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LOVE'S ELOQUENCE.

TO ELLEN'S EYE.

THE PILGRIM IN SIGHT OF JERUSALEM.

Caerieon Antiquarian Association.…

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Caerieon Antiquarian Association. The aooasl meeting of this Society was held on Thursday, the 5th instant, at the Free School, Caerleoo. Many of the aotiqiities found daring the past year, were exhibited oo tables in the front of the platform, and proved that it is only necessary to keep a careful watch on every excavation which may be made, to ensure a large collection of objects of interest. On taking the chair, Sir D'gby Mackworth, But., the presi- d«°t, regretted the absence ot the Dean of LlandaflF, who had fully intended to have been present, but was prevented by serious illness in his f-mi y. He also read a letter from Oeiavius Mor- gan, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., regretting that bit parliamentary do- nes pfeweo ed him from attending, or contributing any lUper, but expressing a hope that he would be able, at the neat annual meeting, to make some communication of interest; be also for warded, as a contribution to the society's library, a copy of bis p«per on ancient watches, lately read before tin Society of Antiquaries, of London. The Secretary then read the following REPORT. The commi I tee, in making their report to the second 1.1 meeting of our association, have simply to lay bslsts the wM<e- be-s a statement of such facta of the put year as may prove of interest. These may be classed under two beada:—let. Those of the general business of the society. 2ndly. Those relating to Archeology. h 1st. As to the general business of the association. At tbe last general meeting it was stated in the report, that a contract had been entered into for building the museum accord- iog to VI r. Lack wood's pUni, with Mr. Benjamin James, of Newport, for the sum of f477 the work to be proceeded with only so far as the stale of the funds would allow. Since theo, this plan has been fa/iowed out; the building is now covered to but the committee regret that they have to report that the sub- scriptions are inadequate to finish it. Many very handsome do- natioos have already been announced in the printed lists recently circuited throughout the county and neighbourhood and since then the ?ollo*in«j names have been received Don. Subs. Richard Blakemore.F.sq., M.P., additional donation (making £ 10 in all) £ 8 0 0 £ 0 0 0 Rev. Heniy Hey Knight, Neath 1 0 0 0 0 0 Reginald J. Biewitt, Esq., M.P 1 0 0 0 0 0 W. Chambers, Esq., Llauelly House 1 0 0 0 0 0 W. Chambers, jun.. Esq., Llanelly House 1 0 0 0 0 0 W.W.Ph ilips, jun.,Esq.,TrosnantCottage I t 0 000 Edward Howling, E-q.. Newport. 2 2 0 0 0 0 Major-Gen. Sir E. K. Williams, K.C.B.. 1 0 0 0 0 0 Miss Williims 0 10 0 0 0 0 Mrs. Prothero, Malpas Court. 1 0 0 0 5 0 Rev. IhomMFrothe<o,Wh)ppengham.. 0 10 0 0 5 0 Chas. Prothero, Esq., Llanvrechva Grange 0 10 0 0 5 0 Rev. W. Cleaver 1 0 0 0 0 0 John Dorney Harding, Esq., D.C.L., D'dors Commons 1 0 0 000 Rev. John Harding, Glannogwr, Bridgend 0 10 0 0 0 0 Mrs. Harding 0 10 0 0 0 0 Thomas Wakeman, Esq 5 0 0 0 0 0 The following is a statement of the cash account from the commencement of the society :— CASH RECEIVED. CASH PAID. Donations £ 155 a 0 Mr.B. James,on account Sir D. Maokworlh, Bart, of building jE256 0 0 Purchase money of 8mall expensesditto. 2 14 0 town halt £80 Cost of excavations, Old materials of wood for trays, labour, ditto sold 50 and sundry expenses,. 6 4 4 — 130 0 0 Printing and stationery, Subscription., 1848. 16 5 0 including lithographic 8ub4cttpuom,t849. 9 5 0 draw inga of the niuseum 6 13 0 Sundries 1 2 6 Postage and carriage of circulars 2 811 Advertising 7 10 6 Cash, balance in the bands of the bankers 30 9 9 £312 0 6 J312 0 6 By cash ia the hand* of the Bankers 9 9 Donations unpaid ««••• £ 3 10 0 Sabscriptkmadittoi • •*»_ 0 IS 0 Subscriptions ditto, ld49 to 13 6 £ 14 18 6 It will be seen from this statement, that there remains a do- ficiency of about £180, to fiorsb the building and the com- aittee would urge on the members aIM expediency of inducing their friends, and especially such of the county gentlemen as ksve not already come forward, to aid in supporting so desirable and interesting an institution as s place of secuie deposit for the antiquities of the neighbourhood. The Committee have further to announce that tbey have de- cided on securing a small portion of ground in the neighbour- hood of the museum, so « to make it aland further from the road, at a yearly rent of 9s. per annum. The lease for both is now in the hands of the legal gentlemen. It may, however, be well to ste,e that negociatioos are in hand with the proprietor of the property, having for their object the extension of the lease from a term of 99 to that of 999 years, to which Sir Digby Msckworth is kindly willing to aceede, on terms very advan- tageous to the institution. The committee trust thst the general interest in the society is increasing. The county is rousing itself, and already much has beeo done. Betides the donationa which have been an- nounced, th'e ladies of the county have taken the matter into tbeir baods, and in conjunction with the committee, have deter. aimed on a bszaar, to be held in aid of the museum funds. The commi"ee have ooly 10 mention the names of Lady Mackworth, Lady Morgan, Mrs. Haobury Leigh. Misa Salasbury, and Miss Elizabeth Salusbury, who have kindly consented to become PI- tronesses, to assure the members of the success of tbe bazssr. Notiees respecting it have been issued some time since, and the members of our association will be rejoiced to learn that already large and valuable contributions of work have ben received. The best thanks of the society should be warmly given to the contributors. It may be well to state that it is inteoded thai the bazaar shall Le held on the 251b Jaly, io the rooms on the ground floor, at the Priory, aod that Lieut.-Col. Bailow has most kindly offered to allow the biod of the 14th regiment to attend. Great assistance may be hoped for from this bazssr. The state of the fund*, it will be sieo, requires help, and. in some respects, it is not encouraging but still, though there are diffi- culues to be surmounted, sad funds to he raided, so object worth accomplishing was ever effected, without some difficulty-oo new nodertakiog ever set on foot without some tempoiary want of ways and means. Aflar giving this general account of our finances, il may be well once more to state the peculiar objects of the society, and the special cause for collecting both donations and subscriptions. Questions have been asked as to the intended appropriation of both, which would seem to argue that our circulars have not been so widely distributed, or at least so generally read, as we imagined. Our FIRST OBJECT is to establish a MUSEUM, solely for ANTIQUITIES. However desira- ble it might be to have a general philosophical museum in the neighbouihood, this does not fall within our province. Osr museum is simply to contain ANTIQUITIM, the remains of by. goBe which bear on history, especially on local history, and which otherwise would be scattered or destroyed. Inscrip- tions, which tell of what was doing by the inhabitants of this town and neighbourhood to many ages since,—sculptures, which te) t how they ornamented their houses,—pins, bfooches, and rings, how they adorned their persons, sepulchral remains, which tell of their burial.-Such, we hope, will prove tbe contents ef our the collection and preservation of these remainaia our fttst it'jfci, at^ tbat to do which the nations sr| specialty applied. But the second object of the society is, to disseminate snd keep alive a taste for these pursuits, by as frequent excava- tions amongst ancient foundations, as the funds will admit of; by keeping a watchlul eye on whatever is found of interest, and, if possible, securing it for the museum and also, if of general interest, by taking means to be-e it published 10 one of the Archaealogical Journals, or some eligible work. The Com- mittee wish it to be dstiacttyundetstood that during the past year, from the recent establishment of the society and the scanty amount of the funds, they have not shoujht it light 10 spend very much in excavations; but if only the museum can once be fairly established, they trust that it will be the wish of every succeeding committee to undertake several excavations during the year, notices of each of which will be sent to every member of the so< iety and it need hardly be added that these days of exploring will add materially 10 the general interest. By the kiDdneslot Mr. John Jenkins, a portion of the Roman vitia in bit garden is now uncovered, and the committee have engaged a body of labourers, who are now at work, with the especial view of exposing another portion, which it is expected will prove of much interest. These excavations can be viewed after the meeting. "Under the head of our general business, it only remains to bring before this meeting a proposition from the Cambran Archcological Association (of which the ArchtBologis Cambreosis is tbe organ) that we shall unite and form one body with them. This society consists of many of the most influential individuals io Wales, and appears to have alieady reodered good service to Archeology; but still the committee (while anxious by every means in heir power to further the same pursuits) cannot but record their opinion, that we shall woik better as independent bodies. When tbe proposition Mas first made by the Cimbnac association, the committee informed rhera that it was not within their province to enler ioto the matter, but th-it ihey would bring \1 the subject before the next annual meeting: it now remains for the members generally, to decIde the question. So far for the general business of the society a few words as to what has been done 10 ArchæJlogy shall close this report. The excavation stPti Bach, lifer our meeting last year, is known to all our members. A pavement, in black and white, was discovered, taken up, and now lies on a board ready to be transferred to the museum, when completed. 10 the course of the work, a larger and handsomer pavement was brought to light, of a greater variety of colour this also has been attempted to be taken up (at leasl that portioo "hich was least damaged), but as Roman cement was used forthis purpose, it cannot yet be said whether or not the attempt has been successful, until it is again laid down, which of course will not be the case till the museum is completed. This. however, is not all. An inscrip- tion wassubsequentty found there, which, by permission of John James, Esq., and the tenant, was removed into a place of safety; a drawing of it has been already published in the Archaeologia Cambreosis; it is well cut, and of considerable interest, more especially as it refers to some other tombstone situated at no great distance, and which, at some future time, there may be the hope of securing. "Another inscription,or rather a fragment of one, also of consi- derable interest, has lately been found in the churchyard by Ibe vicar of Caerieon, by whose care it has been safely preserved. As it is probable that a short paper may now be read respecting this inscription, it will be better not 10 refer further to it—the time also may be said respecting two very beautiful and rare ivory carvings, which were found by Mr. Joun Jenkins, at a considerable depth, near his house. The committee merely lefer to these objects, to show that numerous remainl are constantly comiog to light.-Hardly a month-hardly a week—passes without the discovery of some- thing new, aod they dust that 1 his fact will stimulate ihemeeting to devise plans for the completion of the museum. If only the bDildicg were ooce fioi8hed, and the antiquities displayed, there would be an end for ever of the perpetual questions What is it intended fori and whit is there that can Le put in it? If those who ask these questions-and there are many who do—were to devote In hour or two to the examination of all our treasures, scattered, as they now are, in very many localities, the wonder would probably be, not that Caerieon and the neighbourhood is now building a museum, but Ihal so long a lima has elapsed before a museum has been built." The report having been adopted, the nest step was the appointment of the officers of the socie'y, the whole of whom were re-elected, viz.- President: Sir D gby Mackworth, Bart. Committee: Rev. Sir C Saiusbury, Bart., Oeiavius Morgan, Esq., M P., F.R.S., Rev. Darnel Jones. Rev. Wm. Powtli, H. M. Hawkins, Esq., lltyd Nichoil, Esq., John Jenkins. jun, Etq., and Franch Fox, E-q with power to add 10 their number. Secretary John E. Lee, E-q. It was also resolved, with refer- ence to the proposition of (he Cambfan Association, that though anxious in every possible way to furiher the same pursuit, yet. under all circumstances, it appears to this society that we shall work better as independent bodies. The general business of the society having been finished, the president, Sir D. Mackworth, pioceeded to read^a paper on the '• Fragments of early Christianity in Caerieon." He remarked that the difficulty under which the subject avowedly labours, does not rtsutteo much fiom any dearth of evidence, as fiom the conflicting nature of the channels through which that evidence is derived. Wubout, however, entering on these discussions, which would be out of place io our columns, we shall endeavour to give a short account of Ihe three points which Sir D gby endeavoured to prove, as well as an epitome, if praciicable, of the evidence which he adduced io favour of his conclusions. His first poin1 was to show tbal Christlaoity was preached ilJ Briiaio io the first ceotuiy. His second point, that the lowo of Caerieon was one place, amongst others, Bnd that a principal place, where Christianity was early preached. H;st!,ird poiut was, that St. Paul himself was the first preacher and founder of the British church. With respect to the first point, Sir Digby adduced Ihe evidence of Irecaeu*, Tertullun, Euseb'us, Jerome, aod Gilclas giving various quot.t.ons from ellch of these authors. As 10 the second point, he showed, from various sources, that in very early times, the only archiepisco al sees 10 Britain were, Lundon, York, and Caeileon —" Urbs legioois, ad Iscam fiuvium adhuc appellata," or the city of the legion on ihe river Usk, s ill so called. The vartaus inllquities stdl found in Ihe place, were also brought forward, to at o* thai it was a place of DO small importance in those early days. The last poiot which Sir Digby endeavoured to prove, wascertainly one of greater difficulty, and, In facl, the evidence can ooty, at the utmost, amount to whtt is called probability still, however, it was stronger linn we had expected to find it. He brought forward se-enl au than, of the fourth century, some of whom directly affirm that St. Paul preached in Britain, while oihers stale that be went to the utmost part of the west." This very expression is rather singu- luly applied, to aD earlier age, by Catullus, 10 Britain. Jerome, also, who died in the fifth century, slates that he went to the islands of the west," and we know of no others oljmportance io >hia direction, but the British islands. Having proceeded thus far, the faeta were mentioned, that between the years 51 and 58, eertain British hostages and prisoners from the family of Carac- taeus, were resident at Rome; the wife and daughter are espsiially mentioned. 10 connection with thil fact, quotations from Martial were brought forward, apparently showing that Claudia, who originally came from Britain, was married at Rome to PudeDt this is confirmed by the mention of Podeos and Claudia by St. Paul, when writing to Ttmothy from Rome Placing the whole of these facts together, as well as ihe testimony previously adduced, Sir Digby came to the conclusion that, the e was a strong probability ot the British church having been founded by St. Paul, aod that he had actually preached amongst our own Siiures. la conclusion, Sir D gby stated that being igooraot, to his great regret, of the language of his countrymen, the evidente adduced was wholly irrespeciive of the facts which might be gleaned from Welsh documents and manuscripts. The Secretary theo read the following nonce of the remains of a mural painting, at Penrhos, near Caerleoo :—The object of the present paper is simply to bring I)eforll you the curious fact that I portion of a mural painting io fresco or distemper slill remains io the neighbourhood of Caerleoo; it appears to have escaped previous notice. I know very little of mediaeval antiquities or ornaments; and having resided in this county only a few years, still less of family history but I am informed that the farmhouse of Penrhos, now occupied by Mr. Leonard, has been tenanted by his family for two hundred years, before which time it is said that the old mansion (of which a very small part only remains.) was occupied by the ancestors of W. A. Wiltnms, Esq., beto.e their removal to Uannibby castle. Whether or not this be correct, is, however, not much to the present purpose. Behind the modero substantial farmhouse, a square building of more ancient date still remaios, (a very rough sketch of it on a large scale, was here exhibited.) which shewed that its character is decidedly picturesque. The interior is open to tbe roof. which at ODe time ha- bten handsome, the woodwork being partially carved formerly, there were two stories, but the woodeo floor hll either decayell, or has been removed. At the north eod, a small portion has been partitioned off, probably for a chapel. It is now used as a cider cellar, and also for keeping farming implements; it is rather dark, as the windows are small, and nearly covered with ivy, and from the ruinous state of the build- ing, it is rather difficult to make investigations; but should any one, from this notice, be induced to explore it wllh a candle in his hand, and to examine theupper part of the north wall extend- ing some feet between the window and the corner of the building, be will discover that the whole of it has been ornamented with a painting 1n distemper, or what is commonly called fresco. When it is stated that this very part of the wall was hung with rakes, old horse-shoes, and pitch-keitles, it will probably be thought impossible that any portion of the painting should remain—but this is actually the case. A rough sketch, rather enlarged, of a small part which is more perfect than the rest, was here shown by Mr. Lee. Of course, most of the colours having been for centuries under the influence of damp from the open windows, are not now so vivid as those on the paper, but some of them are very nearly so, and, evidently, when first laid on,(hey must have been quite as bright. Very little remains at all perfect, so that thesobject can hardly be ascertained. A lady, half veiled, in scarlet, with chapel windows behind, and bright green trees in the foreground, are the principal objects theie appears also to have been a scarteteuttain behind her. Another figure, rather lower dowa, appearing from behind a curtain, hu 1051 every troce of colour, except the black outline, aod even this is very indis- tlDct. aod requires examination the hagd, or what oppears to be such, is very coarsely executed, and enormously large. My friend, Mr.King, suggests that this figure lepresents the e.il spirit, who is geoerally depicted in the middle ages without drapery. The subject is probably the legend of some saint. The tenant, Mr. Leonard, has very kindly promised not to hang any thing against the wall, until after to-day, in case any of our membeis should wish to examine the painting it must, however, be mentioned that the part drawn, is nearly at the top of the wall, and that one or two candles are necessary for the examina- tion. I will merely add, that the painting is decidedly in worse order than it was four years ago, when I first saw it, and there seems no possibility now of illi being preferred; ihe eves, nose, and mouth of the lady were very visible at that time, but they have now all but disappeared it would,however, be very desira- ble if any representation could be made to Capel Hanbury Leigh. Esq., tbe landlord, as to preserving the characlerof Ihe building, and especially, the west window, in case be should decide that repairs are necessary. The Rew. Daniel Jones, the vicar of Caerieon, then read a continuation of his last year's paper 00 The traces of past generations, io and around Caerleoo :-Of the entrance of Ille Romans into this island, at III souihern side, of theIr progress throogh it, and their permanent posselision 01 this spot in parti- cular, we are none of us ignoranl or incredulous. We need ooly a knowledge of their language, and a slight familiarity with works of art, to trace them in our daily path, and to acknowledge that we are treading in the steps, and repeating tbe actions, of that renowned people, which^was the intermediate link between the ancient and the modern world. The daily life, the manners, the notioos of a whole city, may be read as in a contemporary book, by those who have leisure and tllle to arrange and to elucidate. You have but to add the stately conqueror to hi, massive column, the purse to the coin, the garmentto the pin and ctasp, the young damsel 10 her water-jar, the high and mighty to thelf willaa. the free and joyous citizen to bis bath and amphitheatre—and you see the city camp of the second Augustan legion, with ill stroog life. I shall, however, ooly give the great features of their residence in Caertton, as I am not a teacher, but aa humble scholar in antiquities. I shall endeavour to poiot out what any body may see, and leave to my learned friends around me, the more difficult task. The Romaos undoubtedly moved westward io their victorious progresses through the land, and it need not be questioned that they won their way from Caerweot, along the Wentwood Ridge, which brought them in sight of the vale of the Usk, where they were induced to settle down. It :s not to be supposed, however, that they commenced with erecting the walls or buildings by which we trace them. The Roman soldier, on his march, carried the tool with which be threw up tbe trench within which he took shelter for the night, and tbe stakes with which he fortified the summit. Such may have been their temporary halt 00 Coedycaerau, on their first approach to their future renowned location. A British manuscript gives the year 242, —which was long after the Emperor Seveius had been here,—for the time when" Caer/eon was first built with stone and lime which previously had been constructed of <vood, but it was burnt many times in contests," Thus speaks the old chronicle. How- ever that may be, 8n enormous quantity of sandstone has been used up in this tpot and on the Lodge Farm, hy following the hollows of the hill, may be seen prodigious cavities, almost rinUiDg Dltur;.1 undulations, which ftlUlt evidently have been quarries. With this stone they built the outer wall of their fort, filling the crevices af er their known fashion, with liquid mortar thickened with pounded buck. The easing, in regular courses, has perhaps entirely disappeared. The form of the camp ot fort was, II mOlt uaual, an oblong square but its position does not lie to the cardinal points, but diegonally to the aogles. 1. The south-west side extends from the angle where the Roman wall appears most distinct, not far from the liver in front of the priory, aod along the bear-house field, where the ditch is quite well defined, and the wall may be traced in the copsy hedge, until tbe angle is perceived in tbe further corner of the same held, which having turned, we have the north-west face. This nearly takes tbe direction of a road into which we come at that place, and continues in a ditch which divides the gardens of thebouteaonthe common from Miss Morgan's fields, till the upper turnpike gate, when another face is taken, namely, the north-east. This passes by, and probably through, Mr. Jen- kins's bouse, and Mr. Norman's,—thence through Mr. Abraham Edwards orchard, then oo to Miss Williams' garden, and Mr. William Lewis's orchard, until we reach the next angle at Mr, John Jenkins s turret, where we find the south-east side. We proceed alcng the ter- raced slope of Mr John Jenkins's ground, by his stables, which are in the Roman ditch, across the street into IY«r. Savarey's ground; along the Hanbury Arms field, until we reach the Roman wall whence we started. Advantage was evidently taken by them of the natural fill of the ground on the norlh-east side, parallel with Mill street, and also in some measure 00 the soulb. east aide. Again, supposing the occupation long secured, we mu,1 elpect to find roads connecting this stronghold with like places 00 all sides, aod used in their dailv occupations and inter- course with each other. In coming out of the north east gate In the main street of the present lown, we have before us 'he road up Chepstow-hill, to St. Albans. Almost as many years have elapsed since this toad was io common uss, as the route to Chepstow of the Sanon and middle ages, as had gone round previously since the Romans travelled 10 aod fro to Caerwent. That it was a Roman road was proved a few years since by the discovery of several utns and vases, containing olcined bones under a rude casing of slabs, which were destroyed while the labourers were absent, by w8nton boys pelting stones at Ihem, which would not have happened had our intentions of preserving curious things, and not destroying, been so well known as it is at present. Again, going back, we find the road diverge to the north to Bullmoor, where the track of the RomanI is maiked hy a glass funeral vase wilh bones discovered near tha way side, and ihe well-known sepulchial stone; in the orchard and other remcins delermlDe the presence of heathen Roman officers and their families. Whether that road was followed up to Usk is a question we cannot now enter into Anolher road turned 10 the south towards the pre.ent Christ- church, part of which may be even now oblerved to be paved in the usual mode of the Romans, and we may follow it till it reaches the Severn at Goldcliff. How this road was frequented In the middle age-, and by wbom, would be an interesting ob- ject of enquiry. And as the key to these roads lay the woodeo bridge over Ihe U'k, a feature now lost, which was reasonably accounted to belong to tlie Roman era. Whelher it waø de- fended by the tower at each end before tbe days of the Romani, had been doubted. But lately a wall of un doubled Roman workmanship hns been discovered, connecting the tower 00 the Caerieon side with the Roman works in Mr. John Jenkins's grounds. Beginning again at the town, to the ?outh-west we perceive the broad way leading to the amphithea- tre, commonly called Ihe lound rabie, from tha public festivi- ties usually held in amphitheatres; and the baths, which were explored 10 a great exleot a lew yean since, with a well adjoin- lng, at the bottom of which was lound an amphorn or RomaD pi-cher, which most likely caused a noisy domestic storm, when II wu dropped down. To the oorlh-west, the road is even now used, in par s, towards Malpas. and partly t goesalong a deserted occupaiion road jusl under Pill Hach farm-house, where tessela- ted pavements, and monumental stones, again indicate the presence of our masters. Another road seems to take a northerly direciion from the same gate, skirls the Lodge-hill over the Forge to Pootheer, and joins another road, which we shell mention again. To the nor h-east, the road which answer" to the broad- way, eaters ioto Mill-street, through Back-hall-street but, DW102 to Ihe marsh, it takes a more northern course, making lor the bridge called Pontsatuin, which tells of a Roman nllme, thence up the Penrhôs hill. Part of it, in the low ground under the tramroad, is still paved, ai which point it is joined by a road more 10 Ihe west, fiom the centre of 1he city, which, until lately, Wall paved, and leads hack to the church. Returning 10 the town (fatigued, I fear, by the rambles we have taken together), if we look at these roads pointing inwards, we shall find them ail meel in the open square which contains Ihe church, which stands ss nearly as possible in the intersection of lines drawn diagonally from the anglesof the camp. Tins was therefore, the Forum, and kere, as has been proved in so manv instances, the Roman heathen forum was used as the first Christian clicrch, which occupation remains 10 this day. Near this were found the frag- ments of an inscription, puiporting that Severus the Emperor, and his youoger son, restored some buildiDg which had been corruptum" destroyed by fire, with which the word forum would agree. Oo the east side ol the churchyard, stood a street of buildings facing the church, i.e., the forum, the tuios of whicli contain the usual chaicoal, roof.tiles, and walls down to the natural clay, thus proving them built by the first occupiers who used stone in building, namely, the Romans. One room 01 fourteen feet square was discovered, in building a vault of the same dimensions. The door-way and window-sill were exposed, and on the window-sill a male sktletrn was found, with one limb over, and one arm extended upward, as if of one :0 the act 01 escaping, and there killed, That their public buildings were great according 10 tbe genius of the nation, we know by the sections of columns which abound, and which by the true proportions of height to diameter, wouid g:ve pillars of 12, 16, and 20 feet high. And from the cirange- men', size of rooms, thickness, and masonry of walls, and fiom the fouudations resting on the natural soil, we may saiely collect thai several ot the old houses still irJhabited are of Homan or Roman-Briush building. There are now open to the a'tennon and study of the curioue, portions of a Roman house, whethei private villa or public gymnasium, with parts of the pillars of its allium still erect and by close etaminalioo, it will be seen that the columns had been repaired by its owners, with mortar of pounded brick. These are .he undoub'ed traces of the Romans in and around Caerieon. How they lived and diessed anrf en- joyed Ihemselves-how they spent their money freely, which was evidently more plentiful than al the prestn! dlly-what respect Ihey paid their desd-who were their great meu—what especiiii public works they did—are all chapters, which some of our friends, I hope, will write, th" leaves ot which are lyng befoie us in almost impertshetable materials of stone and pottery and precious met-Is. And, really, we may trace the extent of the city, aod the oumber 01 ils johabila.. ts, If OUf suit love will per- mit us. The points within which tracesof abodes may be found, are nearly two miies distant from the common, eo Ire. Fiom tlulimoor to St. Julians, and from St. Aibans 10 Pill Bach, will nearly give the area. About a fourth part of the ancient castia U oow loosely inhabited tJy 1,100 souls. and we know the com- pliment of a Roman legion, io nil its am s, was 6,000. Now, while during the past century Caerieon numbered its 800 and Newport ils 700,11 appeartd fabulous that Caerieon, In old times, should be recorded to have held 20,000. But now, wht-n we have some of us witoesied Newport rising 10 16,000 people, baving moreover its castra and brave legion crownlOg itl heights, we may suiely believe that such things have been before. A notice was then read by the Secretary, of some Roman carvings in ivory, and of part of a Roman inscription lately found at Caerteoo "—Since our meeting last year, a variety of objec's or interest have been discovered 10 the excavations made 10 this neighbourhood. Most of them are now on the table be- fore you; but as the greater part have been already described, it only remains to bring ander your notice at the present time, Bome very well executed ivory carviogs, and a portion of an in- scription which, though much broken, still retains many peculi- arities worthy of obseivation. Roman carvings in ivoiy are, I believe, io general, rarely fouod, at least in this country. Those now before you were discovered by Mr. John Jenkins, at a very considerable depth, near his house, and their pteservation,even in their present sta'e, is somewhat remarkable. They were found loose in the earth, and of course for many centuries have beeD constantly exposed to Ihe dotmp. There IS, therefore, no wonder that when they were washed, a poition of the ivory exfo- liated. This may be noticed io the arms and face of ihe female figure. Soon after they were washed, they shewed still furiher symptoms of decay, and in all probability would not have laNted till the present time, had they not at once been well bathed with a solution of isinglass, in spirits of wine; with this precaution, there appears to be litile doubt of their lasting an indefinite time especially if carefully preserved from the air. The same plan appears to have been followed by the advice ot Piofessor Owen, with the ivory carvings lately brought to this country from Nineveh by Mr. Layard. With respect 10 the first of these carvings, probably but liule can be said, except that it represent, a tema:e figure placing a basket of fruit on a cupid's head. The carving is well executed, and the attitudes are decidedly giaceful, but the unfortunate exfoliation of the face aod arm mmerially detracts from the general appearance. The basket of fruit placed on the head of the boy is disproportionately large, and seems a weighty burden for suchachtid but when we consider how little some of our first o I painters have attended 10 relative pro- portions, especially wheo delineating boais in subjects from Scripture history, we ought not to be too severe on a trifling io- consistency like the size of the basket. The other carving was im- mediately recognised by myfrtend, M• .K mg, as a Roman mask and he referred me to the very interesting little work on Pompeii, (published by the Useful Koowledge Socie'y,) for drawings of several similar masks found in the excavations of that place. (Someof these, which had been copied for the slIke of ¡lluslration, were here exhibited.) One of them is so like the carving now before you, that it almost appears like an enlarged diawingof it. It would be foreign to our purpose at the present time to enter 00 the particular use of masks in the Roman theatre j but still it may be well to notice that the Roman masks are usually classed under three dIvisions-satyric, comic, and tragic. The character of the first mny be learned from its name and certainly some of the satyric masks were the most hideous malformations ùf the human fece,which cao well be imagined. The comic ap- pear to have been of an intermediate character while the tragic masks were of a very different nature they, too, may he called caricatures of the human fdce; but they were so, merely as they represented, or attempted to represent, an exaggerated express on of aoy passion. They were o,uch larger than the human lace, and the headdrels (as in the carving) was raised very high in order to give greater consequence to the figore. The same idea seems to have struck the invent Jf of the caps of our own grena- diers. It is said that Ihe tragic actors lengthened their arms by long gloves, and raised their stature by high heeled shoes in proportion. It is difficult to imagine how this can have added to the effect, though the reason alleged for it is the distance of the spectalors from Ihe actors an iocooyenlence which was una- voidable, when so large a body of people had to be entertained as were usually assembled in the theatres of the large Roman to wns. Some slight idea, indeed, may befoimedof I he distance, from the remains of the amphilhealre still to be seen in our own town, and commonly called KIng Arthur's rouna lable. To 8 spectator, seated 00 the highest bench, any change in the features of an actor io the centre, would be hardly observable. It only remains to add, with respect to masks in general, that they formed, from their great variety,an admirable subject for embellishment of al- most every kind. They were used in architecture, in painting, and for iniaglios. (An enlarged drawing ol one of the latter, brought from Italy by Mr. King, was exhibited, and also a very beautiful modero bracelet, cut in imitaiioo of the ao'ique, and entirely composed of a series of masks. It is the property of .Mrs. King, having been brought by her son from Rome.)—The remaining part of the p-tper related to a portion of an inscription found in the churchyard, and though much broken,sh)) retaining many peculiarities, interesting to ao anllquary. As. however, these peculiarities would not be likely to belully understood without reference to the inscription ilself, we will only menllon that it was a record of some building which had been restored by Severus and Geta, his son, omiltiDg the name of Caracalla, his elder son. Another singular circumstance is that thecom- mencement of Ihe 10scrlp1Îon is an uncommon use of the titles Imperatoru Caeiares, when only one of the persons named had received the title of Augustus. The in crption is well cut, and when first discovered the red paiut with which the letters were coloured was very distinct. The last paper read was a most valuable contribniion, by the Rev. C. W. King, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 00 "The mode of sepuliuie employed by the Romans."—The Ro- mans. during the three centuries they occupied Caerieon, used at different periods different modes of loteiment, according to Ihe variation of Ihe same 10 the other paris of the empire. In an attempt to fix the date, approximately, of the various changes ob- servable here, it will be useful to consider the subject in the first place, wnh reference to the practices observed in Italy and Gaul, where, from the greater civilization and number of the inhabi- tants, the remains are so much more numerous and better pre- served than the rude attempts in the same line "t the leolooaries and Romanised Britons. At first, the Romans buried their dead, without burning, in stone coffins; and this continued in use until the last century of the Republic, when the custom of burn- ing the bodies appears to have been almost universally adopted. This also appears to have been the case with ihe Etruscans, the models of the Romans in all the arts of civilisation. However, some noble families never adopted the nliw practice, but still in- terred 1 heir dead in stone sarcophagi, as the Scipios, whose family cemetery still exisis in a perfect state at Rome, on the Via Appia, It consists of ao extensive labyrinth of narrow winding passages, cut in the soft rock, and cootaios numerous large sarcophagi, In the hard stone of the country, peperius, marble being at that pe. riod excessively rare inscribed with the names and titles of the occupants, who were deposited in them at full length. Another well known sepulchre of the last period of the Repubhc, that of Cecilia Metella,* wife ot the wealthy Crassus, is a splendid ex. ample of the funeral monuments of that time. Ills a circular lower, faced with huge blocks of stone, and wi'h walls 30 II. in thickness, containing two small chambers, one above the other. In the lowest was found the verv elegant marble sarcophagus, of enormous size, now deposited in ihe Farnese Palace at Rome. It bears no inscription, but is elegantly ornamented wnh caived flutings, resembling the letter S, °x Hogarth s line of beauty, placed contiouously behind each other, a ecoratioo continually occurring on sarcophagi, to the latest times of the empire. The only inscription in this case was on the exterior of the tower, and the sarcophagus would easily contain two bodies, being intended for the reception of the husband and wife. Pliny also states that the stone coffin of Nama was brought to light by an earthquake, and was found to contain his corp-e entire, together with several of his religious MSS. Burning the corpse became universal du- ring the first century of the empire. The great still used the same circular tower as monument, but theirashes were deposited io urns. These were either p'aced within a small sepulcbra chamber, in niches formed io the biseof the tower, as 10 th I Mausoleum of Augustus, which was a round edifice of height aod three stages each smaller than the one belowl'8imlnfv to the old representations of the Tower ol-Babel. j such the lower story remains, which alone is 70 ft. high, an °.. diameter as to have been converted into an amphiibea exhibition of equestrian performances, and will accommodate some 2000 spectators in the space below, but bad loog since been rifled of its contents, and nothing but the emp'y niches remained. The tomb of Hadnan was almost of similar construction, aDd now forms the well known Castle St. Angelo, though stripped of all the colonnades which encircled its walls, aod divested of the upper stories. It was crowned by a small dome, capped with a large bronze pine-cone, now in the Ya!icao, within which was deposited the emperor's urn. Of private edifices of this nature, all remains about Rome have long vanished, with the excep- tion of the Baker's Tomb, near the Porta Maggiore, which was perfectly preserved in consequence of having been enveloped in the foundation of one of thebrick towers, of the time of lIono- nus. It is a whimsical building, the walls formed of short stone cylinders, or bread troughs, placed horizontally, the frieze repre- senting all the processes of bread making. It was raised by Eurysaces, a bread-contractor to the army, for himself and wife; and their ashes reposed in a bread basket of stone, in hoc panario," as we learn from the epitaph still perfect, on a slab, sup- ported by the fulllenglh figures of the pair. At Pompeii, however, many private tombs still exist they are generally strong stone rec- tangular buildings, containing ooe chamber, fitted with niches andshetoes for the leceptioo of urns, in bronze, maible, or glass. Though the ravages of war,and those 00 less destructive,of cultiva- tion, have removed all tracets of exterior monuments from the eovirons of Rome. except in the form of rude squaie buildings of rubble walk. plentifully scattered along the line of the aneient roads, and stripped (,f their marble coatings, yet the underground tombs of this period are continually being discovered. The most interesting of these is the tomb of the freedmeh of Augustus and Levia. It is a capacious chamber cut in the rock, many feet below the surface, and around are placed on shelves, cut al^o in the rock neat marble urns, about a foot square, the front adorned with a small tablet, containing an inscription, placed within wreaths of foliage, or in the facade of a small temple. About Rome, where marble note had become abundant, these small urns seem to have been universally adopted by the mid- dle classes. The poor cut holes in the vertical faces of the solt rock, abundant in the vicinity, in which they placed thel ashes in a rude earthern urn, or even in a cavity cut on the bottom of the niche, but in every case accompanied by a lamp and then clo-ed the opening with strong mortar, which remains firm as the stone itself to the present day. These cheap substitutes for columbaria occur abundantly in the rock which formed one side of the new cemetery of San Lorenzo, at Rome; also at Oxte, a military colony of the time of Angustus, seyertty miles up the Tiher; but traces of them are to be met with, near every town of Roman origin, where the rock offered the same facilities for their adoption. After the lapse of a century, the custom of burying the corpse entire in large sa-copbaji, capable of holding one,two or more bodies at full length,was revived and probably was sti- mulated in a great degree by the fact that the faces of the tombs afforded spaces for the most beautiful bas reliefs, and were altogether a much more striking object, and afforded more gratification to the vanity of the survivors,than the siwple edi- fice required to contain the family urns, any number of which might he stowed away in a "ery limited space. On the con- trary, these were placed on lofty bases, and lined the sides of all the approaches to the capital, especially the Via Flaminia, now the road to Florence and Latina, wheie the tombs ot noble families tvere chiefly placed. But one now remains in its original position, at the fifth milestone trom Rome. and is commonly called the "Toinbof Nero, although the inscription,with the name of its occupant and wife. still remains. These sarcophagi were frequently hewn out of one entire block ot marble, 8 feet lens by 5 deep and 4 wide. The cheaper ones were formed of lar»e slabs, skillfully joined together by iron cramps, and which continue sound to the present day. The most frequentsubjects of their has reJiels are Bacchanalian processions, having, no doubt, some deeper meaning to the initiated in the Mysteries, the chase of the Caldonian boar, and the labours of Hercules. These are hy far the most usual subjects, though on what prin- ciple of congruity. it is difficult to imagine. Next in frequency are combats of Centaurs and Lapithse, Greeks and Amazons; then representations of the scenes in the life of the occupant, a marriage or battles. Sometimes we find subjects from Homer and the Tragedians.* The common tombs have roeiely an oval in the centre of the front, containing the bust of the person, or of the two, therein interred; the rest of the face being covered with the S pattern before described and these continued in use until a very la'e period. A more ornamented tomb is now ex- hibited, of the same kind. Burning rapidly grew obsolete, Marcrobius, in the fourth century, speaks of it as a practice long discontinued,and informs us of a curious fact, that when it was the custom, the bodies of the poor who could not afford separate funeral piles, were burnt by tens at once and that to every ten males, one female corpse at least was added, to pro- mote the more pertect combustion of the bodies, in consequence of the ancient theory of the superior heat of their temperament. The early Christians being principally of the poorer class, and from their supeistitious notions as to the resurrection of the body, and the near approach of the Last Day, having from the first given up burning the dead, probably too influenced by the Jewish practice in this particular, they placed their dead in ruches cut in the slde3 01 Ihe catacombs —the deserted galleries used in the excavation of pozzulana for cement, and the extent of which was without limit, and afforded a convenient and wholesome method of disposing of the corpses, without poisoning the air of ihe vicinity- — The niches were theo hermetically sealed with their large flat tiles embedded In cement, so as to prevent the escape of anything offensive, whilst, from thc nature of (he soil, the hody rather dried up Ihan was consumed by putrefaction. This mode was that of the poorer classes, not of the Christians alone, Rod was practised uotd the rapid increase of priestcraft, sensible of the advantages 10 itself therefrom to be derived, taught the necessity ot interment in consecrated ground, and in the viciniey 01 a church. aDd thus introduced the abomi- nations of intermural iniermeot, which had been so severely prohibited by the wisdom of more enlightened times. the wealthier Christians, however, as by degtees persons of the highei classes became converted, continued the use of the large sarcoph gu-orname: ted willi has relief congenial to iheir [Jew religion. The more frequent subject of these are elegant festoona ot vines intermixed with genii the good shepherd surrounoed by his flocks alluiimg to (he words" I am the true vine," &c. the story of Jon..h-a mariner in a ship tossed on the stonny billows of li'e; and sometimes, representations of other parts of Scrip ure history as 10 the splendid tomb of Julius Maximus and wife, consul under Constantne, which is still in the crypt under St. Pe er's. This is of great depth, so as to admit of three ranges of bas reliefs, representing some of Ihe most prominent Chris'ian miracles. Here may be mentioned the porphyry lombs of Helena and Constantia, mother and daughter of Constaniine they are stupendous works, from the size of Ihe blocks composing them 8 feet high, by the same sq"are, and the hardness of the mater iai one bears sculptures illustrating histrtum, hs, the other groups of genii in a vioeyaid, engaged in the operations of :he vintage. These werè placed originlllly in mausolea, of which now merely the buck shells remain; they were circular and domed. That, however, which covered the tomb of Constantia, is perfect, and sllll used as a church, the vaulting covered ft h monic. of the same subject 8S the ba" reliefs IJQ ihe tomb that of Helena is half destroyed. The dome which contained the tomb of Romulus, son of Maxentius, is still very perfect; il agrees with the view given on a medal of the same emperor. It is here mentioned, 10 prove the similorilY of usage among Ibe partisans 01 both religions, at this time—the diflerence lying merely in the ornamental details. These sarcftphogi, thus adorn- ed, are the parents of our altar tombs of the middle ages, and in Italy, where classical custom* loog survived, they were often elevated on lofty bases, and under canopie@, ill front of the r hurcl.es, as at Bologna, and the Scaligeri at Verona. In Gaul, we find the same tonsinon fortunately, at Aries, remain upwards of one hundred stone sarcophagi,in situ, in the Champs lilysees, the ancientcfnetery they are both pagan and Chris- tian in one lately opened, a perfect skeleton rerraioed, having 00 the fioger a small gold ring, the beazel filled with a cross in white enamel on a black ground, and of a very early lorm. Before quitting tuis subject, we may observe, that the lids of sarco phagi are mostly of a prismatic form, haviog projections at Ihe angles, usually cut into the shape of a tragic mask but some- times of weeplDg genii. Towards the close of the empire, they became perfectly plain, their sides being without sculpture, e.gr. the tombs cl Coostantiusll 1., and Galla Placidia, early in the lourih century, still existing at Ravenna, and the Teutonic Emperor Otbo, in the crypt cf St. Peter's, The bodies were deposited in ihese, closely swathed in numerous bandages, like the Egyptian mummies, as appears from a very early Christian bas-relief, representing the raising of Lazarus, in the Gregorian museum at Rome. With them were placed vases containing odours.amuletsofallkinds.andirequentlyleadentablets.inscrilel with charms; this was espeCIally common wilb the Christians. 00 opening Ihe tomb of Maria, wife of Hononus, a great nUIJ.ber of such amulets were discovered, of the class now styled Gnostic s'ooes, inscribed with the names of angels for, in the early ages of Christianity, amongst nnny se;:ts, the adoration was paid 10 angels, which by degrees, was soon converted into the worship, first, of the martyrs, real or pretended, and then of persons canon zed on account of their supposed sanctity. It will, perhaps, be expedient to tuke a viewot the Roman tombs discovered in other parts of Britain, before proceeding to the detailed examination of the particular instances occurring at Caerieon. The original mode of burial practised by ihe Britons, as by all other Celtic nations, was 10 deposit the corpse in a shallow grave or cist,with his weaponsofflmt and bone,and upon this, to mise a mound propoitiooed in size to ihe rank of the individual. Even long alter the partial civilization of the island by the Romans, and when their mode of burning the dead had een adopted, these mounds werestill erected, offering a curious analogy with the practice of the Etruscans, also Celts, who geoe- rally sdoroed the sile of the subterranean funeral chamber by a pyramidal mound, crowned by the figure of a lion. An eicellent in tance of ilns custom presents itself in the Baitlow Hills, near Cambridge, which, when opened some years ago, were found to contain each a vaulted chamber, in which were found bronze vases of very elegant shape. incense vessels, a curule chair, and glass urns, wiih the ashes of the deceased, evidently, from the bsauty and value of the deposit, Romanized Britons, of high raok, and probably ihe chiefs of that district. Inaweryotten- sive Roman cemetery, called "Heaven's Walls," Cambridge, which must have been in use for many years, the first interments consistedof ashes in earthen urns,accompanied with manysmal'er vessels ofcutiousform but this method had evidently been at a laler period superseded by the burial of the whole corpse, "till with vases and unguentariss of the same nature as befoie. Suffolk furnishes us with tomts cf the same nature as those frequent at Caerleoo, a squa e cist fori:.ed of tiles, containing a glass urn, and many vessels of Samian ware,all inverted when found also, each pit had suspended from a houk in (he sioe, 00 iron lamp of a very,peculiar form, but exactly identical, both as to shape aod mode of suspension, with those used at present by the country people ot the south of Italy. The site of each tomb bad been designated originally by a low mound. In the same locality, Rougham ParK, neH Bury St.-Edmunds, stood a mound of con- siderable height; when opened, a vault of bricks appeared, turned, as the Norman vaults are occasionally, over a bed of cement laid 011 the curved face of a large oak coffin, which had thus served for centreiog to the arch. The planks were ent rely reduced 10 dust, but had been three inches thick, and put toge- tber by'iaYge nou spiltes, iIIbithremaioed K ebundance. Tht* outer case had enclosed a lead coffin, now in the collection of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, within which lay the perfect skeleton of a tall man, whose red hair still lay profusely about the skull, in which was a second brass coin, but, unfortunately, so corroded as 10 be illegible. This was probably one of the I latest interments of the Roman family inhabiting that locality, after the custom of burning had been lelioquished. In Exeter, funeral u ns are often discovered amid the ruins of Roman build, ings; indeed, it would appear that they had been placed under the very hearthstone of the dwelling; at least, such is the opinion of Mr. Shorn, who has been indefatigable in the investigation of the antiquities of that neighbourhood. This appears also to have been the case with two urns discovered amongst foundations of Roman buildings In the Priory garden, Caerieon. Of the mode of Inlerment originally used by the aborigines of this province, the Siiures, we have instances, most probably. in certain graves occasionally discovered io the low country skirting the Severn. at Magor, and last autumn,at Punon. The corpse wag extended at full lenoth in a grave three feet deep in the clay, and the head alone protected by three flagstones, set edgeways, and covered by a fourth. The earliest Roman sepulchies yet dis- covered at Caerieon, were doubtless those of Bullmoor, where the small family graveyard or hustum, surrounded by the traces of • low wall, presented, at a depth of three feet below the inscribed slabs, the remains of many urns in coarse pottery. Among ihe ashes was 8 first brass coin of Trajan, perfectly pre- sefved, and which had evidently been deposited after little or no c'rcuiation, so that the date of the earliest interment, may, without much risk, be fixed about that period when the district had been peaceably occupied by the Romans. The numerous clay urns discovered in small square pllØ formed of thin stones, placed on edge. upon the slope above the village, were probably of a date but little removed from the pre- ceeding. Their form agrees in a striking manner with those found in other parts of the neighbouihood and what is more curious as shewing a certain rule to have been observed in the manufacture of such articles with those of the same period, which occur frequently in the vicinity of Rome itself—the square pits In which these urns were placed, are of the same nature as those already mentioned as discoweled in Suffolk, which however in every case beld cinerary urns of glass, agreeing in form and material with those lately found at Caerieon. I he difference of urns and the accompanying Samian vessels, which were flat cups (pa tel re) and pitchers, being due to the superior wealth of the Suffolk colonists, the eastern provinces of the island having been even befoie the Roman invasion occupied by a morecivili.ed and wealthy population, owing to the extensive pastures and corn lands of the districts, which, in fact, under the Romans, was the granary of their northern empire whilst their towns in giluria were probably liule more than clearings in the intermi- oabte forest which extended itself over the whole region, and which they did not think ttwoth their while to occupy until Dearly a century after they had possessed flourishing towns-as

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