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|]T!HIE :1Y! rf iaLWj|


|]T!HIE :1Y! rf iaLWj| FRIDAY, AUGUST 11, 1843. CARMARTHEN, AUGUST 9TH, 1843. Although the A nti-toll-exaction .movement still goes on, and is not likely to pause before the last gate considered illegal by the Rebeccaites is levelled, in this and the adjoining counties, still we are happy to write for the satisfaction of our readers, that the spirit which has been evoked seems not to extend beyond the object of a redress of petty oppression, and that the decision of the bench of Magistrates at Swansea, on Saturday last, and their declared inten- tion of visiting with the full penalties any lessee proved to have unjustly charged upon the traffic of the trust, appear to have, to a -great extent, assuaged the acerbity of public feeling against a great agrarian grievance. The magistrates will, we trust, follow up this salutary resolution, and the Government who have lately sent down their Solicitor to the Treasury, and the Chief Magistrate of Metropolitan Police, and who, consequently, have, or should have, their vigilant, their Argus eyes upon South Wales, will t) set about more extended ameliorations than those within the sphere of Magisterial power. They, of course, have been officially informed that the farmers of Carmarthenshire, Cardiganshire, Pem- brokeshire, and those of other districts, are, generally speaking, miserably depressed, and that many of them are absolutely in a state bordering all destitution. That very active minister and farmers' friend save the mark, Sir James Graham is doubt- lessly made aware, by the persons sent down at the public expense, that the farm labourers of these parts of her Majesty's dominions are now working from four or five o'clock in the morning till eight at night for one shilling a day. The right hon. bart. is, of course, informed that county rates of three- pence in the pound have been made upon the poor Taffies, and that, in a great many instances, officials who may be deemed sinecurists are largely paid from this source, and above all, this portly farmers' friend must necessarily have learned from the Downing-street Missioners (for it was their acknow- ledged duty to collect the expression of public feeling in the "disturbeddistricts") that the farmers themselves are now bitterly complaining of the corn-laws the dire effects of which are closing the manufacturing mouths and ruining their home markets. L- It is not for us to detail to Sir James Graham, statistics with which the public ser- vants must acquaint him but from the facts and figures we have with diligence and impartiality col- lected on the spot, we unhesitatingly say that, if Sir James Graham and his Right Hon. Medical Chief of the Cabinet have any real disposition to improve the social condition of South Wales, they must do far more than make an equitable adjust- ment of toll trusts. Let us look at what they have recently been doing in the House of Commons, a quarter to which we had not time last week to direct our attention. The debate which took place before going into a committee of supply was certainly the most im- portant of the merely talking displays of the session. I'hose summaries of the ministerial progress which Lord Lyndhurst was in the habit of introducing in the days of Whig rule, have been imitated and im- proved upon by Lord John Russell and his friends. The tables are now turned, the Conservatives are put on the defensive and, certainly, a most sorry figure they do exhibit. Perhaps it is not hazarding too much to say that the whole embarrassment, distress, and disorganization of the country, are to be attributed to them, personally, and hot to una- voidable circumstances. It can be clearly shown, that the present alarming state of public affairs has been caused, firstly by Sir Robert Peel's double- dealing and Janus-faced policy when in opposition, by which he cajoled every party of his followers to foist him upon the Sovereign, rather than remain in the cold shade of opposition all his life and secondly, by the disappointment which the falsifica- tion of all promises and hopes has occasioned among the people. He is doubly responsible firstly, in having knowingly chalked out a course which was based on no honest, manly, or straightforward principle- a course which the least reflection might have con- vinced the most crafty man, could not be maintained for six months after the attainment of office by the I smoothest dissembler in the world, unless he lived under a despotic monarchy like Austria and secondly, he is responsible, because when events have proved the falseness of his reasoning, and the hollowness of his position, he persists, according to the vulgar but trite adage, like a dog in a manger, in keeping hold of the pillars of office and excluding Reformers. Is there, we ask, a man in England or Wales who doubts if Sir Robert Peel had the courage to resign, the obstructive party would be broken up ? and is there a man who doubts that if the Whigs were in power the way would be gently and smoothly sloped for that popular current which now, dammed up by "Conservatism," threatens a complete in- undation ? We repeat, then, that the debate was a para- mountly important one for it was a review of the chief topics which, in the aggregate, constitute the great condition-of-England question. It is worth while to consider it a moment. Were we to give our own impressions of the spirit which pervaded it, we should say that it did not look like sincerity, on the part of either side. They joked, jeered, fenced, and retorted in the true party style with more or less effect, and to the more or less satisfaction of their respective partizans but, on the whole, each party said little that, if practically realised, would go far to feed, clothe, and employ the starving millions and legislation which has not at the present time this object in view-which confines itself to Arms Bills, small debt Courts Bills, Scotch Kirk Bills- Ecclesiastical Court Bills, and such like, is worse than useless, since it proves the utter in- competency of the Governing or Legislative Ma- chine for the purposes required of it in the present crisis. In ordinary times, the country on the whole governs itself. It could govern itself if all the departments and public offices were absolutely abo- lished; and in such times one set of men are, per- haps, just as good as another, and any man good enough to be Prime Minister for all he has to do is to keep fast hold of the spigot of taxation, and call it in metaphorical language, the helm of Government; 'but a crisis like the present has far different exigencies. The no-government and mis- government of ages have accumulated a frightful mass of abuses. Report upon report prove the perils of our case, and the Augean stable must be cleansed if it even be by turning a torrent through it. In answer to all the alarming representations of Lord John Russell, what had Sir Robert Peel to reply ? what favourable facts could he mention to counterbalance the unfavourable ones ? Not many For the slow progress of his measures, he had to blame Whig opposition, and the opposition of the country-for the signs of opening prosperity he had to adduce an increase in the cotton trade, as com- pared with one of the worst years in the annals of commerce On the other hand, he has not stopped the defi- ciency in the Revenue, he has not quieted Ireland, he has not kept quiet South Wales, and Rebecca laughs at him, though he has sent down the sage Mr. Manle, that solon of the Treasury, his fidus Acbates Mr. Rowen, and the Rhadamanthus of Bow-street, with some of t'ha troops who1 emblazoned on their arms the 9J.sastrous but ''et glorious achievements of Affghanistan* He has revised Tfade, Commerce, nor Manufactures. In our Foreign relations, he has not rerflovats'* our American tfaide by a treaty of commerce unison with the feeHnge titid wishes of the the United States. He has not supported the cotf" stitutiona1 cause, which is that of fr £ e->trade in Spain* but ignominiouslv allowcd it to be stHlec1 by tret interference. He has sided with the Holy Allï:an::e in discountenancing the cause of* Spanish libgrt1, in every possible way, except always, in emptf, words; and when Espartero, the representative 0 constitutional freedom and of British connexion* stood alone in the world, discarded by France, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and the other states of despotic government, and looked for support to England, which had placed tu.ra where he was aftef incredible efforts, 8ir Robert Pe»?l has played the old Tory game over again, of abandoning the cause of freedom wherever it tr'tisted to Engi!an<l fr* support. In Brazil he has not concluded any treaty for tbØ continuation and extension of but has left our Five Millions of Exports to tba& country at the mercy of a new Brazilian Tariff, which threatens to impose a high duty upon all countries, with a view of reaching us jn spite of tii £ clause in the present treaty which binds- them W place us on the footing of the most favoured nations* At the same time there are evident indications that after 1844 a discriminating duty will be placed by the Government of Rio de Janeiro on British goax&f which will, as compared with the French and Germao goods, amount to an absolute prohibition. And here we may say that it is impossible to estimate the amount of distress which such a measure \VllJ create in Lancashire and the manufacturing districts, If Ihe faIling off of the revenue of three millions and uP" wards If) our American commerce, ha, had such fearful and alarming consequences, who shall say what the addi-" nonal diminution 01 five millions sterling will produce? Every sane man thai has not been wet-nursed in the "when George (he thud was King" must tremble to think of it. Putting aside for the moment the Indian policy of the Conservative Government, and the folly of engaging »» an unjust war of conquest in Scinde, woen peace, re-> trenchment, alld economy, are vitally necessary 10 recruIt the exhausted resources of India, let us fix our allention a lillle longer on the state and prosperity 01 trade under Sir Robert Peel's management. This part of Lord JobØ ltussell's speech will, or ou.:hl [0 tell the hardest bpoO practical men of business who know that trade is the lite and soul of the country. II appears then that the exports to the United StaW have fallen off from £ 7,098,642. in 1841, to £3.528,807. H' 1842, or by the eXlraordtnary sum of £ 3,569,835. Cot.. IOU manufactures have fallen off a million, those of linen • rom £ 1,232,247. to £ 463,645.; of woollens frol11 £ 1,549,926. to £ 892,335.; of hard wares, cutlery, frolf) £ 584.400. to £ 298,881.; of Iron and steel, from £ 626 532* to £ 394,8.54.; and of silk manufactu es from £ 306 95? 10 £ 81,243. If it be asked is the Premier answprable for this? ",ø answer, deciddely he is. He has had it Ù: his power to ad" mlt Ihe chief produce of the United States Into this cotin' try at low fixed duties, and he has preferred a sliding scale corn-law which excludes that produce. He has had overtures (rom the Whig party in Amerira, (herelofor&! the party of native manufacturers) to relax both taritf" and to admit English manufactures at a duty of 20 pet cent. ad valorem, If he would only relax his own tariff 50 as to admit American maize, tobacco, and provisions, fair rales, and he has turned a deaf ear to General Gleen th* proposer. Weare surprised that Sir Robert should ha"e ventured to aSiert that the Americans were unwilling to relax their tariff, and Ihat the experience he had had \fa' not of a nalure to encourage him to unbend any more. It is no wonder Ihat Leeds and Sheffield, Birmll.!ZhaJ1], W olverhampwn, Merthyr, our HIlls, Dundee, Belfast, Macclesfield, Manchester, South Staffordshire, &c., are all put lo their wits ends to live. How can they live whe" io one year the demand for their labour is reduced one ha"' The Uniled States contain seventeen millions of people. They would consume three pounds worth of Engl'3'1 commodities per head, if they could get them at a fair price. The naiural American demand would thus atnouO1 10 fiP.1J-ollc milliolls annually, Say that it was only forl1 million", would notlhat enormous slim be better than miserahle three or four millions to which legislation has reduced il. Figure the prosperity thai would result to this country and to this district by thØ enormous increase of the American market, and let man say the supposition is extravagant. The facts an** figures ale before him in the parliamenlary returns, (t^' same (rom whence we have had them,) called for by Mr. Thornely, member for Wolverhampton. Would not stJcIJ a market as this be worth gelling rid of a Conservatif8 government? Is it not reller to remedy our distres,.b1 this way, than by the absurd Atwood nostrum o( flooding Ihp land with paper money? We confess Ihat afler conversing with practical roeP, we have hardly patience to read through the solemn nOP- sense and high soundIng shams of Parliament, when, a5 Mr. Bright truly says, the disease and the remedy are both so apparent. Do our rulers intend lo wait until torch of the midnight incendiary shall make their purblin" eye see the truth? Are we to have the tens of thousand* of northern colliers striking for their usual wages, Ihe demand is fallen off one half. Already the banks JIt Staffordshire are halting and staggering. Several work* have stopped and more are spoken of. It cannot and it will not come to good,"