, and longer messages, one penny per word additional. News- paper despatches, irrespective of distance, between six o clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning when the tele- graph would not be much in use for other purposes, one half- peuny per word, and during the day, when fully engaged, OU8 penny per word. On these charges, with very much better pay to clerks, ana generally more liberal arrangements than under the present system, it is calculated that a capital of E35,000 would be ample to start with, on which dividends to the extent of nearly 30 per cent. per annum might be secured. The pa- tentee is willing to undertake to lay down any length of line, and complete all arrangements, including instruments and fittings up at stations, and patent right, for £ 20 per mile, s j sum which the Electric Telegraph Company have paid for patent right alone -Aliniitg Journal.
SOUTH WALES AND GREAT WESTERN COAfc. COMPANY. This company has been formed for the purchase and work- ing of Cefn Cwsc and Park Tyr Gunter coal fields, sitnate ft* the Llinvi Valley, about two miles and a half from.- tb» Stormy Station of the South Wales Railway, which being now completed for traffic, and a direct communication esta- blished between Swansea and the metropolis, they proptse t8. supp!y coals to London and the intermediate towns .from South Wales, at greatly reduced prices. These coals passes* all those valuable properties which have, up to a recent\data^ enabled the coal proprietors of Northumberland and Durham, to command nearly the entire London trade, amounting to, 3,500 000 tons per annum. The property extends over ISCW acres, containing ten seams of coal already proved andsopenei. out for working, varying from 4 to 30 feet in thickness, ex- ceedingly well adapted for the manufacture of coke as as for household purposes. There are also attached irw- works, with three blast furnaces, machinery, and buildings- and everything necessary for the manufacture of iron. T it is proposed to let, which will form a good outlet for t.bIt sale of small coal, and the company will be enabled toco»™Jv themselves to tbe coal trade. There are sufficient pits, gines, and machinery to deliver 2,000 tons per week. by a small outlay may be greatly increased, and responsibility are ready at once to contract for ,w«w annually for the London market. It is proposed to raise a capital of £ 60,000, of £ 5 each, £ 2 10s. on allotment, 30s. in two months, whiofc £ 4 per share will pay the principal °(.t ,P- etm<>IL*y» the remainder payable in five years; all preliminary expenniw and the cost of improvement to the works .and it is estimate*! on most impartial calculations, that not only may a d.videnA1 of 10 per cent, be realised but a reserve fund established. which the purchase money may be redeemed in n oritwe, yearsMining Journal.
A WHOLESALE POLYOAMIST.—A fellow n»n«ed Jo»eph Wardle was. in September last, c0™ » ? h1^'Str'cl gistrates to G oucester gaol, to await ,i?ray Spring assizes. It hassince been Pnsone ba. married as many a. six w.ve^ aU o ^hom are noW |ivinR —namely, one at Mancher, two in Staffordshire, one^»be Itle of Man, the fifth in Birmingham, • War- die* pl«Q appears lo have been to obtain a8U ney frona each newly-made brtde, and then desert her. A wives, u is believed will be present at the assizts--Cambnan. c THE GltrAT B.UIAIN.-Accordiog to the intelligence from the Cape by the screw steamer Calculls, it appears that the Great Britain started from that port four days before her, and is consequently to be expected every hour. It was undestood that upon leaving Melbourne the Great Britian would have £ 700,000 on board and that-this would ptobably be increased by subsequent shipments rom Adelaide.
ABANDONMENT OP AN ARMY CONTRACT.—The contracto for the supply of meat to the troops in Portsmouth, has given notice of his intention to give up his contract. By doing so he will, of course, have to forfeit, or bis sureties for him, the heavy bonds entered into on his undertaking the engagement. It is understood this step is owing to the very heavy loss that has been incurred by the maintainance of the advance in the price of meat, which, considering the large number of troops njw stationed at Portsmouth, must have been ofseriuui consequence to the contractor.