MR. CHAMBERLAIN. REPLIES TO HIS CRITICS AT LEEDS Mr. Chamberlain brought his Protection campaign to a conclusion, for the present, by a speech at Leeds on Wednesday. He began by ridiculing tho-M who had SIXyken on the other aide since lie spoke at' Newport. He was not eo much impressed as perhaps he ought to ba with the authority which they carried. It was true that l.1r. Ritchie had called his attention to the fact that there were four ex-Chancellors among them, and that one of them was himself. He (Mr. Chamberlain) had a doubt whether the magnificent robes which the Chancellor of the Exchequer wore upon occasion carried with them all the virtue* and all the wisdom of all his predecessors, He was quite unable, without any disrespect, to accept Mr. Ritchie as a great financial authority because he happened to be under the tuition of the permanent officials of the Treasury for the space of a few months. MR. ASQUITH'S CHALLENGE. Mr. Asquith challenged him (Mr. Chamber- lain) the other day, in a tone of triumph—as if, forsooth, he were a witness and Mr. Asquith were the cross-examining counsel— Mind, sir, you are on your oatii, yes or no." He did not admit Mr. Asquith s right treat him in that fashion. At the same time, hs was willing to answer the question which, with such a flourish of trumpets, Mr. Asquith had addressed to him. Mr. Asquith said, Show me any trade that has been destroyed by the evils of which you are always talking." He (Mr. Chamberlain) did not think he had said that any trade was absolutely destroyed. If Mr. Asquith wanted him to give him a trade of which even no dregs remained, perhaps he might have a difficulty in satis- fying him, but he could give Mr. Asquith trades by the score which had suffered and had ceased to be great tra-dej. He thought we might abate something of our conceit, and take a leaf out from the experience of other nations in these matters. They made tariffs to shut us out. Let us make tariffs. Let us (make a scientific tariff; let us make a tariff if it were possible—and he believed it was— which would not add by one farthing to the burdens of any tax-payer, but which, by the transference of taxes from one shoulder to another, would not only produce the same amount of revenue which would always be necessary for our home expenditure, but which might incidentally do something to develop and to extend our trade. We were told we could not make a scientific tariff, but at any rate tariff reformers were going to try to do it. AN UNOFFICIAL COMMISSION. "I am," said Mr. Chamberlain, "going to make a statement of some importance, as I think it will prove in the future. Under the auspices of the Tariff Reform League, which is the organised representative association of this great movement, we are going to form, we have gone a long way in the direction of forming, a commission—no £ an official commission, but a non-political commis- eion of experts, to consider the condition of our trades and the remedies which are to be found for it. This commission will comprise leading representatives of every particular industry, and of every group of industry. It will comprise representatives of India, of the Crown Colonies, of the self-governing Colonie3. It will invite before it witnesses from every trade, and it will hear all that can be said, not merely in regard to the special interests of any particular trade, but also in regard to the interest of all the other trades which may be in any sense related to it. It is open for them to frame a model tariff. The principle laid down at Glasgow was that we should have a tariff averaging 10 per cent. on manufactures, and that the tariff should be arranged so as to put a higher rate of duty on imports which have the most labour in them. as compared with partly manufactured goods imported, but which do not deprive us of so much emplovment. (Cheers.) AMBASSADOR TO THE COLONIES. What had turned him out of office or dragged him out ot office, what had forced him into the greatest controversy of fighting life? It was the question what was to be the future of the British Empire. That was what he had been thinking of day and night during the last eight years. We were at the parting of the ways. There was not one of all the changes that had taken place since Cobden's days greater than the changed appreciation of Imperial ideas and Imperial Let the country send him (Mr. Chamberlain) as ambassador to the Colonies with roll powers and he was perfectly willing to risk his reputation on being able not merely to satisfy the Colonies, but also to secure from the Colonies equal measure in return. (Cheers.)
DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE. CONDEMNATION OF THE POLICY OF MR. CHAMBERLAIN. In reply to a correspondent, the Duke of Devonshire writes that, as President of the Free Food League, he is of opinion that an elector who sympathises with the objects of the League would be well advised to decline to give his support at any election to a unionist candidate who expresses his sym- pathy with the policy of Mr. Chamberlain and the Tariff Reform League.
BRECON RESISTERS' SALE. LARGE GATHERING, BUT FEW INCIDENTS. Another sale of the goods of passive registers took place at the Market-hall, Brecon, on Friday, the martyrs on this occa- I sion being Mr. W. S. Miller, J.P., vice-chair- man of the oounty education committee, Alderman Howell Powell. and Mr. J. Thomas, a retired farmer of Tairlian Glyn. Mr. Miller had declined to pay 19s. 5d towards th-i administration of the new Education Act; Alderman Powell had refused £ 1 12s. 2d. • and Mr. Thomas the sum of ls. 4d The seizure of their goods by the overseers took place a week ago, Messrs. Miller and Powell each having a valuable pony dis- trained upon, and Mr. Thomas a silver watch. Friday being market day at Brecon, a large number of farmers attended the sale, and the spectators also included a number of Noncon- formist ministers and the teaching staff and students of the Memorial College Orcnpyia* a prominent place near the auctioneer was a Nonconformist minister, who, in new of obtaining a seat on the county council at the election in March, is giving magic lantern lectures in his district, at which scenes at "passive resiaters' sales are shown, together with photographs of those concerned. Although the attendance at the sale was very large, there was a total absence of excitement, and those who expected a repeti- tion of the see les which characterised the Previous sale were very disappointed. Even the appearance of Mr. Miller with a valuable Pony he offered as a sa-criflce at the altar of a rapa-cious priesthood" was allowed to pass unnoticed. Goidstone," the pony, was the only disturber of the peace. While waiting for the auctioner he kicked out viciously, the crowd at the time hurriedly retreating and doing considerable damage to the goods and chattels of a second- hand furniture man whose stall was in close proximity to the scene of the sale. Punctually at 11.30 a.m. the auctioneer, Mr. Beynon, of Hay, made hie appearance, and, looking round, seemed surprised at the absence of any demonstration. Mr. Miller whispered in his ear, and then. standing at the head of the pony, addressed the crowd and asked the assembly to give Mr. Beynon fairplay, p.3 he had only come there to discharge his duty. At the previous sale someone who was not a follower of the passive resisters did some- thing to the auctioneer which was very dis- creditable, and he hoped such conduct would not be repeated. Mr. Beynon said he had only come there to carry out the law. Someone had to sell the goods, and he was prepared to do so. Mr. Thomas's silver watch first came under the hammer, and the first and only bid for it waa £2 10s. Councillor E. M. Meredith was declared the purchaser. The ponies were afterwards put up and knocked down for £5 each, Councillor Mere- dith again being the buyer. The sale lasted exactly two minutes and a. half, and, as the auctioneer's fee was £2 10s., it will be seen that he was paid a.t the rate of JE1 per minute. WARRANT FOR UNPAID BALANCES: IMPORTANT DECISION. The Divisional Court on Monday resumed the hearing of the case in which a rule had been granted at the instance of the West Ham overseers, calling upon Mr. Gillespie, the West Ham police magistrate, to show cause why a mandamus should not be issued com- manding him to grant a distress warrant against Messrs. Boardman and Sons for un paid rates. Messrs. Boardman were sum- moned for £441 for general rates, and offered to pay £416, intimating their conscientious objection to balance of rate. The present proceedings were instituted to compel the justice to issue a warrant for the entire rtte. The Cottrt decided that when a magistrate had a tender in the open court of a part of the poor rate, he was not bound to issue a distress warrant for the whole amount, but could issue a distress warrant for amount whioh the ratepayer refused to pay. The Lord Chief Justice remarked 'that the judgment most not be supposed to eoun- oe the refusal of persona to pay rates antish were 17 clue,
SIR W. HAHCOURT. ADDRESS TO HIS CONSTI- TUENTS. Sir William Harcourt addressed his consti- tuents on Friday evening at Tredegar. Mr. F. L. Davies, a member of the executive committee of the West Monmouth- shire Liberal Association, presided, and intro- duced the right hon. member ae the cham- pion of religious liberty and of Free Trade— (cheers)—who had decided to stick to West Monmouthshire. (Cheers.) Sir William Harcourt said: My good friends, I wish for your sakes, as well as my own, that the rule which the chairman has laid down that speeches should be confined to five minutes could be applied to myself -(laughter, and cries of "No, no")—but, as I have most unwillingly been a truant for so long, I am afraid I shall have to trespass more upon your patience. If I am asked, "Are you a Protectionist or are you a Free Trader?" I say without hesitation, "I am a Free Trader out and out." (Cheers.) If I am asked the reason why, I can give it very shortly, and it is this—because I have lived to see Protection at work and the condition of the English people under Protection, and I have been spared long enough to see what Free Trade has done for the English people. AN INSULT TO OUR COLONIES. Now, let us consider for a moment what is this great fiscal revolution, and why it is to take place. What is the justification for a revolution? First of all it was to be a Colonial mea-sure. It was to save the Empire, which was said to be in danger, and the Colonies were likely to break away. But the Colonies have not shown, I think, any dispo- sition to break away. (Cheers.) They did not show any disposition to wreck the Empire when they came to our aid in South Africa. (Cheers.) In my opinion language bf that kind is very insulting to the Colonies— (hear, hear)—and I perceive that is the view they have taken. I saw in the Standard newspaper the day before yesterday a report of a speech made by Mr. Clifford Sifton, the Minister of the Interior—that is, the Home Secretary—of Canada. Mr. Sifton said that he protested against Canada being pictured as a squalling infant clamouring' for prefe- rence and saying if it did not get it it would break up the family. (Laughter and cheers.) The suggestion that Canada should be bribed, otherwise it would join America, was a con- temptible one. (Hear, hear.) THE RETURN FOR FOOD TAXATION. We know what the material tie, so far as we are concerned, is to be. (Laughter.) It is to be a tax upon the food of forty millions of the inhabitants of a place called Little England." (Laughter.) That is the founda- tion of the whole policy. But, naturally, the question you is, What are we to get in return? We have asked that question very often, and we have never got an answer to it—(laughter and "Hear, hear")—and we can- not get an answer. We know that the Canadians—and we recognise it with gratitude as a sign of their goodwill towards us—gave us some years ago a preference of 33 per cent., and they made no condition at all. Sir Wilfrid Laurier said: We owe that at least to England for having given us an open market for all our goods, though we do not gife them an open market. And, therefore, they gave us this preference. But what did Mr. Chamberlain say about this preference? He said: "Ita substantial results"—this he said to the Prime Minister of the Colonies last year—"the substantial results had been altogether disappointing." Well, now. if that is disappointing, what are we to get? (Hear, hear.) What Mr. Cham- berlain says is practically this: It is no use you going and piling up further duties upon foreign goods unless you lower more, and a great deal more, yomr duties upon English goods. That was the position he took then. Since then we have endeavoured to make out what it is that we are likely to get in considera- tion of the taxation of the food of the people. EVILS OF INDIRECT TAXATION. Now, it is not only food that he proposes to tax, but every manufactured thing which is imported by this country. Well, of course, the object of that is to raise the price. (Cheers.) If it does not raise the price it does not accomplish its object: it is no Protection at all. We are not such fools as to think that these duties can be put on and will not raise the price to the consumers. Of course, it will. and when you talk of consumers you don't only mean what people eat and drink, but everything they use. Therefore, everything which comes from abroad or is made in this country will be raised in price—(hear, hear)— and it is going back to the most serious thing of all—the extensive system of indirect taxa- tion. Indirect taxation necessarily fatig most heavily upon the masses of the people, the poorest of the people. (Hear, hear.) THE FOREIGNER AND THE TAX. It is generally supposed that if yon lower your taxes, or take off a tax, that it is an advantage to the consumer, but if the foreigner pays you should never take them off. but, on the contrary, should double them. ("Hear, hear," and laughter.) The object of a duty is to raise the price, but if the foreigner pays it the price is not raised. (Hear, hear.) Then yon hear it said that wages will rise because food becomes dearer. Well, that it not true. (Hear, hear.) When corn in the days of Protection was very high, were wages very high? (Hear, hear.) Why, in the agri- cultural districts was were 7s. and 8s. a week. (A Voice: Quite right.") That is the fact. Therefore, this is all a most silly attempt to deceive people by fallacies which have no foundation at all. (Cheers.) DUMPING." I want to eay something on the subject of "dumping." It is a com- plicated controversy. It has to do with the abominable system of syndicates and cartels and trusts abroad which are the evils of Protection. They are produced by the monopoly of which Protec- tion is the basis. Very well, it has a double aspect. It brings here cheap material in what one calls billets and bars and things of that kind, which are what I may call the semi-nnished articles, and they come here to be finished, and, of course, as regards the trade engaged in finishing manufactures they are an advan- tage. We know perfectly well they have restored in this district of South Wales the tin-plate trade almost to its former position— (cheers)-andthey are a. great advantage, no doubt. It is quite true that the finished article employed and paid better labour than the unfinished article. Those are considera- tions which give an advantage to the intro- duction of cheap steel. On the other hand, they act, of course, to the disadvantage of the makers of the unfinished, imperfect raw material, and they introduce a very severe competition, of which those parties naturally complain. Now, I have done my best to inform myself upon this subject, and I have been assisted, and I am happy to recognise the fact, by Mr. Mills, the very able and successful manager of the Ebbw Vale Company. He has placed in my hands the official report of that company. THE EBBW VALE COMPANY. Well, I am very glad to know that the Ebbw Vale Company has had a prosperous year. We all know the bad times of former years, but in Juae last it had a cheerful meeting, in which all the parties congratulated one another. That was most satisfactory. The report of 1902 is of a different character. There were losses sustained in the early part of the year, not in the later, and they looked forward to a brighter prospect. That brighter prospect seems to have arrived. I learn from the official report that the chair- man was able to inform them that the net profits gave an average of fifty thousand in the last eleven years, or a hundred times as much as it had done in the previous ten years, and he said that the average dividends in the last few years had immensely increased over the sixteen years previously, in which only three dividends had been paid. The value of its assets was, perhaps, more than doubled in ten years, and £250,000 had been set aside as a reserve. (Hear, hear.) I do not call that an account of a decayiqg trade. (Laughter and "Hear, hear.") LABOUR IN SOUTH AFRICA. Mr. Chamberlain stands forth as the prin- cipal champion of British labour. (A laugh.) Is it in that capacity that he is going to establish Chinese labour in South Africa? (Cries of Oh," hisses, and Hear, hear.") Is that a championship of British labour—to establish a system which makes the country almost impossible for British labour? Well, gentlemen, let us turn from these baseless fabrics, founded upon false theories, supported by unproved and unprovable state- ments. Let us discard the scheme for making everyone better off by making everything dearer—(laughter and cheers)—to the advan- tage of particular interests. Let us take the larger and loftier view of the business of this country rather than a sordid chaffering over rival tariffs. Let U9 seek to elevate the Imperial race at the heart of the Empire. Let us house our people better at home, and allow them to live upon untaxed food. Let us bring back the people of the soil, not by tariffs, but by land reform. Let us reduce the inordinate expenditure in order that we may relieve the taxation of the people. Let us cultivate temperance—(cheers)— and not pose as patrons of drink. Let us give to the people a national education which deserves the name. That is a cause in which Wales has played a great part, and in which she is going to play a greater part. (Cheers.) This, my friends, is the policy of progress. Mr. Chamberlain says that he is ] for progress. Yes, but progress backwards. (Cheers and laughter.) The scheme of Mr. Chambe-rladn is nothing but a counsel of reaction, an old and discredited system, from which we have been once delivered, and to which, my friende, we will never return. (Load mm§prolonged cheering.) it
I THE SKETTY CHURCHYARD. APPLICATION TO CLOSE IT RESENTED. On Tuesday Mr. R. H. Bicknell, on behalf of the Local Goyernment Board, made an inspection of Sketty Churchyard, which Mr. Graham Vivian, the patron of the living, desired to have closed on the ground that it was full. Mr. Vivian's desira was that space should be reserved there for himself, for Miss Lindsay, and for a servant named Mrs. Williams only. 'The inspection commenced about eleven o'clock. Mr. Bicknell went round the graves, and it was pointed out that many of these only contained a single body each, so that there was still room for further inter- ments. Subsequently an adjournment was made to the church vestry, where statements were made. Mr. Goode, acting on behalf of the parishioners, contended that the graveyard was not full, that there was plenty of space for further burials, and that the place ought to be and could be extended, if Mr. Graham Vivian would give or sell the necessary land. They had offered him a reasonable price, but the figure he asked was quite out of the question.—Questions were asked, and then Mr. Goode urged that Mr. Vivian ehouifl let them have the land, especially as they were willing to purchase it. There was no land in the vicinity other than this, unless they went to Dunvant. Mr. Bicknell said it was always a very un- pleasant thing to close a. churchyard. There was so much sentiment. There they had plenty of land round about; and, personally, he was not going to advise the board to close the churchyard. But he did not wish them to run away with the idea that his opinion was going to be taken. He urged them to look about them for a suitable burial ground as quickly as possible. Mr. Goode explained that they had been trying to secure additional burying ground, but had failed. People seemed unwilling to sell ground for the purpose. Replying to the inspector, Mr. Goode said St. Martin's, Dun- vant, was about the nearest church connected with them which had ground attached to it. No burials took place there, however. St. Martin's was a chapel-of-ease belonging to the parishes of Sketty, Llanrhidian, and Bishops- ton. The report will be made in due course.
POINT IN LICENSING LAW. SUNDAY REFRESHMENTS AT THE RAILWAY STATION. Mrs. Gunn, licensee of the refreshment- rooms at the Taff Vale Railway Station, Pontypridd, was summoned at the local police- court on Wednesday to answer a charge of unlawfully selling a bottle of whisky at the rooms on Sunday, December 6.-Poli, "¡n- stable Protheroe gave evidence of sc. a man, named J. Richards, collier, Ferndale, coming out of the refreshment-rooms with a bottle of whisky, which was protruding from his coat pocket. The witness took him back to Miss Roberts, the manageress, and asked her if she had served him. She replied "No, but I think the boy did." The boy acknow- ledged serving the whisky, and remarked, "I am a fresh man here, and I thought they did the same here as they do up in London. Police-sergeant Morris, who corroborated, said that Richards was under the influence of drink.—Mr. Ingledew (Messrs. Ingledew and Sons, Cardiff), who appeared for the defence, submitted that the refreshment-rooms on a station were not treated under the same con- ditions as public-houses, and read a number of sections from different Acts of Parliament to uphold the statement. A person arriving or departing from a railway-station could not be deaJt with as a bona-fide traveller as considered by a publican. Public-houses could only open at certain stated times, whereas railway bars were opened upon the departure and arrival of trains, and all per- sons so arriving or departing were entitled to be served.—The Magistrates reserved their decision for a fortnight.
BAD COOKING AND DRINKING. Sir William Anson, Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Education, speaking at Preston on the occasion of the dis- tribution of prizes to the students of the Harris Technological and Scientific Institu- tion, said he thought that cookery and wood- work would enter more largely than they did now into elementary education. Tem- perance reformers, he suggested, might take up cookery as one means of promoting their object, for much drinking was the result of indigestion caused by bad cooking.
SUGGESTED NEW THEATH&. INQUIRIES FOR A SITE AT CARDIFF. A letter was read at a meeting of the Car. diff Property and Markets Committee on Wed- nesday from Mr. R. Radford, lessee of the Theatre Royal, Cardiff, asking to be informed if there was a possibility of obtaining part of the Town-hall or adjoining premises for the erection of a theatre. If these pre- mises were not available, the committee was asked to name another suitable site. The space required for the proposed new theatre would be 70ft. broad and about 160ft. deep. —The committee regretted that at the present time they were unable to offer a site such as that required, but would bear the application in mind. We gather that as yet the question of the erection of a new theatre in Cardiff is only in a very preliminary stage, nothing of a definite nature having so far been done. However, Mr. Runtz, the architect of the new Gaiety Theatre, London, was recently in Cardiff, and inspected a number of sites, in- cluding one adjoining the Engineers' Insti- tute, in Park-plaoe, but it is understood that a more central site is desired.
REGISTRAR-GENERAL'S RETURNS. The Registrar-General reports that the annual rate of mortality in 76 of the great towns of England and Wales laet week averaged 19.2 per 1.000. The rates in South Wales towns were:- .,Newport 24 Cardiff is Rhondda 18 Merthyr Tydfil 32 Swansea 21 1 The Registrar^General's return issued on Tuesday night stated that there were 8,207 births and 5,553 deaths registered in 76 of the great towns of England and Wales during the week ended Deoember 12, 1903. The follow- ing are the figures for the South Wales towns, viz. Births. Deaths. NowWrt 57 33 Cardiff 81 60 Rhondda 91 43 Merthyr Tydfil 40 44 Swansea. 43 40 I
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PONTYPRIDD BANKRUPT. FAILURE OF TWO GROCERS INVESTIGATED. At Pontypridd Bankruptcy-court on Tues- day (before the registrar, Mr. James E. Spickett) Lewis Evans, who formerly carried on business as a grocer in Taff-street, Ponty- pridd, came up for his adjourned examina- tion. Mr. D. Roberto-Roeser appeared for the debtor, and Mr. J. Bryant for the peti. tioning creditors. The amended accounts pro- duced showed that the receipts for six months prior to the bankruptcy proceedings were £ 2,086 2s. 3d., of which L549 108. 6d. was received over the counter, but had not been banked, as his account with Lloyds Bank had been closed. About a month before his peti- tion was filed be assigned book debts to the value of CI64 for E30, which was handed over to his solicitor to meet a writ. These were not his best debts, and he denied having supplied goods up to within a few days of his bankruptcy to any of his debtors whose debts had been assigned to Mr. Griffith Davies, for whom he had acted as assistant until a week ago, and had collected £ 7 or JS8 of the debts. Mr. Davies wu prepared to return the debts at any time for the amount which he had paid for them.—The Official Receiver stated that a number of book debtz were not included in the statement of affairs, and as he intended visiting all the debtors whose debts had been assigned in company with the person who delivered the goods, Mr. Daniel asked for an adjournment to the 26th of January.—The application was granted. The statement of affairs of Nathaniel Roberts, a young grocer, formerly trading as the Cash Stores, Penygraig, showed liabilities amounting to 72 17s. 4d. and a deficit of 1543 6s. Sd. The doubtful debts were returned at R239 2s. 9d. Debtor attributed his bank- ruptcy to want of capital, bad debts, and keen competition. He started business on his own account nine months ago without any free capital, and his losses through sick- new, spoiled goods, and other causes were very heavy. He kept no books of account, except a ledger, and he had continued trading in the hope that business would improve.—The úioD. wae adjourned.
SWANSEA EMPIRE BARS. CARDIFF BROKERS' CLAIM FOR COMMISSION. At Swansea Oounty-court on Tuesday Messrs. Jonea and Owen, Cardiff, hotel bro- kers, brought an action against Mrs. Mary Jane Brangham, 4, Glanmore-terrace, Swan- sea, for E40 commission. Mr. J. Sankey (in- structed by Mr. G. H. Morgan Bees, Cardiff) appeared in support of the claim, and Mr. Llenfer Thomas (instructed by Mr. Edwin Harris) defended. Mr. Sankey said defendant appointed Messrs. Lewis Morgan and Box, Cardiff, to put the Swansea Empire Vaults before the public with a view of finding a purchaser. The matter was mentioned to the plaintiffs, -#Iio arranged with Messrs. Lewis Morgan and Box that if they found a purchaser they should receive 5 per cent on the purchase money. Plaintiffs introduced Captain Wilkinson, who explained at the outset he had some years ago been fined a smajl sum for a petty licensing offence. Captain Wilkinson was told that would not matter, and he inspected the bars, which were approved both by the Car- diff and Swansea police. The captain paid a deposit (£70), and nothing further remained but to complete. It was one of the terms of the contract that Mrs. Brangham should ob- tain the consent of her lessors to purchase, but this was refused. Captain Wilkinson subsequently brought an action for the re- turn of the deposit, which action was settled by the repayment of the deposit. His Honour said the whole point was that the defendant in accepting the deposit tacitly agreed to obtain the consent of the landlord. After further evidenoe and argument, his Honour said the defendant had been what was in America described as a little too previous, and he gave judgment for the plain- tiffs, with costs.
Owilym Zvans, Quiaiae Bitten strikes at the eourcs of "Owlijiu Kvaas" m the label, stamp, and bottle. 41617 dhwiwo, and fcy rwnovtBf the causes of disease tke evil sCeoto eooa vaaHk. Sola everywhere in bottles, 2s. M. and 48. M. <»efer Beware of iodtattaBs. bh Iu mw
THE WELSH IN PATAGONIA. SIR T. H. HOLDICH'S VIEWS AND EXPERIENCES. In an address given to the Royal Geographical Society by Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich on his recent journey to the Pata- gonian Andes the writer said that he found in the lowlands at Cholila, in the part known as "The Valley of the Sixteenth of October," Argentina, several settlements of Welshmen. They are offshoots from the larger Welsh colonies in the Chubat Valley. Thirty years ago, Colonel* Holdich said, this band of Welsh pilgrims founded for themselves a home in the Pa-fcagonian wilderness, where they should neither hear the detested English tongue nor be subject to English influences. They left their homes amongst the Welsh mountains impelled by a spirit of semi-'l religions conversatism not altogether unlike that which animated the pilgrims of the Mayflower before them. For thirty years they maintained their position in the land of their adoption, fighting their own battles alike with Indians and the hostile influences of Nature, until they had redeemed the Chabut Valley from its wildness, and brought water into its waste places, and had learnt to grow the finest wheat in Argentina. Meanwhile they had advanced physically in a most extraordinary way. The Welshmen of Chubut are a strong, sturdy ra-ce of colonists, exhibiting all the characteristics of well-developed manhood to a degree almost unknown in Wales. Not long ago they found themselves politically included as an Argentine people, subject to Argentine laws, to conscription, and-what especially touched their religious sensibilities-to drill on Sundays. But it must not be supposed, Sir Thomas added, that the deputation which interviewed our Colonial Secretary not so long ago, and sought his influence and assist- ance to enable them to reach new colonies in Canada or elsewhere, really represented the viewB of the colony .generally. They roused much sympathy in England, but they did not represent the spirit of the colony they left behind them. Most of them speak English remarkably well. They gave the traveller a hearty receiption, and he regards their ,co)m--aip one-of- great possibilities,
COLOFN Y CYMRY. [GAN "IDRISWYN."] YR UN PETH PWYSIG I GYMRU. Mawr yw y miri, a'r cynhwrf, mewn rhai manau yn Nghymru yn nghylch yr ysgolion elfenol, sef ysgolion plant y werin; ond y mae perygl i ni golli golwg ar yr hyn sy'n wirioneddol bwysig i ni fel cenedl yn nghanol y dadwrdd. Nid wyf heb wybod fod llawer o ddarpa,riaethau y Ddeddf Addysg newydd yn hollol wrth- wynebol i farn lluaws mawr Ymneilldu- wyr Cymru, yn neillduol y trefniant i'w trethu yn uniongyrchol i gadwr Ysgolion Cenedlaethol (neu Eglwysig) a'r rhai Pabyddol, heb fod yr hawl o'u llywodr- aethu yn cael ei roddi yn gyfangwbl yn nwylaw y trethdalwyr; ac nid wyf yn synu fod mwyarrif Cynghorau Sirol Cymru wedi gwrthod codi treth i gyfranu at gynaliad y cyfryw ysgolion, na. bod Ymneillduwyr sir Frycheiniog, lie raae treth wedi ei chodi, wedi gwrthod ei thalu ond trwy offeryno-liaeth morthwyl yr arwerthwr cyhoeddus. Ond hyn sy'n rhyfeddod—ie,.yn.codi gwrid i'r wyneb ao yn peri i bob Cymro teilwng o'r enw guddio ei wyneb mewn cywilydd—fod yr arweinwyr hyn wedi goddef i'n cenedl- aetholdeb gael ei sarhau o flaen eu Uygaid trwy'r blynyddoedd. Gwn y dywedir fod egwyddor yn cael ei sarnu wrth orfodi Ymneillduwyr i dalu am ddysgu crefydd y credant sy'n gyfeiliornus, ad* na chaniata eu cydwybod iddynt gyfranu ffyrling at grefydd ond yn wirfoddol na bod yn blaid i wneud hyny. Ond y mae egwyddor yr un mor fawr a phwysig wedi bod yn cael ei sathru dan draed er's tri- ugain mlynedd, beth bynag, yn Nghymru, a hyny heb i'r dynion hyn yngan gair yn erbyn y eamwri; yn wir, y maent yn fwy dwfn yn y camwedd na neb arall yn y wlad. Yr egwyddor hono yw'r egwyddor fawr genedlaethol-hawliau cenedl i fyw fel y crewyd hi ac i ymddadblygu yn y galluoedd cynhenid a blanwyd ynddi gall y Brenin Mawr; hawliau cenedl i'w hoil ragorfreintiau fel dinasyddion teyrngarol gwlad rydd; dyma, meddaf, yr egwyddor fwyaf ac anwylaf sy'n perthyn it ddynol- iaeth, ac y mae ei thoriad wedi achosi mwy o drueni na dim arall yn ein byd er dydd y cread. Dyma. sydd wrth wraidd yr holl ryfeloodd a gormes, ac y ma.e wedi peri mwy o alanastra, tywallt gwaed, a thlodi na phob drwg arall gyda'u gilydd; ydi, y mae'n fwy o rwystr ar ffordd gwar- eiddio ac efengyleiddio anwariaid a phaganiaid na'r anwybodaeth a'r ofergoel- iaeth y maent wedi eu magu yn eu canol. Ni fu'r egwyddor genedlaethol yn cael ei sarnu yn fwy yn nglyn ag addysg mewn un wlad na Ohymru; mwy, y mae wedi ac yn cael ei dirmygu a'i sarhau a'i han- wybyddu yn ngwydd ein llygaid, yr hn sydd wedi tynu anfri arnom; a chyhuddir ni o wendid cymeriad a diffyg penderfyn- iad ac anallu i lywodraethu am ein bod wedi ei oddef mor hir. ARWEINWYR CYMRU HEB ERIOED GYD- NABOD YR EGWYDDOR. Ao nid heb achos, oblegid y mae addysg ein plant yn hollol yn ein dwylaw ein hunain, a'r Llywodraeth bellach, ers llawer o flynyddoedd, wedi symud pob rhwystr a ffynai gynt ar ffordd dysgu Cymraeg a hanes ein cenedl i'n palnt. Y mae'r awdurdodau wedi cydna;bod yr egwyddor gyda gonestrwydd ac wedi dangos pob haelfrydedd yn y cyfeiriad hwn; ond naill a yn ngfym hen arferiad drwg neu o'u dygn anwybodaeth, nid yw arweinwyr y bobl a llywodraethwyr addysg wedi cydnabod bodolaeth. y fath egwyddor, a boddlonant ar ryw fath o addysg i blant bach Cymru, os gall yr ysgolion enill digon o grants o bwrs y wlad. Ond pan osodwyd yr ysgolion enwadol ar yr un tir ag ysgolion y Byrdda.u ao i gael eu cynal trwy drethi fel y rheiny, y mae en lleissau i'w clywed dros yr holl wlad, a cheisiant wneud merthyron o honynt eu hunain trwy wrthod talu y dretn addysg; ond nid yw hyn ddim i'w gydmaru 8.'1' ormes a'r cam ydys wedi oddef am genedlaiethau yn nglyn ag addysg ein plant. Nid yw'r trefniant presenol ond lm. a ellir ei itowid, ac nid yw'n anmhoeibl i opiniyimu y Gwrthwynebwyr Goddefol befyd fynd o dan gyfuewidiad; ond ni wna egwyddor fawr oenedlaetholdeb byth newid-y mae mor anghyfnewidiol a natur dyn a'i angenrheidiau hanfodol. Y mae arian y wlad yn cael eu rhoddi er's yn agos i gan' mlynedd at yr Ysgolion Eglwysig yn y ffurf o grants, ond eu bod yn dyfod o'r trethi ymerodrol a'r cymhorth ychwan- egol presenol o'r rhai lleol; ac ond i'r Llywodraeth drosglwyddo y baich o'r Ueol i'r Ymerodrol, fe dderfydd yr holl gytkrwfl, er y bydd y eamwri, os camwri hefyd, yn aros yr un. Os yw'n anheg cynorthwyo'r ysgolion enwadol o'r trethi lleol, heb gael eu llwyr lywodraothiad, y mae'r un mor anheg gwneud hyny o'r trethi Y merodrol. Drijigain mlynedd yn ol, yr oedd Anghydffurfwyr mwyaf cyd- wybodol a selog Cymru mor wrthwynebol i dderbyn arian oddiwrth y Llywodraeth at addysg eu plant ag yw Ymneillduwyr y dyddiau presenol i dalu y dreth leol at gynal yr Ysgolion Enwadol; ac fe gafodd Syr Hugh Owen a'i blaid drafFerth fawr i berswadio Oymru i gydymffurfio a dar- pariaethau y ddeddf a sefydlu Ysgolion Brutanaidd. Y fath wahaniaeth sydd erbyn heddyw a chyda'r fath ddiolchgar- woh y derbynir cannoedd o filoedd yn flynyddol o bwrs y wlad gan yr Eglwysi Rhyddion tuag at addysg eu plant. Gall cyfnewidiad cyfltelyb gymeryd lie yn syn- iadau y rhai a gadwant y fath stwr y dyddiau hyn; ond ni wna egwyddor oenedlaetholdeb newid yr un iod nao un tipyn; y mae hyny yn anmhosibl tra bydd Cymro yn Gymro a Chymru yn cael ei phreswylio gan genedl wahanol i bob cenedl arall dan haul. Y CAMGYMERIAD WEDI EI WNEUD. Nid wyf heb fod yn coleddu amheuaeth fod y camgyraeriad—os oedd yn gamgy- meriad hefyd-wedi ei wneud gan yr Anghydffurfwyr pan y derbyniasant arian o'r Llywodraeth gyntaf at gynal yr Ysgol- ion Brutanaidd yn y deugeiniau. Credai'r Ymneillduwyr mwyaf cydwybodol ac aidd- gar a selog—"Ieuan Gwynedd" ac eraill o gyffelyb argyhoeddiadau—y dylai addysgiant yr ieuano fod yn sylfaenedig ,ar addysg grefyddol; addysg grefyddol oedd i fod yn sylfaen i bob addysg arall; os na byddai felly, mai methiant a fyddai pob trefniant addysgol; ac, o ganlyniad, dadleuent nad oedd a fynai y Wladwr- iaeth ag addysg o gwhl, a gwrthwynebent i'r Anghydffurfwyr dderbyn ffyrling at addysg eu plant o bwrs y wlad. Ond, fel y gwyddys, y blaid arall a orchfygodd, ac y mae'r Ymneillduwyr wedi bod yn derbyn arian er's mwy na haner canrif tuag at addysgu eu plant. Ac os gwnaed cam- syniad, dywedaf eto, y pryd hwnw y gwnaed ef, oblegid yr un mewn egwyddor yw derbyn arian o'r trethi Ymherodrol ac o'r trethi lleol; ac y mae pob plaid a sect wedi bod yn gwneud hyny trwy'r blynyddoedd a neb yn dychmygu codi ei lais yn erbyn na gwneud un math o wrth- dystiad. Ac nid wyf yn hollol glir yn fy meddwl fod y gri bresenol yn erbyn talu y dreth leol yn hollol gyson ag ymddyg- iadau Eglwysi Rhyddion Cymru yn ystod yr haner can mlynedd diweddaf. UN PETH SYDD SICE. Ond yr wyf yn llwyr argyhooddedig eu bod yn gadael peth llawer pwysicach yn hollol ddisylw trwy'r blynyddoedd, sef yw hyny, nodwedd genedlaethol addysg plant Cymru. Dyna sy'n bwysig i ni fel cenedl ao yn annhraethol felly i'n cyfundebau crefyddol; ond y mae wedi ei eegeuluso yn waradwyddus a'i droi yn wrth- genedlaethol, heb un arddangosiad cy- hoeddus o anfoddlonrwydd na chynaliad cyfarfodydd i wrthdystio. Y mae rheol- aeth mwyafrif ein hysgolion yn nwylaw ysgolfeistri o Saeson; ein hiaith wedi ei haTltudio o honynt; ac ar waethaf y dos- barth hwn y mae'n cael ei dysgu mewn am bell fan yn ein gwlad, er fod prif awdurdodau addysgol y byd yn datgan yn ddibetrus mai'r cynllun goreu i ddadblygu galluoedd plentyn yw trwy ddefnyddio iaith ei gartref a'i chwareu a'i gapel. Sut mae pethau yn sefyll heddyw yn Nghymru? O'r dydd cyntaf yr a plentyn i'r ysgol rhoddir sarhad arno am ei fod yn Gymro; ac os a i'r Ysgolion Canol- raddol a'r Colegau, nid yw'n ddim gwell yno. Y peth cyntaf ddysgir iddo ydyw nad oes un gwerth yn ei iaith, a rhaid iddo adael hono ar drotliwy'r ysgol. Dengys ei lawlyfrau iddo mai cenedl y Saeson yw goreuon y byd ao mai o'u Iwynau hwy y caed holl ddewrion yr oesau a'r byd. 'Nid oes son, am un Oyjnro fel esiampl iddynt i'w ddilyn, na chymaint phenill o len y genedl i gael dyfod ar ei wefus. Par ryfedd ei fod yn teimlo waeled telpyn o bridd ydyw ef o'i gydmaru i fab 0 genedl y Sais! Pa ryfedd fod ein cenedl heddyw yn wylaidd ac anhyderua ynddi ei hunan wedi iddi gael ei dwyn i fyny o dan gyfundrefn Seisnigaidd ac anghenedlaethol fel ag sydd mewn bod yn ein gwlad heddyw? Ac y mae'r trefn- iant gonnesol hwn-nis gallaf ei alw yn ddim amgenach—yn gyfrifol, yn fwy felly na dim arall am yr ysbryd chwareuol a'r difaterweh a'r di- vstyrwch a ddangosir gan ieuenctyd Cymru yn yr oes hon at brif sefydliadau y genedl, yn neillduol yr Ysgol Sabbathol a'i Llyfr, a phobpeth arall ag oedd yn anwyl a chysegredig gan eu rhieni. DIEMYGU EIN CENEDLAETHOLDEB. Allan o awyddfryd Cymru am addysg fe dyfodd eÎlll cyfundrefn o sgolioD Canolraddol, ac o'r braidd nad ellir galw y rhai hyny yn greadigaeth y meddwl Cymreig o'r hyn ddylai addysg fod, neu, mewn geiriau eraill, o'r syniad sydd gan Gymro o'r addysg a ddylai pob plentyn, hyd ag y bosibl, gael er ei alluogi 1 ymladd brwydr bywyd ac i fod o ddef- nydd a dylanwad yn mysg ei genedl. A chredai llawer o honom, yn ein diniweid- rwydd, mae'n wir, fod gwawr wedi tori ar addysg ein plant, ac y caffai iaith a I llenyddiaeth a hanes a gwroniaid ein cenedl Ie anrhydeddus yn eu haddysg- iant. Breuddwydiem weled yr ysgolion hyn yn gwneud i fyny holl ddiffygion yr ysgolion elfenol, ac yn troi allan Gymry gwladgarol a goleuedig i wasanaethu ar ein gwahanol fyrddau ac i arwain ein cenedl i lawn feddiant o'i hiawnderau a'i rhagorfreintiau. Ond 8iomedigaeth ydi'r cyfan, hyd yma, beth bynag; a rhaid addef fod yr Ysgolion Canolraddol—ein creadigaeth ein hunain—vri troi allan mor wrth-genedlaethol a'r ysgolion elfenol. Y .ae'n agos i gant o honynt wedi eu sefydlu, ond ni ddysgir Cymraeg ond mewn deugain o honynt. Allan o'r wyth. mil ysgolheigion, ni chafodd ond prin bum cant o honynt un ganmoliaeh am eu gwybodaeth o'r Gymraeg. Dyna hen sir Gymreig a gwerinol Caerfyrddin a'i chan- noedd o blant, yn yr arholiadau diweddaf nid oedd ond naw o honynt i fewn am Gymraeg Dysgir y Ffrancaeg yn mhob un o'r Ysgolion Canolraddol; ac o'r rhai sy'n gorfod gwastraffu eu hamser gyda'r iaith hono ni chaiff un o bob ugain o honynt byth gyfle i'w defnyddio fel ag i'w meistroli. Cymerer ysgol wledig, hollol Gymreig, fel Aberaeron yn nghyrau pellaf Aberteifi—lie yr oedd y rheolwyt dro yn ol yn awyddus am benodi Sais o'r trydydd dosbarth yn lie Cymro o'r ail ddosbarth i fod yn athraw—yno dysgir y Ffrancaeg i bob un o'r dysgyblion, tra na ddaeth ond un yn mlaen i'w arholi yn y Gymraeg. Beth yw hyn ond prawf o'r dirmyg a roddir ar ein hiaith a phobpeth perthynol i ni yn y sefydliadau hyn. Yn wir, yr ydym mor bell ag erioed o feddu cyfundrefn addysg genedlaethol; ac y mae'n bryd i'r wlad ddeffro a galw ar y rhai sy'n gyfrifol i gvflawni eu dyled- swyddau at eu gwlad a'u cenedl. A dy- wedaf eto nad oes gydmariaeth rhwng y awestiwn hwn a'r un y gwneir cymaint o stwr yn ei gylch y dyddiau hyn—helynt t y draeth addysg at yr ysgolion enwadol; yn wir, fe fuasai mwy o synwyr a rheswm dros glywed fod Cymru yn gwrthod talu treth at gynal ysgolion yr oedd ei hiaith a'i llenyddiaeth a'i hanes yn cael eu cau aJlan o honynt; ysgolion nad ydynt yn adwaen ein harwyr a'n gwroniaid; ie, ysgolin ag y mae eu hamgylchoedd yn peri i'r plant gywilyddio o herwydd eu gwaedoliaeth ac i ofidio eu bod wedi eu geni a'u magu yn Nghymru a bod eu tad a'u mam yn Gymry. Ydi o yn ormod, tybed, apelio at y rhai hyny sydd mor benderfynol i beidio talu y dreth at gynal yr ysgolion enwadol, i edrych fod plant bach Cymru yn cael chwareu teg yn yr ysgolidt elfenol a chanolraddol, a phob rhwyddineb a chyfarwyddyd i ddyfod yn ddinaswyr da, yn wladwyr anrhydeddus, ac yn olynwyr teilwng i'w tadau a'u mamau mewn byd ac eglwys. Dywedaf yn ddibetrus nad ydynt yn cael hyny yn awr ond mewn ychydig iawn o drefi aa ardaloedd; ac wrth ddrws yr arweinwyr y gorphwys y bai os parha felly yn y, dyfodol. P AllAM Y SYNIR? Y mae'n dda genyf ddeall fod prif- athraw Ysgol Ganolraddol Tregaron wedi cyflwyno ei anerchiad blynyddol ar safle yr ysgol a chynydd yr efrydwyr yn Gym- raeg—iaith y plant a'u rhieni a phawb, eraill ey'n dymuno ei llwyddiant; ond dyna sy'n cynhyrfu enaid dyn, fod un syndod yn hyny. A phaham y rhyfe-ddir o herwydd gweithred mor naturiol a hon. —mor naturiol ag anadlu; a beth sy'n cyfrif fod y newyddiaduron yn rhoddi cyhoeddusrwydd i'r ffaith? Am ei fod yn beth mor ddyeithr, a dywed un newydd- iadur Saeneg-gobeithio nad yw'n dweyd; y gwir-mai hwn yw'r adroddiad cyntaf a gyflwynwyd gan brifathraw yn iaith. gwlad yr ysgolion. I bob gwir Gymro, y, mae fod y ffaith syml a naturiol hon yn werth ei chofnodi yn gosod gwaradwyddr ar ei wlad ac yn ddangosiad o wendid, oa nid o waseiddlwch, ei genedl, ei bod wedi gcddef y fath gamwri mor hir. Ymaith a'r fath waradwydd, a gadawer i ni fod yn gyson yn ein gwladgarwch a'n cenedl- aetholdeb, a pheidio gwneud ein hunain yn destyn i genhedloedd y byd estyn byg atom; ond nis gallwii wneud hyny ao esgeuluso cenedlaetholdeb ein haddysg o'n hysgolion elfenol hyd y colegau a'r Brifysgol. -:0:- EIN CYOHGRAWN CENEDLAETHOL —"Y £ rENINEN." Y mae gwedd fwy addawol—diolch am hyny—ar ein llenyddiaeth; nid yw'n ormodiaith dweyd ei bod heddyw yn fwy oenedlaethol ac yn burach a'i nod yn uwch nag y bu erioed; ac y mae ein prif ddysgedigion, yn wyr neW a lleyg, yn ein gwasanaethu trwy y wasg. Y mae "Y Geninen" bellach ar y maes er's un mlynedd ar hugain; ac y mae wedi byw mor hir am ei bod yn genedlaethol ei hysbryd a'i thon ac yn llanw angen cenedlaethol. Y mae'n gwynebu y dyfodol gydag eofndra a ffydd yn chwaeth lenyddol Cymru; ni ddylai gael ei siomi, oblegid bydd yn ystod y flwyddyn nesaf yn trafod pynciau o ddyddordeb a phwysigrwydd i bob Cymro a Chymraes, megys "Llenyddiaeth Gymraeg y Ganrif Bresenol: Pa un ai Gwella ai Dirywio y mae p" "Yr Iaith Gymraeg: Pa un ai Mantais ai Anfantais i Foes a Chrefydd Cymru fyddai ei pharhau ?" "Cyffesion a. Chredoau Enwadol: Ai rhaid wrthynt?" "Pulpud Cymru: Pa un ai Cryfhau ai Gwanhau y mae ei Ddylanwad "Enwadau Crefyddol Cymru: A ydynt yn gweith- redu yn gyson a'u Credoau? Hefyd, adroddir cyfres o ysgrifau ar Gychwyn- iad a Chynydd y Gwahanol Crefyddol yn Nghymru," ac ar fywyd ac athrylith yr enwogion ydym wedi golli yn ddiweddar. Bydd yr oil wedi eu hysgrifenu gan y dyn- ion mwyaf cymhwys a chyfarwydd yn y gwahanol bynciau, a chynrychiolant bob en wad a plilaid. Ni raid ond taflu golwg dros awuwyr rhifyn Ionawr nesaf er gweled yr amrywiaeth doniau a'r ysgol- heigion sy'n gwasanaethu Cymru trwy "Y Geninen," sef y Prifathraw John Rhys, M.A., D.Litt. Hugh Jones, D.D. (W.), Waldo, y Prifathraw D. Rowlands B.A. (Dewi Mon), John Hughes, M.A., Berw, Gwyneddon, Cadvan, JEilir, Evan Davies (Trefriw), Elfed, W.Llewelyn Williams, M.A., B.C.L., Gwynedd, D. Stanley Jones, T. J. Humphreys, Gwylfa, David Griffith, Anthropos, Iolo Caernarfon, Spinther, Ifano, yr Athraw J. E. Lloyd, M.A., Elphin, R. Jenkin Jones, M.A. (Aberdar), Gwili, Watcyn Wyn Tafolog, Rhosynog, y Parch. D. Lloyd, yr Athraw Anwyl, M.A., Alavon, L. J. Roberts, M.A., W. J. Nicholson, J. T. Job, Dunodig, Dyfnallt, Brynach—yr oil yn rheng flaenaf llenorion a beirdd ac ysgol- heigion Cymru. Parheir hefyd i gasglu a. chyhoeddi hen weddillion pridwerth, yn hanesyddol, hyn, chwedlonol, beirniadaethau, llythyrau oddiwrth en- wogion at eu gilydd; mewn gair, pobpeth fyddo'n dal perthynas a Chymru, Cymro, a Chymraeg; ac nid anghofir YCPNaith gynyrchion ein Heisteddfodau, fel nad elo dim yn ychwaneg o'n trysorau llenyddol ar go 11. Y mae llafur dirfawr yn nglyn a golygu cylchgrawn cenedlaethol o safon a maint "Y Geninen," ac y mae ei genedl o dan ddyled drom i "Eifionydd" am ei lafurus-gariad am bron chwarter canrif » gyfoothogi ei llenyddiaeth, a dylai gael ei ryddhau o bob pryder sy'n nglyn a chy- hoeddi llyfrau a chylchgronau Cymraeg. Bydd y "Geninen" y flwyddyn nesaf yn cael ei chyhoeddi gan Mr. W. Gwenlyn Evans, Caernarfon, yr hwn a fu yn ei hargraffu o'r blaen am flynyddoedd, ao iddo ef yn unig y dylid anfon archebion yn y dyfodol, a dylai Gannoedd o dder- bynyr newyddion ymrestru yn mhlith y llu sydd eisoes yn gefnogwyr i "Genincn""t Dymru a. llenyddiaeth genedlaethol iwchraddol y bobl benaf sydd heddyw yn pyeswyiio yr Ynysoedd Prydemig, /i' <1 «■